[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terlipressin, a long-acting analog of vasopressin, has been used successfully in patients with extremely low cardiac output, but its application in children following open heart surgery is limited.
To describe our experience using terlipressin in children with extremely low cardiac output after open heart surgery.
Records were reviewed of all pediatric patients between January 2003 and December 2005 who had undergone open heart surgery, experienced extremely low cardiac output, and were treated with terlipressin as rescue therapy. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, urine output, and lactate and oxygenation index values were retrieved and analyzed when available.
Twenty-nine children who were considered gravely ill despite conventional vasoactive agents received terlipressin as rescue therapy, which rapidly yielded significant improvements in all measured hemodynamic and respiratory indices. Mean +/- SD arterial blood pressure increased significantly, from 49 +/- 17 to 57 +/- 16 mm Hg after 10 minutes (p = 0.004) and to 64 +/- 15 mm Hg 24 hours after treatment onset (p = 0.001). Twenty-four hours following terlipressin administration, urine output increased from 1.5 +/- 2.1 to 3.0 +/- 2.3 mL/kg/h (p = 0.001), the oxygenation index decreased from 16.5 +/- 27.9 to 9.5 +/- 16.7 in the survivors (p = 0.023), and the inotropic score decreased from 41.9 +/- 19.9 to 32.6 +/- 18.8 (p = 0.009).
Terlipressin caused significant improvement in hemodynamic, respiratory, and renal indices in children with extremely low cardiac output after open heart surgery. Further controlled studies are needed to confirm the drug's safety and efficacy in this population.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 04/2009; 43(3):423-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections (BSI) represent a major cause of hospital-acquired infections in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of these infections in one local facility.
All patients admitted to one PICU between January 1, 2000 - December 31, 2002 and subsequently developed a nosocomial bloodstream infection (NBSI) were consecutively recruited. The study was a retrospective study. Data retrieved from medical records included demographic information, extrinsic (invasive devices) and intrinsic risk factors, specific pathogens, therapeutic interventions and outcome.
There were 95 episodes of NBSIs in 59 patients (63/1711 PICU admissions, yielding an incidence of 56/1000). The crude mortality rate (CMR) in children with NBSIs was 52%, compared with 6% for all other children admitted to the PICU. A higher CMR was associated with hemato-oncology illness, prolonged length of hospitalization (>1 month) mechanical ventilation, dialysis and severity of illness. Most of the patients (95%) had central intravascular devices, and 73% of the episodes were catheter-related infections. The most frequent pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (24%), Klebsiella pneumonia (16%), Candida spp. (15%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus (6%). Thirty-three percent of the Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant (MRSA) and 30% of the Klebsiella pneumonia were extended - spectrum beta-lactamase - producing (ESBL) strains.
The overall incidence of NBSIs was 56 episodes per 1000 admissions. The major risk factors were hemato-oncology illness, prolonged length of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and severity of illness. Children with NBSI had a poor outcome when compared with children without NBSI.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 06/2007; 13(6):CR251-7. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intractable hypotension due to septic shock is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill children worldwide. The use of terlipressin (triglycyl-lysine-vasopressin), an analog of vasopressin with a longer duration of action, recently emerged as a treatment of hypotension not responsive to vasopressors and inotropes. This was a retrospective study set in an 18-bed pediatric critical care department in a tertiary care children's hospital. We reviewed the files of all children with septic shock who were treated with terlipressin between January 2003 and February 2004. Fourteen children (mean age, 5.6 years; range, 4 days to 17.7 years) were treated with terlipressin in 16 septic shock episodes. Significant improvements in respiratory and hemodynamic indices were noted shortly after treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure increased significantly from 54 +/- 3 to 72 +/- 5 mmHg 10 min after terlipressin administration (P = 0.001). Heart rate decreased from 153.0 +/- 6.5 beats/min to 138.0 +/- 7.5 beats/min 12 h after treatment onset (P = 0.003). Epinephrine infusion was decreased or stopped in eight patients after terlipressin administration. Urine output increased from 1.6 +/- 0.5 mL/kg/h to 4.3 +/- 1.2 mL/kg/h 1 h after treatment onset (P = 0.011). PaO2 increased from 95.1 +/- 12.3 mmHg to 110.1 +/- 20.5 mmHg, and the oxygenation index decreased from 10.2 +/- 2.2 to 9.2 +/- 1.7. Terlipressin treatment of hypotension due to septic shock was successful in eight out of 16 episodes. Six of the 14 patients with poor prognosis for survival recovered. We conclude that terlipressin improves hemodynamic indices and renal function in critically ill children. Terlipressin should be considered as a rescue therapy in intractable shock not responsive to catecholamines in children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recommended dose for endotracheal adrenaline (0.02 mg/kg) causes a pronounced initial decrease in diastolic blood pressure which is detrimental at the initial phase of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This effect was previously attributed to an early and preferential stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors causing vasodilatation unopposed by an alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that inhibition of the beta2-adrenoreceptors is responsible for prevention of the deleterious initial decrease in blood pressure that takes place following endotracheal administration of adrenaline.
