R J Rist

King's College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (16)67.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The immortalised RBE4 cell line, derived from rat brain capillary endothelial cells, preserves many features of the in vivo brain endothelium, and hence is of interest as a potential in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study reports the effects of elevated intracellular cAMP and factors released by astrocytes on the F-actin cytoskeleton and paracellular sucrose permeability of monolayers of RBE4 cells. RBE4 cells grown in control medium showed a marked increase in the F-actin staining at the cytoplasmic margin at confluence, which was not significantly enhanced by elevation of intracellular cAMP and/or addition of astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM). The formation of the marginal band of F-actin was accompanied by an increase in the F-actin content of the RBE4 cells up to confluence, and a decline in F-actin content thereafter. Elevation of intracellular cAMP or co-culture above astrocytes significantly decreased the paracellular sucrose permeability of confluent RBE4 cell monolayers grown on collagen filters (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Co-culture above astrocytes together with elevated cAMP also produced a significant decrease in the sucrose permeability of the monolayer (P < 0.01) but this was no greater than with astrocytes alone. These findings show that the RBE4 cell line may serve as a useful in vitro model for the study of brain endothelial cell physiology and agents which alter the permeability of the BBB.
    Brain Research 09/1997; 768(1-2):10-8. DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00586-6 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possible involvement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in the pathogenesis of thiamine deficiency encephalopathy was investigated in RBE4 cells, an immortalized rat brain endothelial cell line. The effects of thiamine deficiency produced by addition of pyrithiamine and by reduction of thiamine in the culture medium, on the metabolism and permeability of the RBE4 monolayer was examined. Pyrithiamine treatment in low thiamine medium (M199) for 7 days caused cytotoxic effects on RBE4 cells at all concentrations (10-50 microg/ml). Pyrithiamine caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in MTT reduction and a significant increase in glucose consumption and lactate production compared to controls. Pyrithiamine treatment for 3 days caused a significant decrease in MTT reduction at 50 microg/ml only. In contrast, increased glucose consumption and lactate production by the RBE4 cells was observed after treatment for 3 days with concentrations of 25 microg/ml pyrithiamine and above. The permeability of RBE4 cell monolayers to [14C]sucrose (Mw 342), but not FITC-dextran (Mw 4000) was significantly increased by treatment with pyrithiamine concentrations of 25 microg/ml and above for 3 days. These effects were not accompanied by detectable changes in F-actin distribution or content, although F-actin content was significantly reduced by 7 days exposure to pyrithiamine. These results suggest that metabolic and permeability changes in thiamine-deficient RBE4 cells may be important early events in thiamine-deficiency encephalopathy. The relative role of the BBB in the pathogenesis of thiamine deficiency is discussed.
    Brain Research 06/1997; 756(1-2):133-40. DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)00127-3 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute energy deprivation syndromes share a common pattern of CNS pathology resulting in symmetrical spongiform brain stem lesions in rodents. However, some toxicants are proposed to act on astrocytes alone (alpha-chlorohydrin) whilst others are associated with petechial haemorrhages and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown (m-dinitrobenzene). In this study, we investigated the toxicity of alpha-chlorohydrin (alpha-CH) and m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) in an in vitro BBB model, the rat brain capillary endothelial cell line RBE4. Cytotoxicity was observed after treatment of RBE4 cells with both toxicants, as manifested by a decrease in protein content and MTT reduction (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) over control values at concentrations > or = 1 mM for m-DNB and > or = 20 mM for alpha-CH. m-DNB caused a dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and lactate production in RBE4 cells, while alpha-CH had no effect on these parameters. The distribution of F-actin at the cell margin observed in control cultures was changed to a diffuse pattern over the cell cytoplasm after treatment with both toxins at subcytotoxic concentrations. However, a reduction in F-actin content was only observed at concentrations > or = 1 mM for m-DNB and > or = 20 mM for alpha-CH. The permeability of RBE4 cell monolayers cultured on filters above primary rat astrocytes was measured using 14C-sucrose (M.Wt.=342) and FITC-dextran (M.Wt.=4000). m-DNB (0.5 mM) increased the permeability of RBE4 cell monolayers to both tracers, while alpha-CH (30 mM) had no effect. The results from this study indicate that m-DNB may have direct toxic effects on brain endothelial cells which lead to loss of barrier function. Whilst alpha-CH caused some toxic effects in RBE4 cells, it did not alter endothelial cell monolayer permeability.
