D Grid

Généthon, Évry-Petit-Bourg, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (50)269.18 Total impact

  • Movement Disorders 08/2011; 26(9):1777-9. DOI:10.1002/mds.23648 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, relatively common in Algeria due to high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. We report on two consanguineous families with demyelinating autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4) associated with novel homozygous mutations in the MTMR2 gene, c.331dupA (p.Arg111LysfsX24) and PRX gene, c.1090C>T (p.Arg364X) respectively, and peculiar clinical phenotypes. The three patients with MTMR2 mutations (CMT4B1 family) had a typical phenotype of severe early onset motor and sensory neuropathy with typical focally folded myelin on nerve biopsy. Associated clinical features included vocal cord paresis, prominent chest deformities and claw hands. Contrasting with the classical presentation of CMT4F (early-onset Dejerine-Sottas phenotype), the four patients with PRX mutations (CMT4F family) had essentially a late age of onset and a protracted and relatively benign evolution, although they presented marked spine deformities. These observations broaden the spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with these two CMT4 forms.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 08/2011; 21(8):543-50. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2011.04.013 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Neuromuscular Disorders 09/2009; 19(8):566-566. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2009.06.073 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-four different loci for hereditary spastic paraplegias have been mapped, and 16 responsible genes have been identified. Autosomal recessive forms of spastic paraplegias usually have clinically complex phenotypes but the SPG5, SPG24 and SPG28 loci are considered to be associated with 'pure' forms of the disease. Very recently, five mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 oxysterol 7-alpha hydroxylase and expressed in brain and liver, have been found in SPG5 families. We analysed the coding region and exon-intron boundaries of the CYP7B1 gene by direct sequencing in a series of 82 unrelated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia index patients, manifesting either a pure (n = 52) or a complex form (n = 30) of the disease, and in 90 unrelated index patients with sporadic pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. We identified eight, including six novel, mutations in CYP7B1 segregating in nine families. Three of these mutations were nonsense (p.R63X, p.R112X, p.Y275X) and five were missense mutations (p.T297A, p.R417H, p.R417C, p.F470I, p.R486C), the last four clustering in exon 6 at the C-terminal end of the protein. Residue R417 appeared as a mutational hot-spot. The mean age at onset in 16 patients was 16.4 +/- 12.1 years (range 4-47 years). After a mean disease duration of 28.3 +/- 13.4 years (10-58), spasticity and functional handicap were moderate to severe in all cases. Interestingly, hereditary spastic paraplegia was pure in seven SPG5 families but complex in two. In addition, white matter hyperintensities were observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging in three patients issued from two of the seven pure families. Lastly, the index case of one family had a chronic autoimmune hepatitis while his eldest brother died from cirrhosis and liver failure. Whether this association is fortuitous remains unsolved, however. The frequency of CYP7B1 mutations were 7.3% (n = 6/82) in our series of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia families and 3.3% (n = 3/90) in our series of sporadic pure spastic paraplegia. The recent identification of CYP7B1 as the gene responsible for SPG5 highlights a novel molecular mechanism involved in hereditary spastic paraplegia determinism.
    Brain 06/2009; 132(Pt 6):1589-600. DOI:10.1093/brain/awp073 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN), a severe childhood disorder affecting both the peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, is due to mutations in the GAN gene encoding gigaxonin, a protein implicated in the cytoskeletal functions and dynamics. In the majority of the GAN series reported to date, patients had the classical clinical phenotype characterized by a severe axonal neuropathy with kinky hair and early onset CNS involvement including cerebellar and pyramidal signs. We present 12 patients (6 families) with GAN mutations and different clinical phenotypes. Four families were harbouring an identical homozygous nonsense mutation but with different severe clinical phenotypes, one patient had a novel missense homozygous mutation with a peculiar moderate phenotype and prominent skeletal deformations. The last family (4 patients) harbouring a homozygous missense mutation had the mildest form of the disease. In contrast with recent reported series of patients with typical GAN clinical features, the present series demonstrate obvious clinical heterogeneity.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 03/2009; 19(4):270-4. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2009.01.011 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ataxia with oculo-motor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is a recently described autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA) caused by mutations in the senataxin gene (SETX). We analysed the phenotypic spectrum of 19 AOA2 patients with mutations in SETX, which seems to be the third most frequent form of ARCA in Algeria after Freidreich ataxia and Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency. In AOA2 patients, the mean age at onset for all families was in the second decade. Cerebellar ataxia was progressive, slowly leading to disability which was aggravated by axonal polyneuropathy present in almost all the patients. Mean disease duration until wheelchair was around 20 years. Oculo-motor apraxia (OMA) was present in 32% of the patients while convergent strabismus was present in 37%. Strabismus is therefore also very suggestive of AOA2 when associated with ataxia and polyneuropathy even in the absence of OMA. Cerebellar atrophy was more severe in the eldest patients; however it may also be an early sign since it was present in the youngest and paucisymptomatic patients. The initial sign was gait ataxia in all but two patients who presented with head tremor and writer cramp, respectively. Serum alpha-fetoprotein, which was elevated in all tested patients, was a good marker to suggest molecular studies of the SETX gene.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 02/2009; 278(1-2):77-81. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2008.12.004 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in various genes of the neuromuscular junction cause congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A single truncating mutation (epsilon1293insG) in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene (CHRNE) was most often identified in CMS families originating from North Africa and was possibly a founder mutation. Twenty-three families were studied with an early onset form of CMS and originating from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Libya. Screening for the mutation epsilon1293insG was performed by direct sequencing. Haplotype analysis was done with 9 (CA)n repeat microsatellite markers and 6 SNPs flanking epsilon1293insG on chromosome 17p13-p12. Dating was calculated using the ESTIAGE method for rare genetic diseases. The epsilon1293insG mutation was identified in 14 families (about 60% of the initial 23). The expression of the CMS in affected members of these families was relatively homogeneous, without fetal involvement or being life-threatening, with moderate hypotonia and oculobulbar involvement, mild and stable disease course, and good response to cholinesterase inhibitors. Haplotype analysis revealed a common conserved haplotype encompassing a distance of 63 kb. The estimated age of the founder event was at least 700 years. These results strongly support the hypothesis that epsilon1293insG derives from an ancient single founder event in the North African population. Identification of founder mutations in isolated or inbred populations may have important implications in the context of molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling of patients and families by detection of heterozygous carriers.
    Neurology 01/2009; 71(24):1967-72. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000336921.51639.0b · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CMT2B1, an axonal subtype (MIM 605588) of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, is an autosomal recessive motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by progressive muscular and sensory loss in the distal extremities with chronic distal weakness. The genetic defect associated with the disease is, to date, a unique homozygous missense mutation, p.Arg298Cys (c.892C>T), in the LMNA gene. So far, this mutation has only been found in affected individuals originating from a restricted region of North Western Africa (northwest of Algeria and east of Morocco), strongly suggesting a founder effect. In order to address this hypothesis, genotyping of both STRs and intragenic SNPs was performed at the LMNA locus, at chromosome 1q21.2-q21.3, in 42 individuals affected with CMT2B1 from 25 Algerian families. Our results indicate that the affected individuals share a common ancestral haplotype in a region of about 1.0 Mb (1 cM) and that the most recent common ancestor would have lived about 800-900 years ago (95% confidence interval: 550 to 1300 years).
    Annals of Human Genetics 06/2008; 72(Pt 5):590-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00456.x · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type 15 is an autosomal recessive (AR) form of complicated HSP mainly characterized by slowly progressive spastic paraplegia, mental retardation, intellectual deterioration, maculopathy, distal amyotrophy, and mild cerebellar signs that has been associated with the Kjellin syndrome. The locus for this form of HSP, designated SPG15, was mapped to an interval of 19 cM on chromosome 14q22-q24 in two Irish families. We performed a clinical-genetic study of this form of HSP on 147 individuals (64 of whom were affected) from 20 families with AR-HSP. A genome-wide scan was performed in three large consanguineous families of Arab origin after exclusion of linkage to several known loci for AR-HSP (SPG5, SPG7, SPG21, SPG24, SPG28, and SPG30). The 17 other AR-HSP families were tested for linkage to the SPG15 locus. Only the three large consanguineous families showed evidence of linkage to the SPG15 locus (2.4 > Z (max) > 4.3). Recombinations in these families reduced the candidate region from approximately 16 to approximately 5 Mbases. Among the approximately 50 genes assigned to this locus, two were good candidates by their functions (GPHN and SLC8A3), but their coding exons and untranslated regions (UTRs) were excluded by direct sequencing. Patients had spastic paraplegia associated with cognitive impairment, mild cerebellar signs, and axonal neuropathy, as well as a thin corpus callosum in one family. The ages at onset ranged from 10 to 19 years. Our study highlights the phenotypic heterogeneity of SPG15 in which mental retardation or cognitive deterioration, but not all other signs of Kjellin syndrome, are associated with HSP and significantly reduces the SPG15 locus.
