Jeffrey A Medin

Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (136)600.95 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inciting the cellular arm of adaptive immunity has been the fundamental goal of cancer immunotherapy strategies, specifically focusing on inducing tumour antigen-specific responses by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, there is an emerging appreciation that the cytotoxic function of CD4+ T cells can be effective in a clinical setting. Harnessing this potential will require an understanding of how such cells arise. In this study we use an IL-12 transduced variant of the 70Z/3 leukemia cell line in a B6D2F1 (BDF1) murine model system to reveal a novel cascade of cells and soluble factors that activate anti-cancer CD4+ killer cells. We show that natural killer T (NKT) cells play a pivotal role by activating dendritic cells (DCs) in a contact-dependent manner; soluble products of this interaction, including MCP-1, propagate the activation signal culminating in development of CD4+CTL that directly mediate an anti-leukemia response while also orchestrating a multi-pronged attack by other effector cells. A more complete picture of the conditions that induce such a robust response will allow us to capitalize on CD4+ T cell plasticity for maximum therapeutic effect.
    Cancer immunology research. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A novel MALDI-FTICR imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) workflow is described for on-tissue detection, spatial localization and structural confirmation of low abundance bioactive ceramides and other sphingolipids. Increasingly, altered or elevated levels of sphingolipids, sphingolipid metabolites, and sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes have been associated with a variety of disorders such as diabetes, obesity, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Ceramide, which serves as a metabolic hub in sphingolipid metabolism, has been linked to cancer signaling pathways and to metabolic regulation with involvement in autophagy, cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. Using kidney tissues from a new Farber disease mouse model in which ceramides of all acyl chain lengths and other sphingolipid metabolites accumulate in tissues, specific ceramides and sphingomyelins were identified by on-tissue isolation and fragmentation, coupled with an on-tissue digestion by ceramidase or sphingomyelinase. Multiple glycosphingolipid species were also detected. The newly generated library of sphingolipid ions was then applied to MALDI-IMS of human lung cancer tissues. Multiple tumor specific ceramide and sphingomyelin species were detected and confirmed by on-tissue enzyme digests and structural confirmation. High-resolution MALDI-IMS in combination with novel on-tissue ceramidase and sphingomyelinase enzyme digestions makes it now possible to rapidly visualize the distribution of bioactive ceramides and sphingomyelin in tissues.
    Analytical chemistry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-12 is the key cytokine in the initiation of a Th1 response and has shown promise as an anti-cancer agent; however, clinical trials involving IL-12 have been unsuccessful due to toxic side-effects. To address this issue, lentiviral vectors were used to transduce tumour cell lines that were injected as an autologous tumour cell vaccine. The focus of the current study was to test the efficacy of this approach in a solid tumour model. SCCVII cells that were transduced to produce IL-12 at different concentrations were then isolated. Subcutaneous injection of parental SCCVII cells results in tumour development, while a mixture of IL-12-producing and non-producing cells results in tumour clearance. Interestingly, when comparing mice injected a mixture of SCCVII and either high IL-12-producing tumour cells or low IL-12-producing tumour cells, we observed that mixtures containing small amounts of high producing cells lead to tumour clearance, whereas mixtures containing large amounts of low producing cells fail to elicit protection, despite the production of equal amounts of total IL-12 in both mixtures. Furthermore, immunizing mice with IL-12-producing cells leads to the establishment of both local and systemic immunity against challenge with SCCVII. Using depletion antibodies, it was shown that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells are crucial for therapy. Lastly, we have established cell clones of other solid tumour cell lines (RM-1, LLC1 and moto1.1) that produce IL-12. Our results show that the delivery of IL-12 by cancer cells is an effective route for immune activation.
    Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising mediators of anti-tumor immune responses due to their potent antigen-presentation capacity. Unfortunately, cancer cells can often disarm differentiated DCs by rendering them incapable of maturation or by promoting their apoptosis. DC vaccine regimens attempt to generate functional DCs and preload them with Tumor-Associated Antigens (TAAs) to target various malignancies. Despite these efforts, the efficacy of DC vaccines in clinical trials is still rather disappointing to date. In addition to undergoing cancer-induced apoptosis, it is well established that DCs are intrinsically short-lived cell types. It is likely that a significant portion of infused DCs undergo apoptosis prior to locating and activating naive TAA-reactive T-cells. In our current study, we constructed and investigated novel bicistronic lentivectors (LVs) encoding the cDNA for the xeno-TAA, rat HER-2/neu (rHER-2), along with five candidate mouse DC survival factors (c-FLIPS, c-FLIPL, Bcl-XL, M11L, and AKT-1) that operate in both the extrinsic and intrinsic cycle of apoptosis. The murine DC cell line, DC2.4 was transduced separately with each novel LV construct. Infected cells were enriched via flow cytometric methods based on rHER-2 expression. Transduced DC2.4 cell lines were then exposed to Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) withdrawal and to specific pharmacological apoptosis-inducing agents. DC2.4 cell death was assayed based on Annexin V and PI double-positive staining via flow cytometry. The phenotype and function of transduced DC2.4 cells and primary bone marrow-derived DCs were then assessed via expression and secretion of DC markers and cytokines, respectively. DC2.4 cells transduced with LVs encoding cDNAs for c-FLIPS, c-FLIPL, Bcl-XL, and M11L were protected from apoptosis when exposed to low FCS-containing culture media. When treated with an anti-CD95 antibody, only DC2.4 cells transduced with LVs encoding c-FLIPS and c-FLIPL were protected from apoptosis. In contrast, only DC2.4 cells transduced with LVs encoding Bcl-XL and M11L were protected from effects of staurosporine (STS) treatment. Also, LV-modified DCs maintained their original phenotype and function. We present evidence that by employing novel recombinant bicistronic LVs we can simultaneously load DCs with a relevant TAA and block apoptosis; thereby confirming the usage of such LVs in the modulation of DC lifespan and function.
    Virology Journal 07/2013; 10(1):240. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Farber disease (FD) is a severe inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by deficient lysosomal acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity, resulting in ceramide accumulation. Ceramide and metabolites have roles in cell apoptosis and proliferation. We introduced a single-nucleotide mutation identified in human FD patients into the murine Asah1 gene to generate the first model of systemic ACDase deficiency. Homozygous Asah1(P361R/P361R) animals showed ACDase defects, accumulated ceramide, demonstrated FD manifestations and died within 7-13 weeks. Mechanistically, MCP-1 levels were increased and tissues were replete with lipid-laden macrophages. Treatment of neonates with a single injection of human ACDase-encoding lentivector diminished the severity of the disease as highlighted by enhanced growth, decreased ceramide, lessened cellular infiltrations and increased lifespans. This model of ACDase deficiency offers insights into the pathophysiology of FD and the roles of ACDase, ceramide and related sphingolipids in cell signaling and growth, as well as facilitates the development of therapy. →See accompanying article http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/emmm.201302781.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 05/2013; · 7.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of lentivirus-mediated IL-10 gene therapy to target lung allograft rejection in a mouse orthotopic left lung transplantation model. IL-10 may regulate posttransplant immunity mediated by IL-17. Lentivirus-mediated trans-airway luciferase gene transfer to the donor lung resulted in persistent luciferase activity up to 6 months posttransplant in the isograft (B6 to B6); luciferase activity decreased in minor-mismatched allograft lungs (B10 to B6) in association with moderate rejection. Fully MHC-mismatched allograft transplantation (BALB/c to B6) resulted in severe rejection and complete loss of luciferase activity. In minor-mismatched allografts, IL-10-encoding lentivirus gene therapy reduced the acute rejection score compared with the lentivirus-luciferase control at posttransplant day 28 (3.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 (mean ± SD); p = 0.025; n = 6/group). IL-10 gene therapy also significantly reduced gene expression of IL-17, IL-23, and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-γt without affecting levels of IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Cells expressing IL-17 were dramatically reduced in the allograft lung. In conclusion, lentivirus-mediated IL-10 gene therapy significantly reduced expression of IL-17 and other associated genes in the transplanted allograft lung and attenuated posttransplant immune responses after orthotopic lung transplantation.