Adrenaline (0.02 mg/kg) diluted with normal saline (5 ml) was injected into the endobronchial tree of anesthetized dogs 3 min following pretreatment with the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol, selective beta1-blocker metoprolol (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.), or without pre-treatment. Heart rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gases were monitored.
The selective beta-blocker metoprolol was almost as effective as the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol in attenuating the initial decrease in blood pressure following endotracheally administered adrenaline, a phenomenon that was previously attributed to inhibition of beta-adrenoreceptors.
The outcome of this study might be explained by a dose-related loss of cardioselectivity of metoprolol. Further studies are warranted to refine the pharmacological means to abort the initial blood pressure-lowering effect of endotracheally administered adrenaline.
Drug metabolism and drug interactions 02/2005; 21(1):31-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the successful use of terlipressin in an 8-day-old infant for treatment of intractable hypotension caused by septic shock.
Descriptive case report.
An 18-bed pediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary care children's hospital. Patient: An 8-day-old child with intractable hypotension due to septic shock after heart surgery.
General supportive intensive care including mechanical ventilatory support, volume replacement, and inotropic support with dopamine 20 microg.kg(-1).min(-1), milrinone 0.75 microg.kg(-1).min(-1), and epinephrine 0.8 microg.kg(-1).min(-1).
Terlipressin (7 microg/kg per dose twice daily) was added as rescue therapy because of profound intractable hypotension. Shortly after the beginning of treatment, blood pressure and perfusion dramatically improved.
There is circumstantial evidence that the administration of terlipressin caused the increase in blood pressure. We suggest that terlipressin should be considered as rescue therapy when high-dose catecholamine therapy does not result in sufficient perfusion pressure. Further investigation is needed to prove terlipressin's effectiveness and safety in infants and children.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 04/2004; 5(2):116-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report intractable life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage after cardiac surgery in an infant who was treated successfully with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa).
Descriptive case report.
An 18-bed pediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary-care children's hospital. Patient: A 10-wk-old child with acute life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage after cardiac surgery.
General supportive intensive care.
Care included mechanical ventilatory support, inotropic support, and concurrent treatment with blood products (packed cells, platelet concentrates, and plasma-derived products), as well as aprotinin and desmopressin to improve hemostasis. The addition of rFVIIa resulted in complete resolution of the hemorrhage.
rFVIIa should be considered as a possible novel therapeutic approach to be used as rescue therapy for patients presenting with massive life-threatening hemorrhage progressing into hemorrhagic shock. Further controlled trials to elucidate the safety of this treatment are warranted.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 11/2003; 4(4):444-6. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracheal drug administration is a route for drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation when intravenous access is not immediately available. However, tracheal adrenaline (epinephrine) injection has been recently shown to be associated with detrimental decrease in blood pressure. This was attributed to exaggerated early beta2 mediated effects unopposed by alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that endobronchial adrenaline administration is associated with better drug absorption, which may abolish the deleterious drop of blood pressure associated with tracheal drug administration.
To determine haemodynamic variables after endobronchial adrenaline administration in a non-arrest canine model.
Prospective, randomized, laboratory study.
Adrenaline (0.02, 0.05, 0.1 mg/kg) diluted with normal saline was injected into the bronchial tree of five anaesthetized dogs. Injection of 10-ml saline served as control. Heart rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gases were monitored for 60 min after drug instillation. The protocol was repeated after 1 week.
Adrenaline at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg produced only a minor initial decrease in diastolic (from 90 +/- 5 to 78 +/- 3 mmHg, P=0.05), and mean blood pressure (from 107 +/- 4 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg, P=0.05), in all dogs. This effect lasted less then 30 s following the drug administration. In contrast, higher adrenaline doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) produced an immediate increase in diastolic (from 90 +/- 5 to 120 +/- 7 mmHg; and from 90 +/- 5 to 170 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively), and mean blood pressure (from 107 +/- 4 to 155 +/- 10 mmHg; and from 107 +/- 4 to 219 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively). All adrenaline doses resulted in an immediate increase in systolic blood pressure and pulse. Endobronchial administration of saline (control) affected none of the haemodynamic variables.
In a non-arrest model, endobronchial adrenaline administration, as opposed to the effect of tracheal adrenaline, produced only a minor decrease in diastolic and mean blood pressure. We suggest that endobronchial adrenaline administration should be investigated further in a CPR low-flow model when maintaining adequate diastolic pressure may be crucial for survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracheal epinephrine (adrenaline) has been associated with two major deleterious side effects: increased heart rate (HR) and an initial decrease of blood pressure (BP). This prospective randomized animal study compared the haemodynamic responses to tracheally administered epinephrine or norepinephrine (nor adrenaline) alone versus each after pretreatment with propranolol for ameliorating those two untoward effects associated with epinephrine administration. Five anaesthetized mongrel dogs underwent 25 experiments of tracheal epinephrine or norepinephrine (0.02 mg/kg diluted with normal saline to 5 ml total volume) with or without an I/V non-selective β-blocker (propranolol 0.1 mg/kg) pretreatment, and served as their own controls. Tracheal epinephrine alone produced a rise in both diastolic and mean arterial BP and an increase of HR. Tracheal norepinephrine alone produced the largest increase of diastolic and mean BP but this change was associated with a significant tachycardia (from 37 to 72/m, P<0.001). While both epinephrine or norepinephrine after pretreatment with propranolol produced a significant increase in both diastolic (from 106 to 166 mmHg and from 118 to 169 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.01) and mean BP (from 122 to 183 mmHg and from 133 to 188 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.01), only propranolol-pretreated tracheal epinephrine yielded a significant decrease in HR (from 52 to 33/m, P=0.002). Pretreatment with a β-blocker protected against the deleterious tachycardia associated with epinephrine or norepinephrine and, by doing so, may improve the myocardial oxygen supply-and-demand balance. At the same time, the pretreatment augmented the relatively mild diastolic BP increase associated with the β-adrenergic effect of epinephrine.SumàrioA epinefrina (adrenalina) traqueal. Tem sido associada a dois efeitos secundários deletérios graves: aumento da frequência cardı́aca (HR) e diminuição inicial da pressão arterial (BP). Este estudo animal prospectivo e randomizado comparou a resposta hemodinâmica à administração endotraqueal de epinefrina ou norepinefrina (noradrenalina) isoladas versus cada uma após pré tratamento com propanolol para melhorar os dois efeitos indesejáveis associados á administração de epinefrina. Submeteram-se cinco cães anestesiado a 25 experiências com epinefrina ou norepinefrina traqueal (0.02 mg/kg diluı́do com soro para um volume total de 5 ml) com ou sem pré tratamento com um beta bloqueador não selectivo por via EV (propanolol 0.1 mg/kg) e serviram como seus próprios controlos. Epinefrina traqueal isolada provocou um aumento nas pressões arteriais diastólica e média e um aumento da frequência cardı́aca. Norepinefrina traqueal isolada provocou o maior aumento das pressões diastólica e média, mas esta alteração estava associada a uma taquicardia significativa (de 32 para 72/min, P<0.001). Enquanto ambas, epinefrina e norepinefrina após tratamento com propanolol provocaram uma subida significativa da pressão diastólica (de 106 para 166 mmHg e de 118 para 169 mmHg respectivamente) (P<0.01) e média (de 122 para 183 mmHg e de 133 para 188 mmHg, respectivamente) (P<0.01), apenas a epinefrina com pré tratamento com propanolol apresentou uma diminuição significativa na HR (de 52 para 33/min, P=0.002). O pré tratamento com um bloqueador beta protegeu contra a taquicardia deletéria associada á epinefrina ou norepinefrina e, ao fazê-lo, pode melhorar o balanço da relação fornecimento-consumo de oxigénio no miocárdio. Em simultâneo, o pré tratamento aumentou a subida relativamente ligeira da pressão diastólica associada com o efeito -adrenérgico da epinefrina.ResumenSe ha asociado la epinefrina (adrenalina) traqueal con dos efectos secundarios deletéreos mayores: frecuencia cardı́aca (HR) aumentada y disminución inicial de presión sanguı́nea(BP). Este estudio animal (25 perros) prospectivo randomizado comparó las respuestas hemodinámicas a la administración traqueal de epinefrina o norepinefrina (noradrenalina) sola versus cada una después del pretratamiento con propranolol para mejorar aquellos dos efectos indeseables asociados con la administración de epinefrina. Se realizaron 25 experimentos de administración de epinefrina o norepinefrina traqueal (0.02 mg/kg diluidos con solución salina normal hasta llegar a 5 ml de volumen total) con y sin administración endovenosa previa de un β-bloqueador no selectivo (propranolol 0.1 mg/kg), y sirvieron como su propio control. La administración traqueal de epinefrina sola produjo un aumento en la presión diastólica y en la presión arterial media y un aumento en la frecuencia cardı́aca. La norepinefrina traqueal sola produjo el mayor aumento de la presión diastólica y de la presión arterial media, pero este cambio se asoció con una taquicardia significativa (de 37 a 72/m, P<0.001). Después de el pretratamiento con propranolol tanto la epinefrina como la norepinefrina produjeron un aumento significativo de la presión diastólica (de 106 hasta 166 mmHg, y de 118 hasta 169 mmHg respectivamente) (P<0.01) y presión arterial media (de 122 hasta183 mmHg y desde 133 hasta 188 mmHg, respectivamente) (P<0.01), solamente la epinefrina traqueal con pretratamiento con propranolol logró una disminución significativa de la frecuencia cardı́aca (de 52 a 33/m, P=0.002). El pretratamiento con β-bloqueadores protegió contra la taquicardia deletérea asociada con epinefrina y norepinefrina y, al hacer esto, puede mejorar el balance entre aporte y demanda de oxigeno. Al mismo tiempo, el pretratamiento aumentó la relativamente discreta elevación de la presión diastólica asociada con el efecto β-adrenérgico de la epinefrina.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracheal epinephrine (adrenaline) has been associated with two major deletorious side effects: increased heart rate (HR) and an initial decrease of blood pressure (BP). This prospective randomized animal study compared the haemodynamic responses to tracheally administered epinephrine or norepinephrine (nor adrenaline) alone versus each after pretreatment with propranolol for ameliorating those two untoward effects associated with epinephrine administration. Five anaesthetized mongrel dogs underwent 25 experiments of tracheal epinephrine or norepinephrine (0.02 mg/kg diluted with normal saline to 5 ml total volume) with or without an I/V non-selective beta-blocker (propranolol 0.1 mg/kg) pretreatment, and served as their own controls. Tracheal epinephrine alone produced a rise in both diastolic and mean arterial BP and an increase of HR. Tracheal norepinephrine alone produced the largest increase of diastolic and mean BP but this change was associated with a significant tachycardia (from 37 to 72/m, P<0.001). While both epinephrine or norepinephrine after pretreatment with propranolol produced a significant increase in both diastolic (from 106 to 166 mmHg and from 118 to 169 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.01) and mean BP (from 122 to 183 mmHg and from 133 to 188 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.01), only propranolol-pretreated tracheal epinephrine yielded a significant decrease in HR (from 52 to 33/m, P=0.002). Pretreatment with a beta-blocker protected against the deleterious tachycardia associated with epinephrine or norepinephrine and, by doing so, may improve the myocardial oxygen supply-and-demand balance. At the same time, the pretreatment augmented the relatively mild diastolic BP increase associated with the beta-adrenergic effect of epinephrine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ECMO is used as a method for mechanical life support in the face of extreme cardiopulmonary failure. Most children and neonates that require ECMO do so because of respiratory failure unresponsive to conventional supportive measures. Less then 16% of the patients require ECMO support for the failing heart. The Sheba Medical Center, is one of two centers in Israel authorized by the Ministry of Health to use ECMO technique and is the only center that also performs pediatric cardiac surgery.
To present our experience with ECMO support in patients with low cardiac output syndromes following open-heart surgery for congenital cardiac anomalies as compared to international experience.
The charts of all pediatric and neonatal patients requiring ECMO support following cardiac surgery for complex congenital cardiac anomalies were reviewed. Patient and ECMO characteristics were compared, as well as the success rates.
Between 1995 and 2001, sixteen neonates and children were treated at our institution by ECMO for low cardiac output syndromes following heart surgery. Twelve were operated on at our institution, and four were referred to the ECMO unit of our pediatric critical care ward from other hospitals. ECMO support resulted in full recovery in seven of the sixteen patients, cardiac function returned to normal and the patients were discharged home in good condition, nine patients died.
Our experience is in accord with the reported international experience. Following cardiac surgery for congenital cardiac anomalies, low cardiac output, unresponsive to maximal conventional medical support, is a rare but life threatening condition. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation serves as a rescue mechanical support for these patients and due to improved and sophisticated intensive care, can serve as a bridge to recovery. The availability of ECMO provides an extra margin of safety in the very complex cases of open-heart surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arginine vasopressin was established recently as a drug of choice in the treatment of cardiac arrest and in retractable ventricular fibrillation; however, the hemodynamic effect of vasopressin following endotracheal drug administration has not been fully elucidated. We compared the effects of endotracheally administered vasopressin vs. adrenaline on hemodynamic variables in a canine model, and we investigated whether vasopressin produces the same deleterious immediate blood pressure decrease as did endotracheal adrenaline in the canine model.
Prospective controlled study.
Animal laboratory in Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
Five adult mongrel dogs weighing 6.5-20 kg.
Dogs were anesthetized; each dog was intubated orally, and both femoral arteries were cannulated for the measurement of arterial pressure and for sampling blood gases. Each dog was studied four times, 1 wk apart, by using the same protocol for injection and anesthesia: endotracheal placebo (10 mL NaCl 0.9%,), endotracheal vasopressin (1 units/kg), endobronchial adrenaline (0.1 mg/kg), and endotracheal adrenaline (0.1 mg/kg). Following placebo, vasopressin, and adrenaline instillation, five forced manual ventilations were delivered with an Ambu bag. Each dog was its own control.
Following placebo or drug administration, heart electrocardiography and arterial pressures were continuously monitored with a polygraph recorder for 1 hr. Endotracheal vasopressin produced an immediate increase of diastolic blood pressure (from 83 +/- 10 mm Hg [baseline] to 110 +/- 5 mm Hg at 1 min postinjection). This response lasted >1 hr. In contrast, both endotracheal and endobronchial administration of adrenaline produced an early and significant (p <.05) decrease in diastolic and mean blood pressures. The diastolic blood pressure increase from 85 +/- 10 mm Hg to 110 +/- 10 mm Hg took an ill-afforded 55 secs following endotracheal adrenaline. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly (p <.05) higher following vasopressin compared with adrenaline administration in both routes.
Vasopressin accomplishes its hemodynamic effect, particularly on diastolic blood pressure, more rapidly, vigorously, and protractedly and to a significant degree compared with both endotracheal and endobronchial adrenaline. Evaluation of the effects of endotracheal vasopressin in a closed chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation model is recommended.
Critical Care Medicine 02/2003; 31(2):572-6. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify early mortality-associated clinical risk factors preceding, during, and after cardiac surgery in children.
Of the 722 children admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) from January 1992 to January 1997 after repair of congenital heart defects, 70 required 48 hours or more of mechanical ventilation. Their clinical records were analyzed for perioperative predictors of mortality.
The children's ages were 3.6 +/- 4.1 years (range, 4 d-16 y). The overall mortality was 5.9%. Eleven of the 70 children (15.7%) who required mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or more did not survive compared with 30 of the 652 (4.6%) children ventilated for less than 48 hours. The preoperative predictors identified as being significantly associated with increased mortality were younger age (P <.05) and the presence of congestive heart failure (P <.01). The main cause of early postoperative mortality was multiorgan dysfunction (9 children, 81.8%), whereas septic complications also were responsible for late (< 1 wk postoperatively) death (the other 2 children, 17.2%).
Younger age and congestive heart failure were the main preoperative predictors of mortality. Multiorgan dysfunction and septic complication were predictive of an increased risk for death after cardiac surgery. These factors should be investigated in greater depth to assist in guiding aggressive therapeutic approaches for combating early signs of organ system dysfunction and infectious complications in these high-risk patients.
Journal of Critical Care 12/2002; 17(4):235-9. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endotracheal administration of epinephrine 0.02 mg/kg (twice the IV dose) is recommended when IV access is unavailable during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The standard IV dose has been considered too small for the endotracheal route by causing a detrimental decrease of arterial blood pressure (BP), presumably mediated by the beta-adrenergic receptor unopposed by alpha adrenergic vasoconstriction. We conducted a prospective, randomized, laboratory comparison of increasing doses of endotracheal epinephrine to ascertain the yet undetermined optimal dose of endotracheal epinephrine that would increase BP. After injecting normal saline (control), saline-diluted epinephrine (0.02, 0.035, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg) was injected into the endotracheal tube of five anesthetized dogs at least 1 wk apart. Arterial blood samples for blood gases were collected before and at 14 time points up to 60 min after the drug administration. Heart rate and arterial BP were continuously monitored with a polygraph recorder. Only the 0.3 mg/kg dose successfully caused an increase in BP, observed 2 min after administration, and lasting for 10 min. An early decrease in BP was obviated only at a dose equivalent to 10-fold the currently recommended one. IMPLICATIONS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, laboratory comparison of increasing doses of endotracheal epinephrine to ascertain the yet undetermined optimal dose of endotracheal epinephrine that would increase arterial blood pressure (BP). A decrease in BP was obviated only at a dose equivalent to 10-fold the currently recommended one. Clinical studies using larger doses of endotracheal epinephrine and their use as first-line therapy in cardiac arrest are warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between plasma tumor necrosis factor concentrations and hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during the postoperative clinical course in children undergoing cardiac surgery.
Tumor necrosis factor levels of 10 consecutive children undergoing surgery for repair of congenital heart defects were analyzed in blood samples drawn at predetermined time points during surgery and up to 24 hours thereafter. Clinical data were collected at these times for correlation to tumor necrosis factor levels.
All the patients survived. Tumor necrosis factor was detected in all 10 children. Tumor necrosis factor levels declined after induction of general anesthesia (201 +/- 65 pg/mL) steadily decreasing during surgery, reaching 80 +/- 50 pg/mL at 24 hours after the operation. Tumor necrosis factor levels were found to be inversely correlated with mean blood pressure values and indicators of acidosis (bicarbonate levels and base excess, P <.03). They were not correlated with the durations of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamping.
Tumor necrosis factor released into the circulation during and after pediatric cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass may be related to the hemodynamic and acid-base changes observed after cardiac surgery. Elucidation of the relationship between tumor necrosis factor and patient outcome in high-risk patients awaits further studies.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 11/2002; 124(5):991-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of isolation rooms on the direct spread of nosocomial infections (NIs) owing to cross-colonization in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
This 6-month comparative clinical study used retrospective data from 1992 (an open single-space unit) and prospective surveillance from 1995 (individual rooms) to assess the effectiveness of the latter design on the control of NIs in critically ill pediatric patients. Patients admitted to the PICU for at least 48 hours underwent a microbiologic survey.
The average number of NIs per patient was higher in 1992 (3.62 +/- 0.7, 78 patients) compared with 1995 (1.87 +/- 0.2, 115 patients). Bacterial NIs were caused by gram-positive cocci (33.3%) and aerobic gram-negative bacilli (66.6%). Fungemia in all cases was caused by Candida albicans. Similarly, length of stay was significantly higher in 1992 compared with 1995 (25 +/- 6 and 11 +/- 6 days, respectively; P <.05). There was a significant reduction of respiratory and urinary tract episodes of NI as well as catheter-related infections in the separate room arrangement.
Our preliminary analysis suggests a possible beneficial effect of single isolation rooms in reducing NI rate in the PICU. Hence, the influence of room isolation on NIs in pediatric intensive care warrants further investigation.