    Neurogenetics 11/2007; 8(4):307-15. DOI:10.1007/s10048-007-0097-x · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-three different loci for hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) have been mapped, and 15 responsible genes have been identified. Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegias (ARHSPs) usually have clinically complex phenotypes but the SPG5, SPG24, and SPG28 loci are considered to be associated with pure forms of the disease. We performed a genome-wide scan in a large French family. Fine mapping of the refined SPG5 region on chromosome 8q12 was performed in another 17 ARHSP families with additional microsatellite markers. After exclusion of known ARHSP loci, the genome-wide screen provided evidence of linkage with a maximal multipoint lod score of 2.6 in the D8S1113-D8S1699 interval. This interval partially overlapped SPG5 and reduced it to a 5.9 megabase (Mb)-region between D8S1113 and D8S544. In a family of Algerian origin from a series of 17 other ARHSP kindreds, linkage to the SPG5 locus was supported by a multipoint lod score of 2.3. The direct sequencing of the coding exons of seven candidate genes did not detect mutations/polymorphisms in the index cases of both linked families. The phenotype of the two SPG5-linked families consisted of spastic paraparesis associated with deep sensory loss. In several patients with long disease durations, there were also mild cerebellar signs. The frequency of SPG5 was approximately 10% (2/18) in our series of ARHSP families with pure or complex forms. We have refined the SPG5 locus to a 3.8 cM interval and extended the phenotype of this form of ARHSP to include slight cerebellar signs.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 10/2007; 144B(7):854-61. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30518 · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Neuromuscular Disorders 10/2007; 17(9):890-890. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2007.06.428 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, foot and hand deformities, and electrophysiological changes. The CMT4H subtype is an autosomal recessive demyelinating form of CMT that was recently mapped to a 15.8-Mb region at chromosome 12p11.21-q13.11, in two consanguineous families of Mediterranean origin, by homozygosity mapping. We report here the identification of mutations in FGD4, encoding FGD4 or FRABIN (FGD1-related F-actin binding protein), in both families. FRABIN is a GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), specific to Cdc42, a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (Rho GTPases). Rho GTPases play a key role in regulating signal-transduction pathways in eukaryotes. In particular, they have a pivotal role in mediating actin cytoskeleton changes during cell migration, morphogenesis, polarization, and division. Consistent with these reported functions, expression of truncated FRABIN mutants in rat primary motoneurons and rat Schwann cells induced significantly fewer microspikes than expression of wild-type FRABIN. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mutations in a Rho GEF protein being involved in CMT.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2007; 81(1):1-16. DOI:10.1086/518428 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report two sporadic patients of CMT disease in different consanguineous families. The electrophysiological examination led to the diagnosis of a severe demyelinating neuropathy. The nerve biopsies exhibited numerous outfoldings of the myelin sheaths and onion-bulb proliferations. The consanguinity and the histological findings pointed to a diagnosis of CMT 4B. However, the detection of abnormal and regular widenings between the major dense lines of the myelin lamellae by electron microscopy led us to search for a P0 gene mutation. Two heterozygous mutations of this gene were identified: S63F and N131Y. Different aspects of uncompacted myelin lamellae have been described in some cases of P0 mutations and a few now appear to be quite specific to it. More than 30 genes are implicated in CMT and as mutation search is time- and money-consuming, we believe that in some selected patients ultrastructural examination of nerves, among other criteria, helps orientate the molecular diagnosis of CMT.
    Acta Neuropathologica 05/2007; 113(4):443-9. DOI:10.1007/s00401-007-0196-7 · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (ARHSP) with thin corpus callosum (TCC) is a common and clinically distinct form of familial spastic paraplegia that is linked to the SPG11 locus on chromosome 15 in most affected families. We analyzed 12 ARHSP-TCC families, refined the SPG11 candidate interval and identified ten mutations in a previously unidentified gene expressed ubiquitously in the nervous system but most prominently in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus and pineal gland. The mutations were either nonsense or insertions and deletions leading to a frameshift, suggesting a loss-of-function mechanism. The identification of the function of the gene will provide insight into the mechanisms leading to the degeneration of the corticospinal tract and other brain structures in this frequent form of ARHSP.