    American Journal of Transplantation 04/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that rapamycin, through induction of autophagy and promotion of an antiapoptotic phenotype, would permit lentiviral (LV)-based transgene delivery to human T-Rapa cells, which are being tested in phase II clinical trials in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Manufactured T-Rapa cells were exposed to supernatant enriched for a LV vector encoding a fusion protein consisting of truncated CD19 (for cell surface marking) and DTYMK/TMPKΔ, which provides "cell-fate control" due to its ability to phosphorylate (activate) AZT prodrug. LV-transduction in rapamycin-treated T-Rapa cells: (1) resulted in mitochondrial autophagy and a resultant antiapoptotic phenotype, which was reversed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA; (2) yielded changes in MAP1LC3B and SQSTM1 expression, which were reversed by 3-MA; and (3) increased T-Rapa cell expression of the CD19-DTYMKΔ fusion protein, despite their reduced proliferative status. Importantly, although the transgene-expressing T-Rapa cells expressed an antiapoptotic phenotype, they were highly susceptible to cell death via AZT exposure both in vitro and in vivo (in a human-into-mouse xenogeneic transplantation model). Therefore, rapamycin induction of T cell autophagy can be used for gene therapy applications, including the CD19-DTYMKΔ cell-fate control axis to improve the safety of T cell immuno-gene therapy.
    Autophagy 04/2013; 9(7). · 12.04 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2013; 108(2):S36. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2013; 108(2):S21. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine shown to impact inflammatory processes as manifested in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Several lines of evidence indicate that the effectiveness of IL-10-based therapies may be dependent on the timing and mode of delivery. In the present study we engineered the expression of IL-10 in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Adi-IL-10-MSCs) and transplanted these cells early in the disease course to mice with EAE. Adi-IL-10-MSCs transplanted via the intraperitoneal route prevented or delayed the development of EAE. This protective effect was associated with several anti-inflammatory response mechanisms, including a reduction in peripheral T-cell proliferative responses, a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion as well as a preferential inhibition of Th17-mediated neuroinflammation. In vitro analyses revealed that Adi-IL-10-MSCs inhibited the phenotypic maturation, cytokine production and antigen presenting capacity of bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells, suggesting that the mechanism of action may involve an indirect effect on pathogenic T-cells via the modulation of antigen presenting cell function. Collectively, these results suggest that early intervention with gene modified Adi-MSCs may be beneficial for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control') gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs). Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression - an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and Pannexin1 (Panx1), but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78711. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) are a readily available source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy. We were interested in understanding how differences from human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs might yield insights into MSC biology. We found that HUCPVCs exhibited increased telomerase activity and longer telomeres compared with BM-MSCs. We also observed enhanced expression of the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG in HUCPVCs. The methylation of OCT4 and NANOG promoters was similar in both cell types, indicating that differences in the expression of pluripotency factors between the MSCs were not associated with epigenetic changes. MSC methylation at these loci is greater than reported for embryonic stem cells but less than in dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that multipotentiality of MSCs is epigenetically restricted. These results are consistent with the notion that the MSC population (whether BM- or HUCPV-derived) exhibits higher proliferative capacity and contains more progenitor cells than do dermal fibroblasts.
    Stem Cells 10/2012; · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We were interested in evaluating the ability of the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) population, human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs), to undergo cardiomyocyte reprogramming in an established co-culture system with rat embryonic cardiomyocytes. Results were compared with human bone marrow-derived (BM) MSCs. The transcription factors GATA4 and Mef2c were expressed in HUCPVCs but not BM-MSCs at baseline, and at 7 days increased 7.6 and 3.5-fold respectively, compared with BM-MSCs. Although cardiac-specific gene expression increased in both cell types in co-culture, up-regulation was more significant in HUCPVCs, consistent with Mef2c-GATA4 synergism. Using a lentivector with eGFP transcribed from the α-myosin heavy chain ( α-MHC) promoter, we found that cardiac gene expression was greater in HUCPVCs than BM-MSCs after 14d co-culture (52±17% vs 29±6%, respectively). A higher frequency of HUCPVCs expressed α-MHC protein compared with BM-MSCs (11.6±0.9% vs 5.3±0.3%) however, both cell types retained MSC-associated determinants. We also assessed the ability of the MSC types to mediate cardiac regeneration in a NOD/SCID(gnull) mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fourteen days after AMI, cardiac function was significantly better in celltreated mice compared with control animals and HUCPVCs exhibited greater improvement. Although human cells persisted in the infarct area, the frequency of α-MHC expression was low. Our results indicate that HUCPVCs exhibit a greater degree of cardiomyocyte reprogramming but that differentiation for both cell types is partial. We conclude that HUCPVCs may be preferable to BM-MSCs in the cell therapy of AMI.
