Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak

Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Djanik, Samsun, Turkey

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Publications (29)34.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To research the harmful effects of prenatal exposure of 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on kidneys of four-week-old male rats and to determine protective effects of melatonin (MEL) and omega-3 (ω-3). Materials and methods: Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly placed into seven groups as follows: control (Cont), Sham, MEL, ω-3, EMF, EMF+MEL and EMF+ω-3. After mating, three groups (EMF, EMF+MEL, EMF+ ω-3) were exposed to an EMF. In the fourth week subsequent to parturition, six rats were randomly chosen from each group. Mean volume of kidneys and renal cortices, the total number of glomeruli and basic histological structure of kidney were evaluated by stereological and light microscopical methods, respectively. Results: Stereological results determined the mean volume of the kidneys and cortices were significantly increased in EMF-exposed groups compared to the Cont group. However, EMF-unexposed groups were not significantly modified compared to the Cont group. Additionally, the total number of glomeruli was significantly higher in EMF-unexposed groups compared to the Cont group. Alternatively, the number of glomeruli in EMF-exposed groups was decreased compared to the Cont group. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure of rat kidneys to 900 MHz EMF resulted in increased total kidney volume and decreased the numbers of glomeruli. Moreover, MEL and ω-3 prevented adverse effects of EMF on the kidneys.
    International journal of radiation biology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and routine antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) on early healing of bone defects in diabetic rats. We used 48 rats in the study. Diabetes was induced in 24 rats using streptozotocin; the remaining 24 healthy untreated rats served as controls. Twelve of the diabetic rats and 12 of the healthy rats were treated with AP for 3 days before surgery. Bilateral bone defects were created in the mandible of all animals. ABS was applied to the defects on the left sides of the mandibles, while nothing was applied to the right sides. Animals were sacrificed on days 7 and 14 after operation and examined for histopathology and by stereology. The volume of newly formed bone was significantly less in the diabetic rats on both days 7 and 14. Local administration of ABS significantly increased the mean volume of newly formed bone in both diabetic and nondiabetic rats at days 7 and 14. No significant difference in new bone formation was found between AP and ABS treatment in diabetic rats. Both AP and local administration of ABS have beneficial effects on bone healing in diabetic animals.
    Biotechnic & Histochemistry 05/2014; · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing frequency of obesity is important because of its accompanying related health problems. The effects of obesity on peripheral nerves have not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of obesity on sciatic nerve regeneration using electrophysiology, stereology, immunohistochemistry, histopathology and functional tests. We used control, obese, control injured and obese injured groups of rats. Electrophysiological results showed that nerve conduction velocity and EMG were same in the experimental groups, but the amplitude of the compound action potential of the control group was significantly higher than that of the obese group. Examination of the nerves showed that the control and obese groups had both larger axon diameters and thicker myelin sheaths. The number of myelinated axons was decreased in both of the injured groups. Axon diameters and myelin sheath thicknesses of the control injured group were significantly greater those of the obese injured group. There were no significant differences in functional tests among the groups. Although growth associated protein 43 immunostaining in the control injured group was significantly greater than that of the obese injured group, no significant difference was observed between the control and obese groups. There was no significant difference in immunohistochemical staining for transforming growth factor beta 3 between the control injured and obese injured groups. Our results suggest that obesity may affect peripheral nerve regeneration negatively after crush injury.
    Biotechnic & Histochemistry 03/2014; · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • Ahmet Piskin, Berrin Zühal Altunkaynak, Atilla Cιtlak, Hicabi Sezgin, Ozgür Yazιcι, Süleyman Kaplan
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that peripheral nerve injury should be treated immediately in the clinic, but in some instances, repair can be delayed. This study investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed (3 days after injury) neurorrhaphy on repair of transected sciatic nerve in New Zealand rabbits using stereological, histomorphological and biomechanical methods. At 8 weeks after immediate and delayed neurorrhaphy, axon number and area in the sciatic nerve, myelin sheath and epineurium thickness, Schwann cell morphology, and the mechanical property of nerve fibers did not differ obviously. These results indicate that delayed neurorrhaphy do not produce any deleterious effect on sciatic nerve repair.
