[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a new preservation modality combining machine perfusion (MP) at subnormothermic conditions (21°C) with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) solution. MP (n = 6) was compared to cold static preservation (CSP; n = 6) in porcine orthotopic liver transplants after 9 h of cold ischemia and 5-day follow-up. Recipients' peripheral blood, serial liver biopsies, preservation solutions and bile specimens were collected before, during and after liver preservation. Clinical laboratorial and histological analyses were performed in addition to mitochondrial functional assays, transcriptomic, metabolomic and inflammatory mediator analyses. Compared with CSP, MP animals had: (1) significantly higher survival (100% vs. 33%; p < 0.05); (2) superior graft function (p < 0.05); (3) eight times higher hepatic O2 delivery than O2 consumption (0.78 mL O2 /g/h vs. 0.096 mL O2 /g/h) during MP; and (4) significantly greater bile production (MP = 378.5 ± 179.7; CS = 151.6 ± 116.85). MP down-regulated interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ in liver tissue. MP allografts cleared lactate, produced urea, sustained gluconeogenesis and produced hydrophilic bile after reperfusion. Enhanced oxygenation under subnormothermic conditions triggers regenerative and cell protective responses resulting in improved allograft function. MP at 21°C with the HBOC solution significantly improves liver preservation compared to CSP.
2015 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation Published by The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
American Journal of Transplantation 01/2015; 15(2). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12991 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic liver resections are being performed with increasing frequency, with several groups having reported minimally invasive approaches for major anatomic hepatic resections. Some surgeons favor a pure laparoscopic approach, while others prefer a hand-assisted approach for major laparoscopic liver resections. There are clear advantages and disadvantages to a hand-assisted technique. The purpose of this study is to summarize the literature comparing pure laparoscopic and hand-assisted approaches for minimally invasive hepatic resection, and to describe our approach in 432 laparoscopic liver resections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the aging population, more elderly patients are being considered for hepatic resection. We investigated whether advanced age was associated with higher rate and severity of postoperative complications.
A total of 75 patients aged ≥70 years (group E) were matched with 75 patients aged <70 years (group Y) by the extent of liver resection and by operative indications. Primary outcome measures were rates and severity of complications. Secondary outcome measures were length of hospital stay and discharge destination. Univariate analysis was also performed to identify variables associated with higher surgical risk.
Male-to-female ratio was 43:32 in both groups. Overall complication rates were 44 and 33.3% in group E and Y, respectively (P = 0.241; odds ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81-3.05). There was no mortality in both groups. The only postoperative age-related morbidity was confusion in the elderly. There was no difference in the rates of severe complications (grade ≥3) between group E and group Y (16 vs. 14.7%; P = 0.744; odds ratio = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.46-2.70). Median length of hospital stay were 7 and 6 days, respectively (P = 0.01). Nineteen percent and 1% of patients in group E and group Y were discharge to rehabilitation facilities, respectively (P = 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that preoperative systemic chemotherapy and longer operative time were associated with higher morbidity in the elderly.
Liver resection can be performed in patients aged ≥70 years as safely as in younger patients. Duration and timing of systemic chemotherapy before liver resection should be optimized to minimize postoperative morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity in nonrenal allograft recipients can lead to end-stage renal disease and the need for kidney transplantation. We sought to evaluate the role of alemtuzumab induction in this population.
We evaluated 144 patients undergoing kidney transplantation after nonrenal transplantation between May 18, 1998, and October 8, 2007. Seventy-two patients transplanted between January 15, 2003, and October 8, 2007, received alemtuzumab induction and continued their pretransplant immunosuppression. Seventy-two patients transplanted between May 18, 1998, and July 21, 2007, did not receive alemtuzumab induction, but received additional steroids and maintenance immunosuppression. Donor and recipient demographics were comparable.
Overall, 1- and 3-year patient survival and renal function were comparable between the two groups. One- and 3-year graft survival was 93.0% and 75.3% in the alemtuzumab group and 83.3% and 68.7% in the no alemtuzumab group, respectively (P=0.051). The incidence of acute rejection was lower in the alemtuzumab group, 15.3%, than in the no alemtuzumab group, 41.7% (P=0.0001). The incidence of delayed graft function was lower in the alemtuzumab group, 9.7%, than in the no alemtuzumab group, 25.0% (P=0.003). The incidence of viral complications was comparable.
