[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is implicated in the decline of cognitive ability. We investigated whether the prescription n-3 fatty acid administration improves cognitive learning ability in SHR.Cg-Lepr (cp) /NDmcr (SHR-cp) rats, a metabolic syndrome model, in comparison with administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3) alone. Administration of TAK-085 [highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acid formulation containing EPA ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) ethyl ester] at 300 mg/kg body weight per day for 13 weeks reduced the number of reference memory-related errors in SHR-cp rats, but EPA alone had no effect, suggesting that long-term TAK-085 administration improves cognitive learning ability in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. However, the working memory-related errors were not affected in either of the rat groups. TAK-085 and EPA administration increased plasma EPA and DHA levels of SHR-cp rats, associating with an increase in EPA and DHA in the cerebral cortex. The TAK-085 administration decreased the lipid peroxide levels and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR-cp rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. Its administration also increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the cortical and hippocampal tissues of TAK-085-administered rats. The present study suggests that long-term TAK-085 administration is a possible therapeutic strategy for protecting against metabolic syndrome-induced learning decline.
Neurochemical Research 08/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that aquaporin (AQP) 5 expression in the apical membrane of acinar cells in salivary glands is important for the secretion of saliva in rodents and humans. Although heat acclimation enhances saliva secretion in rodents, the molecular mechanism of how heat induces saliva secretion has not been determined. Here, we found that heat acclimation enhanced the expression of AQP5 and AQP1 in rat submandibular glands concomitant with the promotion of the HIF-1α pathway, leading to VEGF induction and CD31-positive angiogenesis. The apical membrane distribution of AQP5 in serous acinar cells enhanced after heat acclimation, while AQP1 expression was restricted to the endothelial cells in the submandibular glands. A network of AQPs may be involved in heat-acclimated regulation in saliva secretion. Because AQPs probably plays a crucial role in saliva secretion in humans, these findings may lead to a novel strategy for treating saliva hyposecretion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can induce neurogenesis and recovery from brain diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PUFAs have not been conclusively described. We recently reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced neuronal differentiation by decreasing Hes1 expression and increasing p27(kip1) expression, which causes cell cycle arrest in neural stem cells (NSCs). In the present study, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) on differentiation, expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (Hes1, Hes6, and NeuroD), and the cell cycle of cultured NSCs. EPA also increased mRNA levels of Hes1, an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation, Hes6, an inhibitor of Hes1, NeuroD, and Map2 mRNA and Tuj-1-positive cells (a neuronal marker), indicating that EPA induced neuronal differentiation. EPA increased the mRNA levels of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which indicated that EPA induced cell cycle arrest. Treatment with AA decreased Hes1 mRNA but did not affect NeuroD and Map2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, AA did not affect the number of Tuj-1-positive cells or cell cycle progression. These results indicated that EPA could be involved in neuronal differentiation by mechanisms alternative to those of DHA, whereas AA did not affect neuronal differentiation in NSCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and advanced glycation end products causes renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) increases the H2 level in blood and tissues, thus reducing oxidative stress in animals as well as humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of HRW on glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS generation in vitro and in vivo.
Kidney homogenates from Wistar rats were incubated in vitro with glucose and α,β-dicarbonyl compounds containing HRW, following which ROS levels were measured. In vivo animal models of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats, were treated with HRW for 16 weeks, following which renal ROS production and plasma and renal α,β-dicarbonyl compound levels were measured by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer.
HRW inhibited glucose- and α,β-dicarbonyl compound-induced ROS production in kidney homogenates from Wistar rats in vitro. Furthermore, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats treated with HRW showed a 34% decrease in ROS production. Moreover, their renal glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone levels decreased by 81%, 77%, and 60%, respectively. Positive correlations were found between renal ROS levels and renal glyoxal (r = 0.659, p = 0.008) and methylglyoxal (r = 0.782, p = 0.001) levels.
These results indicate that HRW inhibits the production of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and ROS in the kidneys of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential for renal dysfunction in patient with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the day-night circadian gene Per2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats.
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to heat at 32 degrees celsius; or to a room temperature at 24 degrees celsius; (control). After 7 days of heat exposure, the body temperature was measured by telemetry. The relative weight of the pituitary and adrenal glands was determined after the exposure, and liver Per2 mRNA expression level was detected using RT-PCR.
