[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: It is reported that the dopaminergic pathway is involved in antidepressant-like effects of creatine in mice. In the other hand, numerous studies have shown that morphine causes a reinforcing effect, which may be attributed to its facilitating dopaminergic transmission through the release of dopamine. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of co-administration of creatine and sertraline on expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice. Methods: In this study, male NMRI mice (weighting 20-30 g) were used. The study carried out in six consecutive days, consisting of three phases: preconditioning, conditioning, and postconditioning. In the first section of study, creatine (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and sertraline (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) alone were administered in conditioning and postconditioning phases to assay if they induce CPP or conditioned place aversion (CPA). In the second section, the mice received creatine and sertraline in postconditioning phase after conditioning with morphine (5 and 10 mg/kg). The control group received normal saline. All injections were performed intraperitoneally. Results: Morphine (5 and 10 mg/kg) induced CPP significantly, compared to the control group (p<0.001). Different doses of creatine and sertraline alone did not induce any significant CPP or CPA (p>0.05). However, their co-administration with morphine (doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg of sertraline, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively, and creatine at dose of 20 mg/kg, p<0.05) induced a significant CPP. Discussion: The present study revealed that creatine and sertraline can potentiate the morphine-induced CPP (probably because of their dopaminergic and serotonergic properties, respectively). Future studies could provide more solid data to confirm our hypothesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Antidepressants especially those have ability to increase the serotonin and noradrenaline levels, possess several uses in pain management (particularly neuropathic pain). Based on antidepressant-like activity of folic acid in animal models of depression, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on acute and chronic pain in male mice. Methods: Forty male NMRI mice (20-30 g) were divided into five groups of eight animals: normal saline, morphine (5 mg/kg) and folic acid groups (5, 10, and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Assessment of the pain was done using the formalin test. The duration of paw licking and biting during the early phase (0-5 min) and late phase (15-60 min) after formalin injection (25 µl formalin, 2.5 %) in the right hind paw of the animal, subcutaneously Results: Results showed that only high dose of folic acid significantly reduced the early phase of pain compared to the control group (p<0.05), while, all doses of folic acid significantly diminished the late phase of pain (p<0.05). Discussion: According to the results of the present study, folic acid possesses analgesic effects, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory properties against the late (inflammatory) phase of pain. However, more mechanistic studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism of analgesic activity of folic acid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Numerous studied have shown that dopaminergic system is involved in neuromodulatory effects of Acorus calamus L. (AC) leaves extract. The rewarding properties of opiates and the somatic expression of morphine abstinence have been related to changes in mesolimbic dopaminergic activity that could constitute the neural substrate for opioid addiction. Therefore, the effect of AC extract on morphine withdrawal signs in male mice was investigated in the present study. Methods: Male NMRI mice weighting 20-30 g were used. For induction of addiction, 50, 75,100 and 100 mg/kg of morphine were injected once daily for four consecutive days, respectively. On the fourth day, 2 hours after first morphine administration, naloxone with dose of 5 mg/kg was injected and withdrawal signs in 30 min recorded with number of jumping and diarrhoea, grooming, wet dog shake, teeth chattering, writing, and climbing as scored based on severity of zero to 3. The treatment groups received different doses of AC (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and levodopa (125 mg/kg) 30 min prior to naloxone injection. All injections were performed intraperitoneally and in constant volume of 10 ml/kg. Results: Different doses of AC dose-dependently and significantly could attenuate the morphine withdrawal signs (except writing) compared to the control group (p<0.05), and their effects were more obvious than levodopa. Discussion: The results of this study revealed that AC can attenuate the morphine withdrawal signs in mice, and probable dopaminergic activity of AC can be attributed to this finding So based on previous and this study results, it seems AC with dopaminergic activity could attenuate morphine withdrawal signs and it can be useful in morphine dependent subjects. Anyway, further studies are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of AC in attenuating the morphine withdrawal signs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. are used for treating the mild sleep disorders, analgesia, muscle relaxation and nervous tension. Thus, the aim of this study was to comparison of anaesthesia induced by combination of ethanolic extract of Valeriana officinalis-ketamine with diazepam-ketamine in male rats. Methods: In this study, 24 male rats (250-300 g) were divided into several groups, randomly, and were injected intraperitoneally by Valeriana officinalis extract alone (VO, 200 mg/kg), Valeriana officinalis-ketamine (VOK, 200 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg, respectively) and diazepam-ketamine (DK, 2.5 mg/kg-80 mg/kg). The heart and respiratory rate, induction and duration of surgical anesthesia, walking times, and withdrawal reflexes (pedal withdrawal, lip and tail pinches) were measured. Results: Results showed that in both of VOK and DK groups the surgical anesthesia was induced, and the walking time in VOK group was significantly faster than DK group (p<0.05). The heart rate increased in VOK group compared to DK group in times of 20 to 55 min after induction of anesthesia (p<0.001), while the respiratory rate decreased in VO and VOK groups compared to DK group significantly (p<0.05). The body temperature in VO and VOK groups decreased compared to DK group (p<0.001). The inhibition of pain in VOK group was more than DK group based on all reflexes (lip and tail pinches and pedal reflex, p<0.01). Discussion: In conclusion, the anesthesia induced by VOK combination is suitable for short time anesthesia, and preanesthetic properties of VO is comparable with diazepam, resulting in rapid onset, short duration of surgical anesthesia and faster recovery time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Menopause is a period of women's lives with changes and symptoms that affect their work, sleep and quality of life. Therefore, it is important to overcome these symptoms.
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Calci soya balance and Vitagnus on menopausal symptoms.
This double-blinded controlled trial study was performed in public health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (2011-2012). Seventy postmenopausal women with menopausal symptoms were randomly divided into two groups of treatments with Vitagnus and Calci soya balance. Data were collected using interviews, answering Cooperman's index questionnaires before four and eight weeks after the treatment. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used for analyzing the data.
In both groups, Wilcoxon test showed a significant decrease in the mean of Cooperman's menopausal index as well as after four and eight weeks of treatment (P = 0.000). Mann-Whitney test did not show any significant differences between the two groups, before and after four and eight weeks of treatment.
The results showed that both Vitagnus and Calci soya balance were effective on reduction of menopausal symptoms to a similar extent and medical community can administer each of these two drugs based on patients' conditions and costs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most important environmental contaminants all over the world where wide studies have been conducted on their hazards on environment and living organisms; especially human.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quantitative uptake of Phenanthrene’s (as one of the most important PAHs in crude oil) by Salicorniaeuropea and also the effectiveness of crude oil content on normal condition of this plant especially at various concentrations.
Matherials and Methods: Salicornia plantlets were taken from Eshtehard plant bank which is located in Alborz, Iran. They were transplanted and exposed to various t concentrations of crude oil (4.5-16-27.5-32-36.5 g/kg soil). Spectrophotometery and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy methods were used to determine and identify the phenanthrene uptake in roots and stalks, also the plants’ appearance were checked out.
Results: The highest uptake was at eight mg crude oil, per one g of soil and the least uptake was at 13.75 mg crude oil, per one g of soil. It seems that physical characteristics of crude oil are the main reasons of damages to plant tissue.
Conclusions: Concerning the ability of Salicorniaeuropea to survive in the contaminated areas, it might be suitable that endemic types of this plant would be cultivated in contaminated coast lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Depression during pregnancy is a relatively common problem. Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of concomitant administration of fluoxetine and olanzapine during the organogenesis period, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of coadministration of fluoxetine and olanzapine on rat fetuses. Method. Forty-two pregnant rats were divided into seven groups, randomly. The first group received 0.5 mL of normal saline as the control. The second and third groups received fluoxetine at doses of 9 mg/kg and 18 mg/kg, respectively. Olanzapine was injected at 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg to the fourth and fifth groups, respectively. The sixth group received 9 mg/kg fluoxetine and 3 mg/kg olanzapine. Finally, the seventh group was administrated with fluoxetine and olanzapine at 18 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively. Drugs were injected intraperitoneally between day eight and day 15 of the pregnancy. On the 17th day of pregnancy, the fetuses were removed and micro-/macroscopically studied. Results. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of these drugs showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, premature eyelid opening and torsion anomalies, compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.01). It is concluded that these drugs can lead to teratogenicity, so their concomitant use during pregnancy should be avoided, or if necessary their doses must be decreased.
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 01/2014; 2014:132034. DOI:10.1155/2014/132034
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leonurus cardiaca, commonly known as motherwort, is a member of the Lamiaceae family. It has a number of interesting biological activities, for example, sedative and hypotensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of aerial part of Leonurus cardiaca on nociceptive response using formalin, tail flick, and hot plate tests in mice. The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract at doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive in the first and second phases of formalin test, respectively. The hot plate and tail flick tests showed an increase in the antinociceptive effect at dose 500 mg/kg. These results suggest that Leonurus cardiaca possesses central and peripheral antinociceptive actions.
International Scholarly Research Notices 01/2014; 2014:1-5. DOI:10.1155/2014/687697
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control) received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P ≤ 0.001). This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.
The Scientific World Journal 11/2013; 2013:382434. DOI:10.1155/2013/382434 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mirtazapine (MRZ) is a human antidepressant drug that is metabolized, predominantly by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, to 8-OH mirtazapine (8-OH MRZ) and dimetilmirtazapine (DMR) metabolites. In veterinary medicine, this drug is currently administered to cats and dogs with anorexia, although it could also have applications as an antidepressant, antiemetic, and analgesic agent in these species. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of MRZ and its metabolites DMR and 8-OH MRZ in horses. Six healthy female horses were administered MRZ (2 mg/kg) in fasting and fed states according to a balanced crossover study design. Plasma MRZ and metabolite concentrations were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection method. Pharmacokinetic profiles of MRZ and DMR were similar (detected from 0.5 up to 34 and 48 hours, respectively), with an MRZ AUC0-N/DMR AUC0-N ratio range varying between 1.1 and 1.7. Surprisingly, 8-OH MRZ was undetected. Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters were not altered by food, with the exception of the time required to reach maximum concentration; this showed a statistical increase in subjects in the fasting state as compared with the fed state. However, because MRZ is an active substance intended for long-term administration, the slight increase of the time required to reach maximum concentration is not considered to be of any clinical consequence. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated in this study suggest that MRZ is suitable for oral administration in the horse. However, further investigations are required to evaluate both its safety and effectiveness in this animal species.