    NeuroToxicology 01/1997; 18(3):781-91. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of the mitochondrial aconitase inhibitor, fluorocitrate on the immortalised rat brain endothelial cell line (RBE4) were investigated. Treatment with different concentrations of fluorocitrate (0-1 mM) for 24 h induced a significant, concentration-dependent decrease in the MTT reduction (an index of mitochondrial function), intracellular ATP content, glucose consumption and lactate production by RBE4 cell monolayers but did not alter the glucose to lactate ratio at concentrations lower than 0.5 mM. At all concentrations, fluorocitrate induced a significant decrease in the protein content per well. Fluorocitrate treatment of confluent RBE4 cells induced a marked redistribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton from a characteristic marginal band to a more diffuse cytosolic pattern. This redistribution of the cytoskeleton coincided with a reduction in the total cellular F-actin content of the RBE4 cells at fluorocitrate concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. Treatment of confluent RBE4 cells with fluorocitrate had no significant effect on RBE4 cell monolayer permeability measured by FITC-dextran or [14C]sucrose. These results show that whilst energy deprivation following fluorocitrate treatment induces significant changes in the RBE4 cell F-actin cytoskeleton and cellular metabolism, it does not have any significant effect on endothelial cell monolayer permeability. These results demonstrate that profound toxic effects on endothelial cell structure and metabolism are not necessarily accompanied by changes in endothelial cell monolayer permeability.
    Brain Research 09/1996; 730(1-2):87-94. DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(96)00438-6 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    R J Naftalin, R J Rist
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    ABSTRACT: (1). The kinetic parameters of zero-trans net uptake and infinite-trans uptake of 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and D-mannose into rat red cells at 24 degrees C were measured after taking account of the linear diffusion components of flux. (2). Zero-trans exists of 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside and D-mannose from rat cells were also measured. (3). After correction for linear flux via non-specific routes, the Vmax of zero-trans uptake of 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside was significantly higher, (1.25 +/- 0.06 mumol (10 min)-1 (ml cell water)-1) than the corresponding parameters of mannose or 2-deoxy-D-glucose, (0.33 +/- 0.01 and 0.39 +/- 0.01 mumol(10 min)-1 (ml cell water)-1, respectively; P < 0.001). (4). After correction for linear flux via non-specific uptake routes, the Vmax of zero-trans exit of 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside is significantly higher (1.70 +/- 0.1 mumol (10 min)-1 (ml cell water)-1) than the corresponding value for mannose exit flux, (1.10 +/- 0.1 mumol (10 min)-1 (ml cell water)-1; P < 0.001). (5). The acceleration ratio, i.e., the ratio of infinite-trans influx Vmax/zero-trans influx Vmax of mannose by mannose (9.12 +/- 0.03) is significantly higher than that of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (2.77 +/- 0.14)(P < 0.001). (6). The one-site simple carrier model of glucose transport in which sugar exchange is viewed as a sequential process, predicts that the acceleration ratio of the more rapidly moving sugar 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by 3-O-methyl-D-glucose should be greater than that of the slower sugar, mannose by mannose. Hence, the observed findings are inconsistent with the one-site model, but confirm the earlier disputed studies of Miller, D.M. (1968; Biophys. J. 8, 1329-1338). (7). A two-site model, in which sugar exchange is considered as a simultaneous process, predicts that the acceleration ratio of mannose influx by mannose should be higher than for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose by 3-O-methyl-D-glucose. The data are, therefore, consistent with a two-site model.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/1994; 1191(1):65-78. DOI:10.1016/0005-2736(94)90234-8 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Fluorescence imaging of antibodies was used to show that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces a 4-fold increase in the amount of hexokinase relative to the control in the cortical shell of rat peritoneal macrophage cytosol adjacent to the plasma membrane, and a corresponding depletion in the amount of hexokinase in the central core of the cytosol. However, there was no significant PMA-dependent change in the distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. 2. Cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin microfilament polymerization, prevented the PMA-induced hexokinase translocation and also reduced the PMA-dependent increases in 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport and glucose-dependent PMA-stimulated superoxide production. 3. PMA caused a contraction of the width of the cortical F-actin zone. Cytochalasin D caused some dispersal of F-actin within the cell, increasing the density of F-actin within the central cytosolic core and causing aggregation of the F-actin within the cortex. These data are consistent with the view that PMA induces attachment of hexokinase to microfilaments within the cortical zone adjacent to the cell membrane of macrophages, and cytochalasin D prevents this attachment. This is the first direct demonstration of the translocation of hexokinase to the plasma membrane in activated cells, and supports the view that enhanced hexokinase activity in the cortical region of the cytosol is an important early component of the macrophage activation process.