    Neural Regeneration Research 12/2013; 8(36):3410-5. · 0.14 Impact Factor
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    Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Elvan Ozbek
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has become an increasingly important scientific topic due to its potential role in bioterrorism. The lethal toxin (LT) of B. anthracis consists of lethal factor (LF) and a protective antigen (PA). This study investigated whether only lethal factor was efficient as a hepatotoxin in the absence of the PA. To achieve this aim, LF (100 µg/kg body weight, dissolved in sterile distilled water) or distilled water vehicle were intraperitoneally injected once into adult rats. At 24 h post-injection, the hosts were euthanized and their livers removed and tissue samples examined under light and electron microscopes. As a result of LF application, hepatic injury - including cytoplasmic and nuclear damage in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilatation, and hepatocellular lysis - became apparent. Further, light microscopic analyses of liver sections from the LF-injected rats revealed ballooning degeneration and cytoplasmic loss within hepatocytes, as well as peri-sinusoidal inflammation. Additionally, an increase in the numbers of Kupffer cells was evident. Common vascular injuries were also found in the liver samples; these injuries caused hypoxia and pathological changes. In addition, some cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were detected within the liver ultrastructure. The results of these studies allow one to suggest that LF could be an effective toxicant alone and that PA might act in situ to modify the effect of this agent (or the reverse situation wherein LF modifies effects of PA) such that lethality results.
    Journal of Immunotoxicology 12/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of diclofenac sodium (DS) on development of the optic nerve in utero. Pregnant female rats were separated into three groups: control, saline treated and DS treated. Offspring of these animals were divided into 4-week-old and 20-week-old groups. At the end of the 4th and 20th weeks of postnatal life, the animals were sacrificed, and right optic nerves were excised and sectioned for ultrastructural and stereological analyses. We demonstrated that both DS and saline produced structural and morphometric changes in the total axon number and density of axons, but decreased the myelin sheath thickness in male optic nerves. All ultrastructural and morphometric features were well developed in 20-week-old rats. We showed that development of the optic nerve continues during the early postnatal period and that some compensation for exposure to deleterious agents in utero may occur during early postnatal life.
    Biotechnic & Histochemistry 08/2013; · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the morphometric and histological alterations of the ovary and uterine horns in 4-week-old rats that were prenatally exposed to diclofenac sodium (DS). For this purpose, pregnant rats were divided into two groups: the control and drug-treated groups. Beginning from the 5th day after mating through the 15th day of pregnancy, DS (1 mg/kg daily) was intraperitoneally injected in the treated group. No injection was given to the rats in the control group. After spontaneous delivery, male offspring were obtained. At the end of the 4th week, ovary and uterine horn samples were removed. Following dissection and routine histological preparation, histopathological and stereological investigations were carried out. Our results indicate that DS application leads to a decrease in the mean volume fraction of the uterine horn. Moreover, there was an increased volume fraction in some structures of the ovary; like the cortex, medulla and zona granulosa. There was no difference found between the two groups in terms of the mean volume of the antrum and the Graafian follicle fraction. Finally, in light of our findings, we may suggest that DS may lead to adverse effects in rats that are prenatally subjected to this drug.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 04/2013; 33(3):258-63. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effect of DS exposure on median nerve development in rats during prenatal life. Pregnant female rats were divided into three groups: a control group, a saline group and a DS group. Offspring of these animals were divided into 2 subgroups: 4 weeks old and 20 weeks old. Nerve samples were taken from the right legs and evaluated using stereological techniques in terms of the axon number, axon cross-sectional area, and myelin thickness. No drug-dependent macroscopic abnormality was observed in the nerve. No differences were noted for axon number in the control, saline, and DS groups of the same age and gender. No gender difference was found for axon number or axon area between the other matched groups. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to diclofenac sodium does not affect axon number in rats, but can alter the morphology of the male and female median nerve.