Alemtuzumab induction with simple resumption of baseline immunosuppression in patients undergoing kidney transplantation after nonrenal transplantation represents a reasonable immunosuppressive strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living-related donor liver transplantation is the newest and both technically and ethically most challenging evolution in liver transplantation and has contributed to reduction in donor shortage. We briefly report the technical aspects of surgical procedures performed to achieve a partial graft from a live donor. Eighty-four adult and two pediatric recipients underwent living-related donor liver transplantation at our center. There were no donor deaths, and all patients returned to their normal activities after the perioperative period. This single-center experience may contribute to refinement of the surgical technique required to improve the outcome of these complex operations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a lack of universally accepted clinical parameters to guide the utilization of donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor livers and it is unclear as to which patients would benefit most from these organs. We reviewed our experience in 141 patients who underwent liver transplantation using DCD allografts from 1993 to 2007. Patient outcomes were analyzed in comparison to a matched cohort of 282 patients who received livers from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. Patient survival was similar, but 1-, 5- and 10-year graft survival was significantly lower in DCD (69%, 56%, 44%) versus DBD (82%, 73%, 63%) subjects (p < 0.0001). Primary nonfunction and biliary complications were more common in DCD patients, accounting for 67% of early graft failures. A donor warm ischemia time >20 min, cold ischemia time >8 h and donor age >60 were associated with poorer DCD outcomes. There was a lack of survival benefit in DCD livers utilized in patients with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) < or =30 or those not on organ-perfusion support, as graft survival was significantly lower compared to DBD patients. However, DCD and DBD subjects transplanted with MELD >30 or on organ-perfusion support had similar graft survival, suggesting a potentially greater benefit of DCD livers in critically ill patients.
American Journal of Transplantation 04/2009; 9(4):773-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02560.x · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare tumor for which en bloc resection offers the only chance of cure. Due to its rarity, however, optimal strategies for the management of the primary tumor and subsequent recurrences are not well defined.
We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical resection of IVC leiomyosarcoma. We evaluated clinical presentations, operative techniques, patterns of recurrence and survival.
From 1990 to 2008, nine patients (four females) were identified. Median age was 55 years (40-76). Presentations included abdominal pain (n = 5), back pain (n = 2), leg swelling (n = 4) and abdominal mass (n = 2). Pre-operative imaging studies showed tumor location to be from the right atrium to renal veins (n = 1), retrohepatic (n = 5), and from hepatic veins to the iliac bifurcations (n = 3). En bloc resection included right nephrectomy (n = 5), right adrenalectomy (n = 4), pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 1), right hepatic trisectionectomy (n = 1) and right hemicolectomy (n = 1). The IVC was ligated in six patients, and a prosthetic graft was used for IVC reconstruction in three patients. Resection margins were negative in seven cases. Median length of stay was 12 days (range, 6-22 days). Major morbidity included renal failure (n = 1) and there was one post-operative mortality. Five patients had leg edema post-operatively, four of whom had IVC ligation. Median survival was 47 months (range, 1-181 months). Four patients had recurrence and the median time to recurrence was 14 months (range, 3-25 months). Two patients underwent successful resection of recurrence.
Curative resection of IVC leiomyosarcoma can lead to long-term survival. However, recurrence is common, and effective adjuvant treatments are needed. In selected cases, aggressive surgical treatment of recurrence should be considered.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2008; 12(12):2141-8. DOI:10.1007/s11605-008-0700-y · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is known to occur after solid organ transplantation (SOT), potentially associated with cyclosporine and tacrolimus. In this study, we assess the frequency and clinical and imaging characteristics of PRES after SOT.
We identified 27 patients (13 men and 14 women; age range, 22-72 years) who developed PRES after SOT. Features noted included SOT subtype, incidence and timing of PRES, infection and rejection, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and toxicity brain edema.
PRES developed in 21 (0.49%) of 4222 patients who underwent transplantation within the study period (no significant difference among SOT subtypes). Transplantation was performed in 5 patients before the study period, and 1 patient underwent transplantation elsewhere. In consideration of all 27 patients, PRES typically developed in the first 2 months in patients who had SOT of the liver (9 of 10 patients) and was associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV), mild rejection, or systemic bacterial infection. PRES also typically developed after 1 year in patients who had SOT of the kidney (8 of 9 patients) and was associated with moderate rejection or bacterial infection. Toxicity MAP was significantly lower (P < .001) in liver transplants (average MAP, 104.8 +/- 16 mm Hg) compared with that in kidney transplants (average MAP, 143 +/- 20 mm Hg). Toxicity brain edema was significantly greater (P < .001) in patients who had liver transplants and developed PRES compared with patients who had undergone kidney transplants despite severe hypertension in those who had the kidney transplants.