    Biochemical Journal 05/1993; 291 ( Pt 2):515-22. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    Richard J. Naftalin, Robert J. Rist
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    ABSTRACT: Dexamethasone inhibits sugar-dependent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated superoxide production and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dGlc) transport in rat peritoneal macrophages (Rist, R.J., Jones, G.E. and Naftalin, R.J. (1991) Biochem. J. 278, 119-128; Rist, R.J. and Naftalin, R.J. (1991) Biochem J. 278, 129-135). Here it is shown that with glucose as a substrate, dexamethasone (0.1 microM) acts as a non-competitive inhibitor of PMA-induced superoxide production; decreasing the maximal rate of superoxide production (P < 0.001) without altering the Km. In contrast, with 2-dGlc as a substrate, dexamethasone shows competitive inhibition of PMA-stimulated superoxide production; increasing the Km of superoxide production, (P < 0.001) without altering the Vmax. The maximal rate of PMA-stimulated superoxide production with glucose as substrate is 10-12-fold in excess of the maximal rate with 2-dGlc as substrate. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI) is a non-competitive inhibitor of PMA-stimulated glucose-dependent superoxide production in macrophages, (Ki = 1-5 microM) and significantly reduces the activity of the PMA-induced hexose monophosphate shunt, (HMPS) (P < 0.01). However, DPI (1 microM) has no significant effect on the PMA-induced increase in 2-dGlc uptake, suggesting that the stimulus for HMPS activity and superoxide production is separate from the stimulus for hexose transport. A model is described which explains the observed differences in hexose transport and glucose- and 2-dGlc-dependent superoxide production in terms of the differences in metabolism of the two sugars. Accumulation of free 2-dGlc within the cytosol leads to saturation of hexokinase and hence, the effects of PMA and dexamethasone, which alter the coupling between hexokinase and the transporter, are only observed at low concentrations of 2-dGlc, where it is accumulated to sub-saturating levels. Since glucose is completely metabolized within the cell, PMA and dexamethasone increase and decrease, respectively, net uptake of sugar and superoxide production at all glucose concentrations.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/1993; 1148(1):39-50. DOI:10.1016/0005-2736(93)90158-V · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    R J Rist, R J Naftalin
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Rat peritoneal macrophages stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (40 nM) show an increase in the rate of oxygen consumption (measured with an O2 electrode) and the production of superoxide (measured by cytochrome c reduction), which are both dependent on the presence of exogenous glucose. There is a 1:1 correlation between the oxygen consumed and the superoxide produced over a range of glucose concentrations (0-10 mM). 2. Preincubation of macrophages with dexamethasone (1 microM) for 3 h significantly decreased the Vmax. for PMA-induced glucose-dependent oxygen consumption (P < 0.001) and glucose-dependent superoxide production (P < 0.001). However, dexamethasone did not significantly change the Km for glucose in either PMA-induced oxygen consumption or superoxide production. Dexamethasone is therefore a non-competitive inhibitor of PMA-stimulated glucose-dependent oxygen consumption (Ki = 0.83 +/- 0.09 microM) and superoxide generation (Ki = 0.87 +/- 0.09 microM). 3. The PMA-induced rate of oxygen consumption by macrophages was decreased at oxygen concentrations below approx. 15 microM. The Km of oxygen for PMA-induced oxygen consumption was 1.28 +/- 0.13 microM (n = 12), and this was not significantly different in the presence of dexamethasone; Km = 1.61 +/- 0.31 microM (n = 12). It is therefore concluded that in vivo macrophage superoxide production is not limited by external oxygen or glucose concentrations, even in hypoxic joints.
    Biochemical Journal 04/1993; 291 ( Pt 2):509-14. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    R J Rist, G E Jones, R J Naftalin
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    ABSTRACT: 2-D-Deoxyglucose (2-dGlc) uptake and accumulation into rat peritoneal macrophages was increased by colony-stimulating factor (mCSF) by stimulating the coupling between endofacial hexokinase activity and the sugar transporter. The evidence for this is as follows: (1) mCSF significantly decreased the Km for zero-trans uptake (P less than 0.05), without altering Vmax.; (2) the accumulation of free 2-dGlc was increased by mCSF (P less than 0.05); (3) mCSF retarded the rate of exit of accumulated free 2-dGlc. The mCSF-dependent increase in 2-dGlc uptake by macrophages was enhanced by preincubation of the cells in mCSF-free solution. The activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) measured by the differential uptake of 2-d[1-3H]Glc and 2-d[2,6-3H]Glc was not stimulated by mCSF. Also, in quiescent cells, superoxide production, as determined by cytochrome c reduction, was unaffected by mCSF. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 40 nM) stimulated both the HMPS activity and superoxide production. Both these effects were dependent on the uptake of external sugar (2-dGlc). Incubation of the macrophages with mCSF enhanced the sugar transport and PMA-dependent stimulation of HMPS activity and superoxide production, indicating a role for mCSF in the 'priming' of macrophage functions. Both HMPS activity and superoxide production are entirely dependent on uptake of exogenous sugar, since the potent sugar-transport inhibitor cytochalasin B competitively inhibited 2-dGlc uptake, HMPS activity and superoxide generation in PMA-activated cells (Ki approximately 0.3 microM for all three processes). Over a wide range of 2-dGlc concentrations, 4 mol of superoxide were generated/mol of 2-dGlc metabolized in the HMPS pathway, indicating coupling between these processes. The Km of 2-d[2,6-3H]Glc uptake in PMA-treated cells was 0.45 +/- 0.07 mM, and Vmax. was 1.32 +/- 0.05 mumol.min-1.ml of cell water-1. It is evident that there is a large degree of slippage between HMPS activity and membrane-associated hexokinase activity, since the Km for HMPS activity was 0.06 +/- 0.02 mM and the Vmax. was 0.10 +/- 0.03 mumol.min-1.ml of cell water-1.
    Biochemical Journal 09/1991; 278 ( Pt 1):119-28. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    R J Rist, R J Naftalin
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    ABSTRACT: Dexamethasone decreases 2-D-deoxyglucose (2-dGlc) uptake and accumulation into rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (Ki for 1 microM-dexamethasone after a 2 h exposure = 0.71 +/- 0.21 microM; Ki for 0.1 microM-dexamethasone after exposure for 4 h = 0.10 +/- 0.06 microM). The inhibition of 2-dGlc uptake is consistent with a decrease in the coupling between endofacial hexokinase activity and the sugar transporter. The evidence for this is: (1) the Km for zero-trans 2-dGlc uptake in quiescent macrophages was increased by dexamethasone, but there was no significant effect on the Vmax.; (2) dexamethasone increased the rate of exit of sugar from cells preloaded with 2-dGlc; (3). the free sugar accumulation within the cytosol of the cells above the external solution concentration was significantly decreased by dexamethasone. These effects of dexamethasone on 2-dGlc transport were antagonized by simultaneous exposure to the steroid RU 38486 (Ki = 0.04 +/- 0.01 microM; 4 h incubation). Although dexamethasone inhibited zero-trans uptake, the maximum rate of infinite-trans exchange uptake of 2-dGlc into cells preloaded with 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (40 mM) was unaltered by dexamethasone or RU 38486, indicating that the dexamethasone-dependent decrease in zero-trans uptake was not due to a change in the number of transporters in the plasma membrane. Dexamethasone also inhibited the phorbol myristate acetate-induced stimulation of hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) activity, and this was reversed by RU 38486. Cytochalasin B, the potent sugar-transport inhibitor, inhibited HMPS activity and 2-d[2,6-3H]Glc uptake equally, indicating a single site of action. By contrast, dexamethasone showed differential inhibition of HMPS activity and 2-d[2,6-3H]Glc uptake, suggesting that it not only acts by decreasing the coupling between hexokinase and sugar transport, but also at one or more additional points.