    Folia neuropathologica / Association of Polish Neuropathologists and Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences. 01/2013; 51(1):76-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts.
    Journal of Dermatological Treatment 07/2012; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the morphometric and histological alterations of the aorta, brachial, and femoral arteries in 4- and 20-week-old rats that were prenatally exposed to diclofenac sodium (DS). For this purpose, pregnant rats were divided into three groups: control, saline injected, and drug treated. Beginning from day 5 after mating through day 15 of pregnancy, saline or DS (1 mg/kg daily) was intraperitoneally injected into groups 2 and 3. No injection was given to the rats in the control group. After spontaneous delivery, male offspring were obtained. At the end of weeks 4 and 20, vessel samples were removed. After dissection and routine histological preparation, histopathological and stereological investigations were made. Our results indicate that both saline and DS application lead to a decrease in the mean volume fraction of tunica media in all vessel walls, but result in an increase of the same fraction of lumen to the whole vessel wall, especially in 4-week-old rats. Elastic fibers of the vessel wall were affected by DS treatment, because a decrease of the elastic fiber was observed in this group. Finally, in light of our findings, we suggest that DS or saline may lead to vascular changes (i.e., vasodilatation or vasoconstriction) in rats that are prenatally subjected to increased volume of maternal blood resulting from injection.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 04/2012; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, we investigated whether there would be any change in histological structure of striatal neurons after haloperidol applications at different doses. Adult male guinea pigs were treated once-daily with saline (group 4, control) or haloperidol during 6 weeks, and the dose was 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg (groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). After treatment, all animals were anesthetized and striata were dissected and examined. When striata were evaluated histologically, dark neurons and some degenerating striatal neurons had distinctive morphological changes consistent with cell death, including reduced neuronal size with nuclear and cytoplasmic shrinkage. Also, in sections of striata in groups 1 and 2, but not in group 3, more glial cells were observed than in those of the control group. In all treated groups, fibrous content of intersititium was paralelly increased by increasing dose. Ultrastructural investigation of striatal neurons in haloperidol-treated rats showed notched nuclei and many lysosomes. Moreover, degeneration of myelin, scarce microglial macrophages, expansion of nuclear intermembranous space, degenerated mitochondria, and vacuoles were found. Also, cytoplasmic swelling, lysosomes, and apoptotic bodies were present. These results suggest that haloperidol treatment may lead to damage in neurons via the necrotic process in both low- and high-dose applications.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 02/2012; 35(4):406-11. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is one of the main reasons of both menopause and diabetes. So, it plays crucial role in the pathogeneses of that condition and disease. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of menopause and diabetes upon the hippocampus using a rat model. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) were allocated randomly as follows; control (C group) ovariectomized (O group), diabetic (D group) and ovariectomy plus diabetic groups (DO group) (n = 6; in each group), respectively. For evaluating the results, tissue biochemistry and stereological analysis were made. Biochemistry results (lipid peroxidase (LPO); catalase (CAT); superoxide dismutase (SOD); total glutatyon (GSH); and myeloperoxidase (MPO) values) in Group C-DO were determined as 12.27, 21.88, 23.08 and 29.90 nmol/gr tissue; 59.3, 70.06, 69.7 and 78.1 mmol/min/mg tissue; 174.2, 156.4, 159.7 and 154.6 mmol/min/mg tissue; 3.63, 3.61, 4.21 and 3.97 nmol/mg tissue; and 5.05, 5.68, 5.58 and 6.19 µmol/min/mg tissue, respectively. Moreover, both menopause and diabetes led to change of lipid profiles. There were significant differences between the control and other groups (Group C and D-DO) (p < 0.01) and among experimental groups (p < 0.01) in terms of neuron number. When the volumes of the hippocampus were compared, there were no significant differences between the all groups (P > 0.05). At this point, we suggested that diabetes could aggravate deleterious effects of ovariectomy.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 08/2011; 28(3):228-33. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to test the glomerular and other quantitative parameters of kidneys of anencephalic fetuses and comparing those to "normal" fetuses. In this study, 20 kidneys of human fetuses (5 boys and 5 girls of anencephalic fetus, and 5 boys and 5 girls of normal fetus), at gestational ages of 25-30 weeks, were examined. This study is based on two basic research methods: one is a conventional anatomical measurement at the macroscopical level; the other is a design-biased stereological method at the microscopical level. Physical dissector and Cavalieri principle were used to estimate the total and numerical density of glomerulus and the volume of kidney, respectively. The results of the two types of investigation were compared based on anencephalic/normal and boy/girl kidneys at both the macroscopical and microscopical levels. There was no significant difference found between the quantitative features of kidneys (volume of kidneys and mean number and/or height of glomerulus) belonging to anencephalic and normal fetuses. The results of this study suggest that anencephalic fetuses did not differ from normal fetuses in respect of kidneys.