    Cell Transplantation 10/2012; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current protocols for the screening of prostate cancer cannot accurately discriminate clinically indolent tumors from more aggressive ones. One reliable indicator of outcome has been the determination of organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease but even this determination is often only made following prostatectomy. This underscores the need to explore alternate avenues to enhance outcome prediction of prostate cancer patients. Fluids that are proximal to the prostate, such as expressed prostatic secretions (EPS), are attractive sources of potential prostate cancer biomarkers as these fluids likely bath the tumor. Direct-EPS samples from 16 individuals with extracapsular (n = 8) or organ-confined (n = 8) prostate cancer were used as a discovery cohort, and were analyzed in duplicate by a 9-step MudPIT on a LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. A total of 624 unique proteins were identified by at least two unique peptides with a 0.2 % false discovery rate. A semi-quantitative spectral counting algorithm identified 133 significantly differentially expressed proteins in the discovery cohort. Integrative data mining prioritized 14 candidates, including two known prostate cancer biomarkers: prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, which were significantly elevated in the direct-EPS from the organ-confined cancer group. These and five other candidates (SFN, MME, PARK7, TIMP1, TGM4) were verified by Western blotting in an independent set of direct-EPS from patients with biochemically recurrent disease (n = 5) versus patients with no evidence of recurrence upon follow-up (n = 10). Lastly, we performed proof-of-concept SRM-MS-based relative quantification of the five candidates using unpurified heavy isotope-labeled synthetic peptides spiked into pools of EPS-urines from men with extracapsular and organ-confined prostate tumors. This study represents the first efforts to define the direct-EPS proteome from two major sub-classes of prostate cancer using shotgun proteomics and verification in EPS-urine by SRM-MS.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 09/2012; · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) activity that results in progressive globotriaosylceramide (Gb(3)) deposition. We created a fully congenic nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/Fabry murine line to facilitate the in vivo assessment of human cell-directed therapies for Fabry disease. This pure line was generated after 11 generations of backcrosses and was found, as expected, to have a reduced immune compartment and background α-gal A activity. Next, we transplanted normal human CD34(+) cells transduced with a control (lentiviral vector-enhanced green fluorescent protein (LV-eGFP)) or a therapeutic bicistronic LV (LV-α-gal A/internal ribosome entry site (IRES)/hCD25). While both experimental groups showed similar engraftment levels, only the therapeutic group displayed a significant increase in plasma α-gal A activity. Gb(3) quantification at 12 weeks revealed metabolic correction in the spleen, lung, and liver for both groups. Importantly, only in the therapeutically-transduced cohort was a significant Gb(3) reduction found in the heart and kidney, key target organs for the amelioration of Fabry disease in humans.
    Molecular Therapy 04/2012; 20(7):1454-61. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activity and specificity of chemotherapeutic agents against solid tumors can be augmented via the targeted or localized delivery of 'suicide' genes. Selective activation of specific prodrugs in cells expressing the 'suicide' gene drives their elimination by apoptosis, while also enabling the killing of adjacent bystander cells. Strong bystander effects can compensate for poor 'suicide' gene delivery, and depend on the prodrugs used and mechanisms for the acquisition of activated drug by the bystander population, such as the presence of gap junctional intercellular communications. Although a number of 'suicide' gene therapies for cancer have been developed and characterized, such as herpes simplex virus-derived thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)-based activation of ganciclovir, their limited success highlights the need for the development of more robust approaches. Limiting activation kinetics and evolution of chemoresistance are major obstacles. Here we describe 'suicide' gene therapy of cancer based on the lentivirus-mediated delivery of a thymidine-active human deoxycytidine kinase variant. This enzyme possesses substrate plasticity that enables it to activate a multitude of prodrugs, some with distinct mechanisms of action. We evaluated the magnitude and mechanisms of bystander effects induced by different prodrugs, and show that when used in combination, they can synergistically enhance the bystander effect while avoiding off-target toxicity.