Journal of Critical Care 09/2002; 17(3):176-80. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that cytokine-inducible leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules are instrumental in the postoperative inflammatory response following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). L-selectin was shown to be one of those neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion molecules. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of the soluble adhesion molecule, sL-selectin, and the postoperative course in children undergoing CPB.
To determine the time course of sL-selectin after CPB, serial blood samples of 9 children undergoing CPB were collected from the arterial line or from the bypass circuits preoperatively, on initiation of CPB and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Plasma was recovered immediately, aliquoted and frozen at -70 degrees C until use. Circulating sL-selectin molecules were measured with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) technique. There were significant changes in plasma levels of sL-selectin in patients following CPB, and these levels were associated with patient characteristics, operative variables and postoperative course. Low values of sL-selectin significantly correlated with inotropic support, low PRISM score, postoperative hypotension and fever. There was a significant association between the development of postoperative sepsis and low sL-selectin levels. No correlation was found between sL-selectin values and lactate concentration or neutrophil count.
Our results suggest a relation between CPB-induced mediators and both early and late clinical effects. Although the mechanism for the changes of sL-selectin remains undetermined, the down-regulation of sL-selectin indicates neutrophil activation and supports the possibility that anti-adhesion therapies might participate in the prevention and treatment of the inflammatory response associated with CPB.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 08/2002; 8(7):CR467-72. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare propofol with ketamine sedation delivered by pediatric intensivists during painful procedures in the pediatric critical care department (PCCD).
Prospective 15-month study.
An 18-bed multidisciplinary, university-affiliated PCCD.
All children were randomized to the propofol or ketamine protocol according to prescheduled procedure dates. Propofol was delivered by continuous infusion after a loading bolus dose and a minidose of lidocaine (PL). Ketamine was given as a bolus injection together with midazolam and fentanyl (KMF). Repeated bolus doses of both drugs were given to achieve the desired level of anesthesia. The studied variables included procedures performed, anesthetic drug doses, procedure and recovery durations, and side effect occurrence. The patient's parents, PCCD nurse and resident physician, pediatric intensivist, and the physician performing the procedure graded the adequacy of anesthesia.
Of the 105 procedures in 98 children, PL sedation was used in 58 procedures, and KMF was used in 47. Recovery time was 23 mins for PL and 50 mins for KMF, and total PCCD monitoring was 43 mins for PL and 70 mins for KMF. Five children (10.6%) in the KMF group and in none in the PL group experienced discomfort during emergence from sedation. Transient decreases in blood pressure, partial airway obstruction, and apnea were more frequent in the PL than in the KMF sedation. All procedures were successfully completed, and no child recalled undergoing the procedure. The overall sedation adequacy score was 97% for PL and 92% for KMF (p <.05).
Both PL and KMF anesthesia are effective in optimizing comfort in children undergoing painful procedures. PL scored better by all evaluators, recovery from PL anesthesia after procedural sedation was more rapid, total PCCD stay was shorter with PL, and emergence from PL was smoother than with KMF. Because transient respiratory depression and hypotension are associated with PL, it is considered safe only in a monitored environment (e.g., a PCCD).
Critical Care Medicine 06/2002; 30(6):1231-6. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term pulmonary function tests in pediatric survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Observational study based on a telephone poll of retrospectively identified post ARDS children who were hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a general 1200-bed teaching, tertiary, regional referral center for children.
Follow-up pulmonary function tests were achieved in only 7 children, with a mean age of 7.3+/-4.3 years (range 3-12) and following 5.6+/-4.3 years after PICU discharge. The etiology for ARDS included: lymphoma (n=2), pneumonia (n=2), aspiration (n=1), petrol ingestion (n=1) and snake envenomation (n=1). The children had been ventilated for 9.4+/-7.3 days and their worst PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 65.1+/-17.0 mm Hg. The follow-up pulmonary functions in all the children was within normal limits except for one child who had mildly reduced DLCO and one who had mild exercise-induced hypoxemia (oxyhemoglobin saturation of 94%). Neither of the two nor the others showed subjective symptoms or clinical physical limitations.
Children who survive ARDS apparently enjoy long-term normal pulmonary function. Some, however, may present subclinical dysfunction that persists for many years after the acute episode and evoked only by sophisticated lung tests.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 04/2002; 8(3):CR153-7. · 1.36 Impact Factor