    Renal Failure 07/2011; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied with quantitative and microscopical methods the heart of rats divided into five age groups: embryos at the age of 11 days, fetuses at the age of 16 days and 20 days and also heart samples of 3-day-old pups and young adults (5 weeks of age) were used (n = 10 samples in each group). At the end of the study; heart samples were obtained from all animals. Stereological estimations were performed on heart volume, volume of heart lumen (ventricles and atria), volume of myocardium, numerical density of the myocyte nuclei and mean nuclear diameter of myocytes. Volumetric values and numerical data were estimated via Cavalieri method and physical dissector, respectively. In this study, histological examination was performed at light and electron microscopic levels. The numerical density of the myocyte nuclei increased from fetuses to young adults. Differences between embryos and fetuses, between fetuses and 3-day-old pups, and between 3-day-old pups and young adults were statistically significant. These results indicate that myogenesis continued in the rat myocardium during prenatal life and after birth.
    Anantomia Histologia Embryologia 05/2011; 40(6):402-10. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, we investigated the effect of chronic haloperidol administration on the number of striatal neurons in guinea pigs. For this purpose, adult male guinea pigs were given daily injections of 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg of haloperidol for 6 weeks. After treatment, the animals were anesthetized via brief inhalation of ether, the brains were removed and the corpus striatum was dissected. Then the tissues were processed and semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine blue for stereological and histopathological evaluation. The physical disector was used for measurements of nuclear height and numerical density of striatal neurons and also to evaluate both normal and degenerated neurons within the corpus striatum of treated animals and untreated controls. In the control group, the mean numerical density of neurons was calculated as 47.92 cell/mm3 and the mean nuclear height as 3.58 µm. Mean densities of all (both viable and degenerated) neurons were calculated to be 45.46 in the low-dose (p < 0.01), 39.73 in the medium-dose (p < 0.001) and 30.31 cell/mm3 in the high-dose group (p < 0.001). Mean densities of degenerated neurons in the low, medium and high dose group were 30.72, 22.93 (p < 0.001) and 15.56 cell/mm3 (p < 0.001) respectively. Mean nuclear heights were 2.804 (p < 0.0001), 2.78 (p < 0.0001) and 2.33 µm (p < 0.00001) in the low, medium and high dose group, respectively.