    Cancer gene therapy 03/2012; 19(5):320-7. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary expressed prostatic secretion or "EPS-urine" is proximal tissue fluid that is collected after a digital rectal exam (DRE). EPS-urine is a rich source of prostate-derived proteins that can be used for biomarker discovery for prostate cancer (PCa) and other prostatic diseases. We previously conducted a comprehensive proteome analysis of direct expressed prostatic secretions (EPS). In the current study, we defined the proteome of EPS-urine employing Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) and providing a comprehensive catalogue of this body fluid for future biomarker studies. We identified 1022 unique proteins in a heterogeneous cohort of 11 EPS-urines derived from biopsy negative noncancer diagnoses with some benign prostatic diseases (BPH) and low-grade PCa, representative of secreted prostate and immune system-derived proteins in a urine background. We further applied MudPIT-based proteomics to generate and compare the differential proteome from a subset of pooled urines (pre-DRE) and EPS-urines (post-DRE) from noncancer and PCa patients. The direct proteomic comparison of these highly controlled patient sample pools enabled us to define a list of prostate-enriched proteins detectable in EPS-urine and distinguishable from a complex urine protein background. A combinatorial analysis of both proteomics data sets and systematic integration with publicly available proteomics data of related body fluids, human tissue transcriptomic data, and immunohistochemistry images from the Human Protein Atlas database allowed us to demarcate a robust panel of 49 prostate-derived proteins in EPS-urine. Finally, we validated the expression of seven of these proteins using Western blotting, supporting the likelihood that they originate from the prostate. The definition of these prostatic proteins in EPS-urine samples provides a reference for future investigations for prostatic-disease biomarker studies.
    Journal of Proteome Research 02/2012; 11(4):2386-96. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel therapies capable of targeting drug resistant clonogenic MM cells are required for more effective treatment of multiple myeloma. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines against bulk and clonogenic multiple myeloma and evaluates the tumor burden after NK cell therapy in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines was evaluated against bulk multiple myeloma cell lines using chromium release and flow cytometry cytotoxicity assays. Selected activating receptors on natural killer cells were blocked to determine their role in multiple myeloma recognition. Growth inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma cells was assessed in a methylcellulose clonogenic assay in combination with secondary replating to evaluate the self-renewal of residual progenitors after natural killer cell treatment. A bioluminescent mouse model was developed using the human U266 cell line transduced to express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (U266eGFPluc) to monitor disease progression in vivo and assess bone marrow engraftment after intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Three multiple myeloma cell lines were sensitive to NK-92 and KHYG-1 cytotoxicity mediated by NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D and DNAM-1 activating receptors. NK-92 and KHYG-1 demonstrated 2- to 3-fold greater inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma growth, compared with killing of the bulk tumor population. In addition, the residual colonies after treatment formed significantly fewer colonies compared to the control in a secondary replating for a cumulative clonogenic inhibition of 89-99% at the 20:1 effector to target ratio. Multiple myeloma tumor burden was reduced by NK-92 in a xenograft mouse model as measured by bioluminescence imaging and reduction in bone marrow engraftment of U266eGFPluc cells by flow cytometry. This study demonstrates that NK-92 and KHYG-1 are capable of killing clonogenic and bulk multiple myeloma cells. In addition, multiple myeloma tumor burden in a xenograft mouse model was reduced by intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Since multiple myeloma colony frequency correlates with survival, our observations have important clinical implications and suggest that clinical studies of NK cell lines to treat MM are warranted.
    Haematologica 02/2012; 97(7):1020-8. · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2012; 105(2):S16. · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2012; 105(2):S27. · 2.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
600.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Robarts Research Institute
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • Okayama Rosai Hospital
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
    • Taibah University
      Al-Sabya, Jīzān, Saudi Arabia
  • 2009–2013
    • Tohoku University
      • Department of Molecular Pharmacology
      Sendai, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2004–2013
    • University Health Network
      • Division of Experimental Therapeutics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Medical Biophysics
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1995–2013
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Experimental Transplantation and Immunology
      • • Section on Mammalian Molecular Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2012
    • Favaloro University
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
  • 2008–2012
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002–2011
    • Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • Eastern Virginia Medical School
      • Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology
      Norfolk, VA, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • Division of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • University of Guelph
      • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      Guelph, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999–2006
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • • Section of Hematology and Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 1994–1997
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993–1994
    • University of Lausanne
      • Biotechnology Institute
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland