[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes are naturally occurring nanovesicles that can be tailored to display a broad range of drug targets, including G protein-coupled receptors. Such vesicles provide a new source of complex membrane proteins that are maintained in their native conformation. Given the difficulties to isolate receptors for drug target validation and discovery, receptor presentation on exosome emerges as a promising new tool for drug screening. The potential of this technology is illustrated here with recombinant exosomes presenting the somatostatin receptor 2 as an example. The receptor-containing vesicles were identified as exosomes since they also bear Lactadherin, a hallmark of exosome nanovesicles. The amount of somatostatin receptor 2 on exosomes was similar to the amount of the most abundant known exosome membrane proteins. The receptor was functional and similar in size to the form found on cell surface. Finally, recombinant exosomes were used in several assay formats that exemplify their capacity as a new receptor presentation platform for drug discovery. These include the induction and detection of antibody as well as screening of antibody repertoires without the need to purify membrane proteins.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 02/2007; 2(4):751-60. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pituitary glycoprotein hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), act through their cognate receptors to initiate a series of coordinated physiological events that results in germ cell maturation. Given the importance of FSH in regulating folliculogenesis and fertility, the development of FSH mimetics has been sought to treat infertility. Currently, purified and recombinant human FSH are the only FSH receptor (FSH-R) agonists available for infertility treatment. By screening unbiased combinatorial chemistry libraries, using a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter assay, we discovered thiazolidinone agonists (EC50's = 20 microm) of the human FSH-R. Subsequent analog library screening and parallel synthesis optimization resulted in the identification of a potent agonist (EC50 = 2 nm) with full efficacy compared with FSH that was FSH-R-selective and -dependent. The compound mediated progesterone production in Y1 cells transfected with the human FSH-R (EC50 = 980 nm) and estradiol production from primary rat ovarian granulosa cells (EC50 = 10.5 nm). This and related compounds did not compete with FSH for binding to the FSH-R. Use of human FSH/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor chimeras suggested a novel mechanism for receptor activation through a binding site independent of the natural hormone binding site. This study is the first report of a high affinity small molecule agonist that activates a glycoprotein hormone receptor through an allosteric mechanism. The small molecule FSH receptor agonists described here could lead to an oral alternative to the current parenteral FSH treatments used clinically to induce ovarian stimulation for both in vivo and in vitro fertilization therapy.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2006; 281(19):13226-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced blood vessel growth is involved in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis and requires integrin-mediated signaling. We now show that an integrin-binding protein initially described in milk-fat globule, MFG-E8 (also known as lactadherin), is expressed in and around blood vessels and has a crucial role in VEGF-dependent neovascularization in the adult mouse. Using neutralizing antibodies and lactadherin-deficient animals, we show that lactadherin interacts with alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrins and alters both VEGF-dependent Akt phosphorylation and neovascularization. In the absence of VEGF, lactadherin administration induced alphavbeta3- and alphavbeta5-dependent Akt phosphorylation in endothelial cells in vitro and strongly improved postischemic neovascularization in vivo. These results show a crucial role for lactadherin in VEGF-dependent neovascularization and identify lactadherin as an important target for the modulation of neovascularization.
Nature Medicine 06/2005; 11(5):499-506. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosome Display is a novel methodology enabling the manipulation of exosome protein content. This technology stems from the identification of addressing domains that mediate the specific distribution of proteins on exosomes. More particularly, Lactadherin expressed in non-mammary gland tissue has been found to localize to exosomes via binding of its C1C2 domain to exosome lipids. Exosome Display of soluble antigens and extracellular domains of membrane proteins that are not naturally found on exosomes occurs upon fusion of proteins with the Lactadherin C1C2 domain. Exosome Display of native full-length membrane proteins can also be achieved by non-restricted expression or sampling of membrane proteins on exosomes. These novel findings enable us to manipulate exosome composition and tailor exosomes with new desirable properties. The Exosome Display technology is very versatile since soluble, membrane-bound, trans-membrane or multimeric antigens that are not naturally found on exosomes can now be efficiently expressed at their surface in a native conformation. The technology was applied to the generation of antibodies against tumor biomarkers such as HLA/peptide complex. This antibody method called ExoMAb can be used to generate antibodies against any drug target candidates, notably including G-protein coupled receptors. The potential of Exosome Display technology for developing a broad range of novel diagnostics and therapeutics is discussed.