[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to determine staining intensity, cellular localization and distribution of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes during the sexual cycle in the cow oviduct. Oviduct samples belonging to 20 cows, 10 of which were in the estrual phase and 10 in the luteal phase of the sexual cycle, were examined by an immunohistochemical procedure to determine the presence of the NOS enzymes. In the epithelial cells of the isthmus, endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression showed a strong positive reaction during the estrual phase and a weak positive reaction during the luteal phase in the endothelium and smooth muscle of the blood vessels found in the serosa and lamina propria. eNOS expression was not observed in the epithelium of either the ampulla or the fimbria in the two particular phases of the sexual cycle. The eNOS reactions observed in the blood vessel wall in these regions were stronger during the estrual phase. eNOS activity was not observed in the tunica muscularis in any of the regions of the oviduct. During the estrual phase, it was observed that inducible NOS expression showed a stronger positive reaction in the epithelium and muscle layer of the isthmus and ampulla and in the epithelium of the fimbria, compared to the luteal phase. Neuronal NOS immunoreactivity was observed in the epithelial cells of all oviduct regions and in the muscle layer of the isthmus and ampulla and did not display any significant difference between the estrual and luteal phases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With 10 figures
This study was aimed to demonstrate the morphological and histochemical properties of the Harderian gland in the Angora rabbit. Ten healthy adult Angora rabbits obtained from private breeders constituted the material of the study. The Harderian gland, which is composed of the pink and white lobes, consists of cells that produce a secretion of lipid character. The pink lobe contained type I cells with large lipid vacuoles. Cells with small lipid vacuoles (type II) were found in the white lobe. Type III cells containing both large and small lipid vacuoles were not observed. While type I cells reacted strongly to staining with Oil red O, type II cells reacted weakly to this stain. The number of plasma cells was greater in the white lobe when compared to the pink lobe. The apical granules within the epithelial cells lining the intralobular and inter-lobular excretory ducts of the gland were positive for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), periodic acid-Schiff/alcian blue (PAS/AB), alcian blue (AB) and performic acid/alcian blue (PA/AB). Electron microscopic examination revealed that type I cells contain large electron-light lipid vacuoles and an eccentric heterochromatic nucleus, due to the presence of these vacuoles. The cells, which were connected by tight junctions, possessed apically located microfolds. The nucleus of type II cells was situated basally and had an oval shape. Type II cells had apical microvilli-like cytoplasmic protrusions, longer than those of type I cells. Oval shaped myoepithelial cells were observed between the glandular epithelial cells and their basal lamina. The epithelium lining the excretory ducts of the gland contained two types of granules, which were dark and lightly coloured. Histochemical and ultrastructural examinations revealed no difference in the structure of the Harderian gland between female and male Angora rabbits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence, distribution, and localization of M cells in isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) and in follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) covering Peyer's patches (PP) in Angora rabbits were investigated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Although PP could macroscopically be identified along the length of the mucosal and serosal surfaces of jejunum and ileum, the presence of ILF could only be located microscopically. Typical M cells in FAE were detected within the periphery of the dome regions of the PP, and immature columnar M cells in the FAE resided in the vicinity of the crypts. M cells in the FAE of both ILF and PP showed vimentin-positive reaction. M cells in the FAE of ILF were morphologically similar to the immature M cells found in the FAE of PP. Typical mature M cells were also observed in the FAE of a few ILF. In contrast to FAE of PP, numerous goblet cells were observed in the FAE of many ILF. Moreover, among intestinal villi, we noticed villi-like solitary lymphoid structures that showed abundant lymphocytes in their lamina propria and that were surrounded with vimentin-positive cells and goblet cells. Thus, the occurrence of copious immature M cells and goblet cells, in addition to the detection of villi-like solitary lymphoid structures full of lymphocytes in the FAE of many ILF, indicate that ILF do not complete their immunological maturation in contrast to PP. Various antigenic stimulations conceivably induce the formation and maturation of ILF along the length of the small intestine. The morphological resemblance between ILF M cells and PP M cells suggests that these two types of cells perform similar or the same immunological functions.
Cell and Tissue Research 09/2010; 341(3):417-27. DOI:10.1007/s00441-010-1005-5 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate cyclic changes in the structure of oviduct epithelial cells, and the content of oviductal mucus in the Angora rabbit using light and electron microscopy. Ten female Angora rabbits, 5 of which were in the estrual stage and the other 5 were in the luteal stage of the estrous cycle, were used in the study. Tissue samples taken from the fimbria, ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct were examined under light and electron microscope. Ciliated cells were demonstrated to be predominant in the fimbria and ampulla, whereas secretory cells were determined to be most numerous in the isthmus. The estrual stage was characterized with greater cell heights, and increased numbers of ciliated cells and secretion. Both secretion and cilia were determined to decrease evidently in the luteal stage. Neutral and acidic mucosubstances were found to be present in the ampulla and isthmus. In the isthmus, in which secretion was dense, acidic mucosubstance was determined to contain sulphate and carboxyl groups by means of combined Aldehyde fuchsin/Alcian blue (AF/Ab) staining. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of electron-dense and electron-light secretion granules in secretory cells. In all cyclic stages, electron-dense foci were observed in the electron-light secretion granules of some secretory cells.
Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 06/2010; 34(3):219-226. DOI:10.3906/vet-0710-39 · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed at the immunohistochemical demonstration of M cells, found in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of the sacculus rotundus (SR) and appendix of the Angora rabbit, using anti-vimentin primary antibodies, and at the determination of certain fine structural characteristics. Ten adult Angora rabbits constituted the material of the study. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that many cells composing the FAE, which covered the dome regions of the SR and appendix, reacted positively with vimentin. FAE contained two different types of vimentin-positive cells. The first type surrounded intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) with a basolateral invagination in the apex and periphery of the dome epithelium, whilst the second type consisted of columnar cells found in the FAE near crypts. The immunoreactivity of the cells found in the FAE covering the apex and periphery of the domes was observed particularly in the perinuclear cytoplasm and the cytoplasm surrounding the IEL. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated that the M cells found in the FAE covering the apex and periphery of the dome regions of the SR and appendix did not exhibit any microvilli on their apical surface. The FAE near crypts contained columnar cells, which resembled enterocytes. The apical membrane of these cells exhibited shorter and irregular microvilli, in contrast to neighbouring enterocytes. It was determined that M cells, found in the FAE of the SR and appendix in the Angora rabbit, displayed similarities in terms of localization and fine structure. This situation may be indicative of the two lymphoid structures with different localization having similar functional properties.
Veterinary Research Communications 03/2010; 34(3):255-65. DOI:10.1007/s11259-010-9349-6 · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: zet: Bu çalışmada, Ankara tavşanında konjunktiva ile ilişkili lenfoid dokunun (Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue, CALT) yapısı ışık ve elektron mikroskobik olarak incelendi. Araştırmada özel yetiştiricilerden sağlanan 10 adet sağlıklı, erişkin Ankara tavşanı kullanıldı. Asetik asit ile yapılan incelemede konjunktivanın lenfoid ve non-lenfoid bölgeler içerdi-ği gözlendi. Agregat lenf folliküllerinin nazolakrimal punktum çevresinde kümelendiği belirlendi. Histolojik olarak agregat lenf foliküllerinin epitele yakınlaştığı ve folikül ile ilişkili epiteli (Follicle-associated epithelium, FAE) oluşturduğu görüldü. Bu foliküller germinal merkez, korona, subepiteliyal dom bölgesi ve interfoliküler alanlardan oluşmaktaydı. Dom bölge-sini örten FAE, kadeh hücresi içermeyen tek katlı yassı epitelden meydana gelirken; lenfoid yapı içermeyen bölge yapı-sında kadeh hücreleri bulunan yalancı çok katlı pirizmatik epitel ile örtülüydü. İnterfoliküler alanlarda ve folliküllerin dip kısımlarında yüksek endoteliyal venüllere rastlandı. İnce yapı düzeyinde, FAE'de elektron yoğun, ince ve dar bir sitop-lazmaya sahip olan membranöz hücreler (M hücreleri) görüldü. Bu hücreler apikal membranında kısa ve düzensiz mikrofoldlar, sitoplazmasında vezikül ve vakuoller ile karakterizeydi. M hücrelerinin bazolateralinde ise lenfositler ve makrofajlar görüldü. Sonuç olarak, Ankara tavşanında CALT'ın, mukoza ile ilişkili lenfoid dokuların karakteristik özellik-lerine sahip olduğu belirlendi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was projected to determine immunohistochemically vimentin positive cells by using anti-vimentin primary antibody, to eludicate ultrastructurally the morphological properties of these cells and, to examined the presence of villous M cells in villi epithelia. In this study, ten healthy, adult Angora rabbits were used as a material. It was examined the ileum with and without Peyer’s patches. Immunohistochemical examination revealed the mature and immature M cells within FAE’s and cup cells