    Nature Genetics 04/2007; 39(3):366-72. DOI:10.1038/ng1980 · 29.65 Impact Factor
  • Neuromuscular Disorders 10/2006; 16(9):675-675. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2006.05.110 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    Neuromuscular Disorders 10/2006; 16(9):662-663. DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2006.05.072 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies with several modes of inheritance: autosomal dominant, X-linked, and autosomal recessive (AR) CMT. A locus responsible for the demyelinating form of ARCMT was assigned to the 5q23-q33 region (CMT4C) by homozygosity mapping. Recently, 11 mutations were identified in the SH3TC2 (KIAA1985) gene in 12 families with demyelinating ARCMT from Turkish, Iranian, Greek, Italian, or German origin. To identify mutations in the SH3TC2 gene. The authors searched for SH3TC2 gene mutations in 10 consanguineous CMT families putatively linked to the CMT4C locus on the basis of haplotype segregation and linkage analysis. Ten families had mutations, eight of which were new and one, R954X, recurrent. Six of the 10 mutations were in exon 11. Onset occurred between ages 2 and 10. Scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis and foot deformities were found in almost all patients and were often inaugural. The median motor nerve conduction velocity values (</=34 m/s) were not correlated with disease duration. The functional disability score was </=3, indicating that the patients could walk without help. Unexpectedly, typical giant axons were observed on biopsies from a large Algerian family. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4C (CMT4C) is less severe than other autosomal recessive (AR) CMT. Intrafamilial variability is important, making phenotype-genotype correlations difficult, but spine deformities are clearly a hallmark of CMT4C. In the presence of scoliosis, a neurologic examination is recommended. Giant axons on biopsies are also suggestive of CMT4C. For genetic analysis, the R954X mutation should be looked for before systematic sequencing of exon 11.
    Neurology 08/2006; 67(4):602-6. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000230225.19797.93 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the SPG7 gene, which encodes paraplegin, are responsible for an autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). To screen the SPG7 gene in a large population of HSP families compatible with autosomal recessive transmission. The authors analyzed 136 probands with pure or complex HSP for mutations in the SPG7 using denaturation high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. The authors identified 47 variants including 6 mutations, 27 polymorphisms, and 14 changes with unknown effects. In one family from Morocco, compound c.850_851delTTinsC and c.1742_1744delTGG heterozygous mutations were shown to be causative. This family had complex HSP with cerebellar impairment. Progression of the disease was rapid, resulting in a severe disease after 8 years of duration. Also detected were 20 families with one heterozygous mutation that was not found in a large control population. The mutations produced highly defective proteins in four of these families, suggesting that they were probably causative. Direct sequencing of all exons and reverse transcription PCR experiments demonstrated the absence of a second mutation. However, the p.Ala510Val missense substitution previously described as a polymorphism was shown to be significantly associated with HSP, suggesting that it had a functional effect. SPG7 mutations account for less than 5% of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) families compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance. Cerebellar signs or cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging were the most frequent additional features in patients with SPG7 HSP. Rare nucleotide variants in SPG7 are frequent, complicating routine diagnosis.
    Neurology 04/2006; 66(5):654-9. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000201185.91110.15 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal-recessive forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (ARCMT) account for less than 10% of the families in the European CMT population but are more frequent in the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East because of more widespread consanguinity. Until now, demyelinating ARCMT was more extensively studied at the genetic level than the axonal form. Since 1999, the number of localized or identified genes responsible for demyelinating ARCMT has greatly increased. Eight genes, EGR2, GDAP1, KIAA1985, MTMR2, MTMR13, NDRG1, PRX, and CTDP1, have been identified and two new loci mapped to chromosomes 10q23 and 12p11-q13. In this review, we will focus on the particular clinical and/or neuropathological features of the phenotype caused by mutations in each of these genes, which might guide molecular diagnosis.
    NeuroMolecular Medicine 02/2006; 8(1-2):75-86. DOI:10.1385/NMM:8:1:175 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In certain countries around the Mediterranean basin such as Algeria, which have a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, autosomal-recessive (AR) inheritance may account for more than 50% of all forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Like with the dominant forms, it is usual to differentiate the demyelinating forms (CMT 4 corresponding to autosomal-recessive CMT 1 [AR-CMT 1] from the axonal forms [AR-CMT 2]). Genetic analysis of large families with recessive transmission has uncovered novel CMT genotypes (genes: GDAP 1, MTMR 2, MTMR 13, KIAA1985, NDGR1, periaxi, lamin). The clinical and especially the histologic phenotypes often indicate that a specific gene is implicated. We present and discuss microscopic lesions seen on nerve biopsies from patients in a number of consanguineous Algerian families, and we outline the characteristic lesions that would prompt a search for mutations in genes such as MTMR 2, MTMR 13, KIAA1985, periaxin for CMT 4, and lamin for AR-CMT 2. Like with the dominant forms, there are undoubtedly many more mutations of other genes to be discovered.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 06/2005; 64(5):363-70. · 4.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
269.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2009
    • Généthon
      Évry-Petit-Bourg, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France