Acute heat stress did not obviously affect body temperature or body weight of the rats. Seven days of heat exposure increased the relative weight of the pituitary and adrenal glands and significantly lowered Per2 mRNA expression level at night.
Acute heat stress can interfere with the day-night circadian gene Per2 mRNA expression in rats.
Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 02/2012; 32(2):215-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heat shock response has been extensively studied by a number of investigators to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the cellular response to severe heat stress (higher than 42°C). But, body or tissue temperature increases by only a few degrees Celsius during physiological events. Therefore, the physiological cellular response to mild heat stress rather than severe heat stress is likely to be more important. Repeated exposure to hyperthermia for consecutive 5 days induces heat acclimation which is an adaptive physiological process in humans and animals. However, thus far, the effect of continuous exposure to heat stress on cells has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigated an adaptive physiological process that is induced in culture cells by continuous exposure to mild heat stress for 5 days. Exposure to heat activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase; inhibited cell growth without apoptosis; and increased the levels of HSPs and HSF-1 in mouse fibroblast cells. Interestingly, exposure to heat regulated the expression of aquaporins and induced morphological change. In a physiological sense, these results suggested that continuous exposure to mild heat stress for 5 days, in which heat acclimation is attained in humans and animals, might induce molecular adaptation to heat in cells.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2012; 30(2):450-7. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) into the brain causes cognitive impairment. We investigated whether prescription pre-administration of n-3 fatty acids improves cognitive learning ability in young rats and whether it protects against learning ability impairments in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease that was prepared by infusion of Aβ(1-40) into the cerebral ventricles of rats. Pre-administration of TAK-085 (highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acids containing eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester) at 300 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the number of reference memory errors in an 8-arm radial maze, suggesting that long-term administration of TAK-085 improves cognitive leaning ability in rats. After pre-administration, the control group was divided into the vehicle and Aβ-infused groups, whereas the TAK-085 pre-administration group was divided into the TAK-085 and TAK-085 + Aβ groups (TAK-085-pre-administered Aβ-infused rats). Aβ(1-40) or vehicle was infused into the cerebral ventricle using a mini osmotic pump. Pre-administration of TAK-085 to the Aβ-infused rats significantly suppressed the number of reference and working memory errors and decreased the levels of lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Aβ-infused rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. The present study suggests that long-term administration of TAK-085 is a possible therapeutic agent for protecting against Alzheimer's disease-induced learning deficiencies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (LA). Cis-9,trans-11-CLA (CLA), the main isomer of CLAs in foods derived from ruminants, has several beneficial effects for humans and animals; however, its effects on the central nervous system are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and CLA on neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs cultured with or without LA and CLA were assessed by immunofluorescence staining, mRNA measurement of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors by real-time PCR, BrdU incorporation analysis and flow cytometry analysis. In NSCs treated with CLA, the number of Tuj-1-positive cells (neurons) and the mRNA expression levels of Hes6, MAP2, p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) increased, while the proportion of S-phase cells decreased; compared with the control, no change was demonstrated in NSCs treated with LA. These results suggest that CLA promotes neuronal differentiation by increasing, in part, the expression of Hes6 mRNA and by activating p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) to arrest cell cycle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anapyrexia, which is a regulated fall in core temperature, is beneficial for animals and humans when the oxygen supply is limited, e.g., hypoxic, ischemic, or histotoxic hypoxia, since at low body temperature the tissues require less oxygen due to Q(10). Besides hypoxia, anapyrexia can be induced various exogenous and endogenous substances, named cryogens. However, there are only a few reports investigating endogenous cryogens in mammals. We have experienced one patient who suffered from severe hypothermia. The patient seemed to be excessively producing endogenous peptidergic cryogenic substances the molecular weight of which may be greater than 30 kDa. In animal studies, the patient's cryogen appeared to affect metabolic functions, including thermogenic threshold temperatures, and then to produce hypothermia. Since endogenous cryogenic substances may be regarded as useful tool in human activities, e.g., during brain hypothermia therapy or staying in a space station or spaceship, further studies may be needed to identify human endogenous cryogens.