    Biochemical Journal 09/1991; 278 ( Pt 1):129-35. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    R J Naftalin, R J Rist
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    ABSTRACT: Transport of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) in rat red blood cells (RBCs) has been examined at 24 degrees C. The Km and Vm of zero-trans net uptake are 2.3 +/- 0.48 mM and 0.055 +/- 0.003 mumol (ml cell water)-1) min-1, whereas the Km and Vm for net exit are 2.1 +/- 0.12 mM and 0.12 +/- 0.01 mumol (ml cell water)-1 min-1. The Km and Vm for infinite-trans exchange uptake are 2.24 +/- 0.14 mM and 0.20 +/- 0.04 mumol (ml cell water)-1 min-1. In agreement with Whitesell et al. (Abumrad, N.A., Briscoe, P., Beth, A.H. and Whitesell, R.R. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 938, 222-230), we find that there is no significant acceleration of the rate of exchange exit over net exit. Substitution of D2O for water results in an increase in the Vm for zero-trans net uptake to 0.091 +/- 0.004 mumol (ml cell water)-1 min-1. There is no change in the Vm or Km for exchange uptake or net or exchange exit. Counterflow experiments indicate, in agreement with Helgerson and Carruthers (1989) Biochemistry 28, 4580-4594), that there is some compartmentalization of 3-OMG within the cells, perhaps resulting from slow complexation of the sugar with some intracellular component. The data can be simulated by assuming that transport across the membrane is mediated by either a fixed 2-site, or an alternating 1-site symmetrical transporter. With both models the observed asymmetries in net and exchange kinetics and in counterflow can be ascribed entirely to the complexation reaction of the sugar to an intracellular component. Also the D2O effects can entirely be attributed to an increase in the rate of sugar movement between bound and free compartments.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/1991; 1064(1):37-48. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • R.J. Naftalin, R.J. Rist
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    ABSTRACT: Transport of (3-OMG) in rat blood cells (RBCs) has been examined at 24°C. The Km and Vm of zero-trans net uptake are 2.3±0.48 M and 0.055±0.003 μmol (ml cell water)−1 min−1, whereas the Km and Vm for net exit are 2.1±0.12 mM and 0.12±0.01 μmol (ml cell water)−1 min−1. The Km and Vm for infinite-trans exchange uptake are 2.24±0.14 mM and 0.20±0.04 μmol (ml cell water)−1 min−1. In agreement with Whitesell et al. (Abumrad, N.A., Briscoe, P., Beth, A.H. and Whitesell, R.R. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 938, 222–230), we find that there is no significant acceleration of the rate of exchange exit over net exit. Substitution of D2O for water results in an increase in the Vm for zero-trans net uptake to 0.091±0.004 μmol (ml cell water)−1 min−1. There is no change in the Vm or Km for exchange uptake or net or exchange exit. Counterflow experiments indicate, in agreement with Helgerson and Carruthers (1989) Biochemistry 28, 4580–4594), that there is some compartmentalization of 3-OMG within the cells, perhaps resulting from slow complexation of the sugar with some intracellular component. The data can be simulated by assuming that transport across the membrane is mediated by either a fixed 2-site, or an alternating 1-site symmetrical transporter. With both models the observed asymmetries in net and exchange kinetics and in counterflow can be ascribed entirely to the complexation reaction of the sugar to an intracellular component. Also the D2O effects can entirely be attributed to an increase in the rate of sugar movement between bound and free compartments.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 04/1991; 1064(1):37–48. DOI:10.1016/0005-2736(91)90409-2 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    R J Naftalin, R J Rist
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    ABSTRACT: Uptake of 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside (3-OMG) into thymocytes was studied to ascertain if it is modulated by endofacial hexokinase activity or by intracellular glucose. (1) The Vmax for net uptake of 3-OMG into rat thymocytes is increased by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 40 nM) or starvation for 4 h, and decreased by dexamethasone (1 microM). Starvation for 4 h abolishes the PMA-dependent increase in 3-OMG uptake; this effect is prevented by incubation in 2-deoxyglucose (2-dGlc; 1 mM). (2) Dexamethasone decreases 2-dGlc uptake, increases the rate of 2-dGlc exit and decreases accumulation of free 2-dGlc, consistent with decreased endofacial hexokinase activity. (3) 3-OMG uptake is decreased by preloading the cells with 2-dGlc or glucose, whereas preloading with 3-OMG (40 mM) increases uptake of 3-OMG. (4) The inhibitory effect of preloaded 2-dGlc or glucose on 3-OMG uptake is decreased by PMA. (5) Preloading cells with 3-OMG (40 mM) increases 2-dGlc influx in control and dexamethasone-treated cells, but not into PMA-treated cells. (6) The maximal rate of self-exchange of 3-OMG is similar in control, PMA- or dexamethasone-treated cells. These results are consistent with the following view: 3-OMG uptake is retarded by exchange with cytosolic glucose, or 2-dGlc. PMA, by increasing endofacial hexokinase activity, or starvation depletes glucose from the endofacial surface of the transporter, and hence increase 3-OMG uptake. Dexamethasone, by decreasing endofacial hexokinase activity, increases endofacial binding of glucose, and hence decreases 3-OMG uptake. Cytosolic 3-OMG competes with glucose for endofacial sites, and hence the maximal rates of exchange uptake of 3-OMG are similar in control, PMA- or dexamethasone-treated cells, as the activity of thymocyte glucose transporters is apparently unaltered.