    Folia neuropathologica / Association of Polish Neuropathologists and Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences. 01/2011; 49(1):21-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Haloperidol, a neuroleptic drug, is still discussed if it is neurotoxic. In the present study, neurotoxic effects of haloperidol on guinea pig hippocampus were examined. Sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups of 8 animals each. The animals of treatment group were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) haloperidol diluted in saline (dose of 5 mg/kg daily) for 6 weeks. Control animals received only the same volume of saline i.p. Hippocampi from both groups were examined by light and electron microscope. Numerous dark neurons with a heterochromatic nucleus and dense cytoplasm were observed in the hippocampi of the treatment group by light microscope and ultrastructural levels. Also some neurons have increased vacuolar contents and lysosomes. These findings suggest that haloperidol leads to prominent damage of hippocampal neurons
    Journal of Neurological Sciences. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: One of the common lethal complications of septic shock, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe trauma and so on, is acute lung injury. alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA), with antioxidant properties, is a popular agent. Thus, we investigated the potential protective effects of ALA (200 mg/kg) on sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Rats were exposed to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis. Rat groups were designed as (a) sham operated, (b) sham operated + ALA treated, (c) CLP applied, (d) CLP + ALA treated. Sixteen hours after CLP induction, serum samples and lung tissues were obtained for biochemical and histopathological examination. alpha-Lipoic acid decreased the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-6, which increased after CLP. Increased activity of nuclear factor kappaB in septic lung tissues was decreased by ALA. alpha-Lipoic acid improved the decreased antioxidant activity and alleviated the increased oxidant activity, which occurred after CLP application. We can suggest that ALA showed beneficial effects by decreasing nuclear factor kappaB activation in lung tissues, resulting in decreased serum levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, and also increasing the antioxidant capacity of the lungs.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 10/2009; 33(5):479-84. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Elvan Ozbek
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fatty diet on body weight and liver morphometry in rats via modern stereological methods accompanied by a histological evaluation. Eight female "Sprague Dawley" rats were fed a diet constituted highly of fat (30%) for 3 months (the HFD group). Eight control rats were maintained with a standard rat chow. The naso-anal length and body weight of the animals were measured periodically to calculate body mass index. After 3 months, whole livers from the rats were removed, and the volume of each fresh liver was estimated using the water immersion method. After the histological procedure, the volume of paraffin-embedded livers was also estimated using the "Cavalieri" method. Additionally, volumes of the sinusoids and parenchyma were separately estimated with "Cavalieri" method. The mean numerical density, mean nuclear height, and total number of hepatocytes were calculated using the physical disector method. Liver sections were also examined at light and electron microscopic levels. The body mass indexs of the animals in the control and HFD groups were 4.536+/-0.221 kg/m2 and 5.581+/-0.42 kg/m2, respectively (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). The mean liver volumes (LVs) measured with water immersion method in the control and HFD groups were 10.51 ml and 11.8 ml, respectively. LVs estimated with "Cavalieri" method were 9.98 ml in the control group and 11.095 ml in the HFD group. The differences in LVs between groups were statistically significant when estimated with both methods, indicating that the LV of the HFD group is higher than that of the control group (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). There was no significant difference between LVs estimated via the two different methods in each group (p>0.05, Wilcoxon test). The volume of sinusoids was increased in the HFD group, but the volume of parenchyma was decreased (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). The mean numerical density, mean nuclear height, and total number of hepatocytes were significantly decreased in the HFD group (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). However, the numerical density and total number of binucleated hepatocytes were significantly higher in the HFD group compared with the control group (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Light and electron microscopic investigations of the HFD group showed a prominent sinusoidal dilatation, microvesicular steatosis, and an increase in connective tissue in the livers and highly dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum, irregular mitochondria and microvilli and necrosis in the hepatocytes. We have shown that a fatty diet in rats causes obesity and may lead to morphological alterations in the liver such as hepatomegaly accompanied by histopathological changes.
    The Turkish journal of gastroenterology: the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology 07/2009; 20(2):93-103. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the number of axons in the right and left optic nerves of right- and left-pawed rats. In this study, optic nerve samples were obtained from right- and left-pawed rats and axon numbers of optic nerves and vice versa were stereologically and histologically evaluated. In the right-pawed rats, more axons were found in the right optic nerve than in the left optic nerve, and left-pawed rats had more axons in the left optic nerve than in the right optic nerve. The paw preference is associated with eye dominance and the number of axons in the ipsilateral optic nerve.
    Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology / the International Academy of Cytology [and] American Society of Cytology 07/2009; 31(3):177-83. · 0.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

117 Citations
34.67 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi
      • Department of Histology and Embryology
      Djanik, Samsun, Turkey
  • 2011
    • Karadeniz Technical University
      • Department of Anatomy
      Atrabazandah, Trabzon, Turkey
  • 2007–2009
    • Ataturk University
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Department of Internal Medical Sciences
      Kalikala, Erzurum, Turkey