Current Protein and Peptide Science 06/2011; 12(4):288-92. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen (H2), a potent free radical scavenger, selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, which is the most cytotoxic of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in oxygen free radicals induces oxidative stress, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW) affects metabolic abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome rat model, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR-cp).
Male SHR-cp rats (5 weeks old) were divided into 2 groups: an HRW group was given oral HRW for 16 weeks, and a control group was given distilled water. At the end of the experiment, each rat was placed in a metabolic cage for 24 h, fasted for 12 h, and anesthetized; the blood and kidneys were then collected.
Sixteen weeks after HRW administration, the water intake and urine flow measured in the metabolic cages were significantly higher in the HRW group than in the control group. The urinary ratio of albumin to creatinine was significantly lower and creatinine clearance was higher in the HRW group than in the control group. After the 12-h fast, plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine in the HRW group were significantly lower than in the control group. The plasma total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the HRW group than in the control group. The glomerulosclerosis score for the HRW group was significantly lower than in the control group, and a significantly positive correlation was observed between this score and plasma urea nitrogen levels.
The present findings suggest that HRW conferred significant benefits against abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome model rats, at least by preventing and ameliorating glomerulosclerosis and creatinine clearance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environment factors, including maternal or infant dietary nutrition have been reported to have an influence on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, to investigate the effect of maternal or post-weaning offspring's nutrition, in particular the essential fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3) on the development of type 1 diabetes, we prepared two kinds of chows with n-6/n-3 ratios of 3.0 (L) and 14.5 (H), and provided them to mothers of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during gestation and lactation and to the offspring after weaning. The n-6/n-3 ratios in breast milk and erythrocyte membrane of NOD offspring became nearly the same with that of the maternal diet at 2 weeks after birth. In the L chow-fed offspring from L chow-fed mother (LLL), levels of insulitis were higher than those in the H chow-fed offspring from H chow-fed mother (HHH) at 4 weeks of age, while the levels in the LLL offspring became lower than those in the HHH after 6 weeks. Early insulin autoantibody expressions were found from 2 to 6 weeks in the HHH offspring, but not in the LLL. The LLL offspring exhibited strong suppression of overt diabetes development in regard to the onset and accumulated incidence of diabetes compared to the HHH. The study with combined L and H chows during gestation, lactation in mother and in post-weaning offspring revealed that only the LLH chow significantly suppressed the development of diabetes with similar kinetics to LLL chow, although the other combinations may delay the onset of diabetes. The present findings suggest that n-6/n-3 ratio of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation rather than that of offspring after weaning strongly affects the development of overt diabetes in NOD mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) ameliorates the memory-related learning deficits of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by fibrillar amyloid deposits in the affected brains. Here, we have investigated whether DHA-induced inhibition of Amyloid β-peptide(25-35) (Aβ(25-35)) fibrillation limits or deteriorates the toxicity of the human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: In vitro fibrillation of Aβ(25-35) was performed in the absence or presence of DHA. Afterwards, SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with Aβ(25-35) in absence or presence 20 μM DHA to evaluate its effect on the Aβ(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)]-redox and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) assay and immunohistochemistry. The level of Aβ(25-35)-induced lipid peroxide (LPO) was determined in the absence or presence of oligomer-specific antibody. Fatty acid profile was estimated by gas chromatography.
DHA significantly reduced the Aβ(25-35) in vitro fibrillation, as indicated by fluorospectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Aβ(25-35) decreased the MTT-redox activity and increased the apoptotic damage and levels of LPO when compared with those of the controls. However, when the SH-SY5Y cells were treated with Aβ(25-35) in the presence of DHA, MTT redox potential significantly increased and the levels LPO decreased, suggesting an inhibition of the Aβ(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity. DHA improved the Aβ(25-35) induced DNA damage and axodendritic loss, with a concomitant increase in the cellular level of DHA, suggesting DHA protects the cell from neurotoxic degeneration.
DHA not only inhibits the in vitro fibrillation but also resists the Aβ(25-35)-induced toxicity in the neuronal cells. This might be the basis of the DHA-induced amelioration of Aβ-induced neurodegeneration and related cognitive deficits.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 03/2010; 22(1):22-9. · 4.29 Impact Factor