    Biochemical Journal 02/1990; 265(1):251-9. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    R J Rist, G E Jones, R J Naftalin
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Transport and accumulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dGlc) in rat and murine peritoneal macrophages were investigated by using C-1-3H-labelled and C-2,6-3H-labelled 2dGlc. 2. There was active accumulation of both C-1- and C-2,6-labelled 2dGlc by quiescent rat and murine macrophages via a phloretin-inhibitable transport system. 3. The rate of uptake and accumulation of 2dGlc (C-1 label) was increased by exposure to human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mCSF-1) (1000 units/ml) in both murine and rat macrophages. This indicates that mCSF-1 enhances coupling between hexokinase activity and glucose transport at the endofacial surface of the transporter. 4. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate ('phorbol') at 40 nM stimulated 2dGlc in rat macrophages entirely by increasing the C-2,6 label uptake. This indicates that phorbol stimulates 2dGlc uptake mainly by increasing the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. 5. Simultaneous exposure to phorbol and mCSF-1 stimulates 2dGlc uptake to a greater extent than found with either phorbol or mCSF-1 alone. This result is explained by a simultaneous enhancement of pentose phosphate-pathway activity and of hexokinase activity acting at the endofacial surface of the cell membrane. The dual activation of these serial processes coupled to the loss of the reaction products of the pentose phosphate-shunt pathway from the cells in the form of reactive oxygen intermediates, protons and CO2 could explain the synergistic action of phorbol and mCSF-1 in activation of sugar transport in macrophages.
    Biochemical Journal 02/1990; 265(1):243-9. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    R J Naftalin, R J Rist
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Suspensions of rat thymocytes accumulate free 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-dGlc) within the cytosol to a concentration approx. 25-fold above the external concentration. This active accumulation was enhanced by 40 nM-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (phorbol). 2. The Km for zero-trans uptake in control cells was 2.3 +/- 0.14 mM and Vmax. was 0.41 +/- 0.08 mumol/min per 10(10) cells (n = 6). In cells treated with phorbol (40 nM) the Km for zero-trans uptake was 1.2 +/- 0.13 mM and Vmax. 0.46 +/- 0.03 mumol/min per 10(10) cells (n = 6). The Km was decreased significantly by phorbol (P less than 0.01). 3. Phorbol-dependent activation of thymocytes delayed exit of free 2-dGlc into sugar-free solution and prevented exchange exit. Activation had no effect on 3-O-methyl D-glucoside (3-OMG) exit. 4. Coupling of 2-dGlc transport to hexokinase activity was determined by observing the effects of various concentrations of unlabelled cytosolic 2-dGlc on influx of labelled 2-dGlc into the hexose phosphate pool. In control cells this coupling was 0.81 +/- 0.02 and in phorbol-activated cells it was 0.92 +/- 0.01 (P less than 0.01). 5. The high-affinity inhibitor of hexokinase, mannoheptulose, inhibited uptake of 2-dGlc in both control and phorbol-treated cells. These data are consistent with a model for activation of sugar transport in which hexokinase activity is integrated with the sugar transporter at the endofacial surface. The results suggest that phorbol increases the degree of coupling transport with hexokinase activity, thereby leading to an increase in the rate of uptake of 2-dGlc, a decrease in exit of free 2-dGlc from the cytosol and an increase in free 2-dGlc accumulation.
    Biochemical Journal 06/1989; 260(1):143-52. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hexokinase-deficient mutants and wild-type Chinese-hamster ovary cells have been used to investigate the role of hexokinase in uptake and accumulation of 2-D-deoxyglucose (2-dGlc). The evidence for a specific sugar transport system in both types of cells is that there is similar saturable phloretin-sensitive uptake of 2-dGlc and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) in both types of cell. In wild-type cells, 2-dGlc is accumulated to a tissue:medium ratio of 10- and in the mutant only 3-fold; 3-OMG is not accumulated by either mutant or wild-type cells. The evidence that hexokinase affects the membrane transport process is that the rate of exit of free 2-dGlc from wild-type cells is 5-fold less than from mutant cells, whereas there is no difference in the rate of loss of 3-OMG between mutant and wild-type cells.
    Biochemical Journal 06/1989; 260(1):153-5. · 4.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

248 Citations
67.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–1997
    • King's College London
      • • School of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Department of Physiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo"
      Urbino, The Marches, Italy
    • The Kings College
      Brooklyn, New York, United States