within epithelium of villi exibited the positive vimentin immunoreactivity. Electron microscopical examination revealed the mature M cells surrounded the intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) by a basolateral invagination. Whereas, immature M cells and cup cells were observed to be associated with one or two intraepithelial lymphocytes without such a pocketing. No villous M cells were found within epithelia of ileal villi. In conclusion, the cup cells are similar to immature M cells associated with IEL without a intraepithelial
pocketing and showed a vimentin positive immunoreaction within their cytoplasms, but these cells are not villous M cells or enterocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine the morphology, histochemical properties, localization and quantitative distribution of Paneth cells in the small intestine of the Angora rabbit. Tissue samples taken from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 10 healthy adult Angora rabbits, obtained from private breeders, constituted the material of the study. The Paneth cells, which were determined to be located within the crypts of Lieberkuhn, were identified on their basally located nucleus and apically located acidophilic granules. These granules gave positive reactions with Mallory's triple staining technique as well as with the application of Phloxine-tartrazine, Alcian blue-performic acid and Mallory's phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin method. Staining with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue (pH 2.5), and PAS-Alcian blue pH 2.5 gave negative reactions. Paneth cells were determined not to display a uniform distribution throughout the small intestine and cell numbers were ascertained to show a gradua l increase from the duodenum towards the ileum. The difference between the three regions of the small intestine was determined to be statistically significant (p<0.01). Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of electron-dense and homogenous granules in the apical cytoplasm of some Paneth cells, whereas homogenous granules of different electron density existed in some other cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) on the growth performance of quails, and to determine the preventive efficacy of MOLDSTOP ® (calcium formate, calcium propionate, citric acid, sorbic acid, acetic acid, and carrier). A total of 60 one-day-old quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of both sexes were equally divided into four experimental groups each comprising of five replicates of three birds. The supplementation of diet with AF decreased significantly (P<0.001) the feed consumption. The 0.5% addition of MOLDSTOP ® to the AF diet did not significantly prevent or reduce negative effect of AF on feed consumption at any time period. Light microscopic examination demonstrated that the addition of MOLDSTOP ® did not decrease fat deposition caused by the toxin, and besides, an electron microscopic examination indicated the reorganisation in the endoplasmic reticulum and increase in the number of ribosomes and polisomes compared to the AF plus MOLDSTOP ® group. The data indicated that the addition of MOLDSTOP ® to diets containing AF did not prevent the negative effects of AF observed in the quail.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of aflatoxin (AF) containing diets on alpha and beta cells of the endocrine pancreas in young quails by means of light and electron microscopy. A total of thirty quails were divided into 3 groups, each comprising 10 animals. Total AF was incorporated into the diet of these groups, at dosages of 0 (control, group 1), 2.5 (group 2), and 5.0 (group 3) mg AF/kg feed. The chicks were housed in electrically heated battery cages and exposed to light for 24 h from hatching to 3 weeks of age. Quails consumed the diets and water ad libitum. Electron microscopic examinations demonstrated degranulation of alpha cells, decrease in the size and number of secreting granules, and increase in the number of free ribosomes and polisomes in the animals of group 2 and 3. In beta cells, the numbers of free ribosomes and polisomes decreased, whereas the number of mature granules increased in the animals of group 3. Mononuclear cell infiltrates were observed in the periphery of capillaries and around endocrine islets in the experimental groups. Furthermore, capillaries of the animals in group 2 and 3 were dilated at all sides of both alpha and beta islets. According to the results of this study, the addition of aflatoxin to the diets of quails at dosage of 2.5 and 5 mg AF/kg leads to significant changes in pancreatic alpha and beta cells. These changes may exhibit adverse effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates in poultry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and various processing parameters of quails and to determine the preventive efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). One hundred and eighty 1-d-old quails of both sexes were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups with 5 replicates and 45 birds following weighing. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments: 1) control with 0 mg AF/kg of diet and 0% HSCAS; 2) 0.5% HSCAS; 3) 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet; 4) 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet plus 0.5% HSCAS. The chicks were housed in electrically heated battery cages and exposed to light for 24 h from hatching to 3 weeks of age. Quails consumed the diets and water ad libitum. Body weight (BW) was significantly (p < 0.001) increased by addition of HSCAS to AF diet. The lowest BW gains in groups received AF alone was observed at all periods. The reduction in BW gain caused by 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet was significantly (p < 0.001) diminished by the addition of 0.5% HSCAS to the diet. The addition of HSCAS to the AF diet significantly (p < 0.001) protected against decrease of feed intake at all periods with exception of the first period. None of the treatments altered significantly the feed conversion ratio (FCR). The relative weights of the liver, kidney and spleen were increased in the chickens consuming the AF alone diet. However, light microscopic examination demonstrated the addition of HSCAS to quail feed to partially decrease fat deposition caused by the toxin, and besides, electron microscopic examination of indicated a reorganization in the endoplasmic reticulum and increase in the number of ribosomes and polisomes. Furthermore, the decrease in the antibody titre induced by Newcastle vaccine, due to aflatoxins, was relatively prevented. No significant differences were observed for serum total protein, total cholesterol and glucose levels. The results of indicate that HSCAS is effective in preventing the deleterious effects of AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out under both light and electron microscopy to investigate the effects on liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism caused by aflatoxin (AF) fed to chicks. Twenty broiler chicks were used. The birds were housed in electrically heated battery cages and exposed to light for 24 h. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The animals were allocated to two groups each made up of 10 broilers. Total aflatoxin levels of zero (0) and 5 mg of AF/kg feed (81.05% AFB1, 8.79% AFG1, 6.06% AFB2, and 4.10% AFG2) added to a commercial diet, were fed to chicks from hatching up to 3 weeks of age, when the experiment was terminated. The chicks were executed by cervical dislocation and liver samples were obtained for light and electron microscopy. Oil red 'O', Sudan Black B, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Best's carmine stains were used to reveal fat and glycogen in the liver. Histological changes in hepatocytes included increased lipid droplets, high glycogen content, and mild mononuclear cell infiltration in the portal areas. Ultrastructural findings were destruction of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), reduction in mitochondrial size, enlargement of bile canaliculi, and cisternal dilatation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER).
DTW. Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift 11/2006; 113(10):363-8. · 0.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to describe the light and electron microscopic morphology of Paneth cells in the sheep small intestine, as well as their histochemical properties, location and numerical distribution. Samples from the small intestine : duodenum, jejunum and ileum, of 7 healthy adult sheep were studied. The Paneth cells are located in the crypts of Lieberkühn and are more numerous in the base and neck of the crypts than in the higher parts. They are characterised by a basal nucleus, and acidophilic apical granules. Granules are larger in Paneth cells located in the deep portions of crypts. The numerical distribution of Paneth cells is heterogeneous along the small intestine, with higher density in the jejunum, and decreasing densities in the duodenum and ileum. The difference between the three regions of the small intestine is statistically significant (p < 0.01). Although homogeneous by light microscopy, apical granules proved to be of different electron densities by transmission electron microscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine the morphology, histochemical properties, localization and quantitative distribution of Paneth cells in the small intestine of the Angora rabbit. Tissue samples taken from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 10 healthy adult Angora rabbits, obtained from private breeders, constituted the material of the study. The Paneth cells, which were determined to be located within the crypts of Lieberkühn, were identified on their basally located nucleus and apically located acidophilic granules. These granules gave positive reactions with Mallory's triple staining technique as well as with the application of Phloxine-tartrazine, Alcian blue-performic acid and Mallory's phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin method. Staining with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue (pH 2.5), and PAS-Alcian blue pH 2.5 gave negative reactions. Paneth cells were determined not to display a uniform distribution throughout the small intestine and cell numbers were ascertained to show a gradual increase from the duodenum towards the ileum. The difference between the three regions of the small intestine was determined to be statistically significant (p