Patients who had undergone SOTs have a similar low incidence of developing PRES. Differences between those who have had liver and kidney transplants included time after transplant, toxicity MAP, and PRES vasogenic edema noted at presentation. In patients who have undergone kidney transplants, severely elevated MAP was associated with reduced, not greater, brain edema.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2008; 29(5):924-30. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A0960 · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. cause worldwide problems in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Budapest, Hungary and to determine the risk factors of the infections and the epidemiological features. Infections with Klebsiella spp. were analyzed retrospectively by reviewing the medical records between January 2001 and December 2005. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, isoelectric focusing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, plasmid analysis, PCR for bla
TEM and bla
SHV and DNA sequencing analysis were performed on ESBL-producing Klebsiella isolates. A total of 45 babies were found to be infected with non-ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and 39 with ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. Of the parameters analyzed, including sex, gestational age, twin pregnancy, birth weight, presence of central vascular catheter, mechanical ventilator use, parenteral nutrition, polymicrobial infection, caesarean section, transfusion and mortality, we found no statistically significant difference between the ESBL and the non-ESBL groups, or between the K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca species. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains isolated between February 2001 and January 2003 revealed three distinct PFGE patterns of SHV-5-producing K. pneumoniae (A, B, E) and two distinct patterns of SHV-12-producing K. oxytoca (C,D) isolates; these had different plasmid profiles. From July to November 2005, a new SHV-5 producing K. oxytoca (F) was isolated. The molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing organisms in a NICU over time shows substantial shifts in predominant strains. The ESBL production of the infected organisms has an impact on the survival of newborn babies with infections caused by Klebsiella spp.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2007; 26(8):563-70. DOI:10.1007/s10096-007-0338-9 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living-related liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for many liver diseases. We present our initial analysis of 53 cases of adult to adult living-related liver transplantation performed in a single institute in Italy.
From January 2002 to September 2006, we performed 53 adult to adult living-related liver transplantations. The donors (age 18-53) all had genetic or emotional relationships; they were all ABO identical or compatible. Recipients (ages 18-68) suffered from cirrhosis secondary to viral etiology (18), hepatocellular carcinoma with viral cirrhosis (24), cystic fibrosis (2), primary biliary cirrhosis (2), hepatocellular carcinoma with non-viral cirrhosis (2), alcoholic cirrhosis (1), ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC), (1) criptogenic cryptogenic cirrhosis, (1) primary sclerosing cholangitis, (1) biliary atresia and metastatic carcinoid (1). Donor liver resection resulted in 51 right hepatectomies and two left hepatectomies. Graft body weight ratio was always above 0.8%; graft implantation was performed with the piggy back technique and, in 43 cases, with the use of veno-venous bypass.
There was neither donor mortality nor need of blood transfusion. Actuarial recipient survival rate at 3 years was 82.66% and graft survival rate was 75.34%. Six patients underwent retransplantation: in four cases due to hepatic artery thrombosis, and in two, due to graft dysfunction. Three patients had one episode each of acute cellular rejection.
Adult to adult living-related liver transplantation represents a resource to be used in confronting organ shortage, and is a valuable option for decreasing mortality and drop out from the waiting list.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and alemtuzumab have been used for induction or preconditioning and for the treatment of acute rejection in organ transplant recipients in many centers. Such regimens may lead to a substantial decline in the CD4 lymphocyte count to levels seen in other population groups at high risk of cryptococcosis. In view of this, we examined the impact of such therapy on the cumulative incidence of cryptococcosis among liver and kidney recipients. A total of 834 liver and 727 kidney transplants were performed during the study period. Seven hundred and eighty-one patients did not receive ATG or alemtuzumab; 646 received 1 dose of either drug, and 134 patients received 2 doses of either drug. The cumulative incidence of cryptococcosis was 0.26% (2/781) among those who did not receive ATG or alemtuzumab; 0.3% (2/646) among those who received only 1 dose, and 2.24% (3/134) among those who received 2 doses (P=0.03). There were 5 cases of cryptococcosis in liver recipients and 2 in kidney recipients. There were 3 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 3 of pneumonia, and 1 of disseminated disease. The 2 kidney recipients had meningitis. Diagnosis occurred at a median of 255 days (range 7-517) after transplantation. The mortality rate was 14.2%. We conclude that the use of 1 dose of ATG or alemtuzumab is not associated with an increased cumulative incidence of cryptococcosis, but that those patients receiving 2 doses are at increased risk.