[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A proportion of patients under surveillance for recurrent bladder carcinoma with no immediate evidence of bladder tumor recurrence have positive multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; UroVysion, Vysis, Downers Grove, IL) results. The course of these "anticipatory positive" cases and the time to bladder tumor recurrence remains unknown. We followed up 250 patients with urine cytologic results, concurrent multitarget FISH, and cystoscopic examination for recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Of 81 cases (32.4%) with FISH-positive results, tumor recurrence developed in 60 (74.0%). Of 169 (67.6%) FISH-negative cases, recurrent urothelial carcinoma developed in 22 (13.0%). Of 211 patients (84.4%) with negative cystoscopic examination results, 56 (26.5%) had positive FISH results, and in 35 (62.5%) of these patients, recurrent urothelial carcinoma developed. Approximately 27% of patients under bladder carcinoma surveillance without immediate evidence of tumor recurrence will have a positive FISH result, defining the anticipatory positive subset. In about 65% of this anticipatory positive group, recurrent bladder urothelial carcinoma developed within 29 months.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 03/2007; 127(2):295-301. DOI:10.1309/ADJL7E810U1H42BJ · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravascular synovial sarcoma (IVSS) is an extremely rare tumor with only four well-documented cases in the English literature. All tumors were located in large veins of the lower extremities or trunk in young women except for one case occurring in a 54-yr-old woman. We report here an additional case of IVSS arising from the superior vena cava in a 32-yr-old woman who presented with a cervical mass and superior vena cava syndrome. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed and showed a malignant biphasic tumor with spindle cell and epithelioid components. The tumor cells were negative for CD31, CD34, factor VIII, desmin, smooth muscle actin, and S-100 protein, and had positive staining for vimentin and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) predominantly in the spindle and epithelial components, respectively. A diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was made and confirmed in a subsequent transvascular biopsy demonstrating chromosomal translocation t(X, 18) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a dual color, break-apart-style probe for SYT. Although clinically similar to previously reported IVSS, this is the first case arising in large veins of the upper portion of the trunk and diagnosed by FNAB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (MLBL) have clinical, histopathologic, and molecular genetic similarities. MAL, a gene that encodes a protein associated with lipid rafts in T and epithelial cells, is overexpressed in a majority of MLBLs and has been reported in a minority of cHLs. To study the clinical significance of MAL in cHL, we immunostained 86 cases; 16 cHLs (19%) expressed MAL. Expression correlated with nodular sclerosis subtype, and within this subtype, with grade 2 histology. Univariable analysis revealed association of age of 45 years or older, MAL expression, and an International Prognostic Score of more than 2 with worse failure-free survival. Age of 45 years or older, MAL expression, and stage III or IV were associated with worse overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards modeling showed age (P = .04 and P = .03, respectively) and MAL expression (P = .03 and P = .01, respectively) as independent predictors of time to failure-free survival and OS. Stage showed borderline significance in OS (P = .08). MAL expression seems to identify a subset of cHL with an adverse outcome and provides additional evidence for a link between cHL and MLBL.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2006; 125(5):776-82. DOI:10.1309/98KL-HRDA-M5CM-DHE2 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fascin is an actin bundling protein with roles in the formation of cell protrusions and motility of mesenchymal and neuronal cells. Fascin is normally low or absent from epithelia, but is upregulated in several epithelial neoplasms where it may contribute to an invasive phenotype. Here, we report on the prevalence and potential clinical significance of fascin expression in relation to the progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma and to tumor cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 index.
Conventional tissue sections of 107 colorectal adenomas and 35 adenocarcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for fascin and Ki67 expression. Fascin expression and Ki67 proliferation index were also investigated by use of a tissue microarray containing cores from a further 158 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 15 adenomas linked to a CCF, IRB-approved database with a mean of 38 months of clinical follow-up. Survival analysis was carried out by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods.
Fascin was not expressed by the normal colonic epithelium. In conventional sections, 16% of adenomas and 26% of adenocarcinomas showed fascin expression in greater than 10% of the tumor cells. In the clinically-annotated tumors, fascin immunoreactivity was more common in tumors located in the proximal colon (p = 0.009), but was not associated with age, gender, or TNM stage. Patients with stage III/IV adenocarcinomas (n = 62) with strong fascin immunoreactivity had a worse prognosis than patients with low or absent fascin, (3-year overall survival of 11% versus 43% for fascin-negative patients; p = 0.023). In adenomas, fascin and Ki67 tended to be inversely correlated at the cellular level; this trend was less apparent in adenocarcinomas.
Fascin is upregulated in a proportion of adenomas, where its expression is often focal. Strong and diffuse expression was seen in a subset of advanced colorectal adenocarcinomas that correlated with shorter survival in stage III and IV patients. Fascin may have prognostic value as an early biomarker for more aggressive colorectal adenocarcinomas.
BMC Cancer 02/2006; 6(1):241. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-6-241 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As we transition from genomics to the challenges of the functional proteome, new tools to explore the expression of proteins within tissue are essential. We have developed a method of transferring proteins from a formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues section to a stack of membranes which is then probed with antibodies for detection of individual epitopes. This method converts a traditional tissue section into a multiplex platform for expression profiling. A single tissue section can be transferred to up to ten membranes, each of which is probed with different antibodies, and detected with fluorescent secondary antibodies, and quantified by a microarray scanner. Total protein can be determined on each membrane, hence each antibody has its own normalization. This method works with phospho-specific antibodies as well as antibodies that do not readily work well with paraffin embedded tissue. This novel technique enables archival paraffin embedded tissue to be molecularly profiled in a rapid and quantifiable manner, and reduces the tissue microarray to a form of protein array. This method is a new tool for exploration of the vast archive of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue, as well as a tool for translational medicine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (malignant melanoma of soft parts) is a soft tissue sarcoma with melanocytic differentiation that typically occurs in the tendons and aponeuroses of young adults. As demonstrated by cytogenetics and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, between 70% and over 90% of clear cell sarcomas have a t(12;22) translocation, fusing the EWS and ATF1 genes on chromosomes 22q12 and 12q13, respectively. Identification of this translocation distinguishes clear cell sarcoma from histologic mimics, most importantly conventional malignant melanoma. We report our experience with a commercially available, dual-color, break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe, which allows detection of EWS (22q12) gene rearrangement in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Histologically and immunophenotypically well-characterized cases of clear cell sarcoma (n = 10) and malignant melanoma (n = 32) were evaluated with a 22q12 dual-color, break-apart probe (Vysis, Downer's Grove, IL, USA), which spans the known common breakpoints in the EWS gene on chromosome 22 (introns 7-10). Signals from tumor cell nuclei were counted under a fluorescence microscope and the presence of red-green break-apart signals was recorded. Of the clear cell sarcoma cases, seven of 10 showed evidence of an EWS gene rearrangement with a mean of 81.6% positive cells per sample (range: 60-95%). All cases of malignant melanoma (n = 32) showed virtually absent break-apart signals in the EWS gene (less than 4% cells per case). FISH detects EWS gene rearrangement in a substantial proportion of clear cell sarcomas, with excellent specificity. Importantly, EWS FISH is negative in malignant melanoma, a clinically dissimilar tumor, which may closely mimic clear cell sarcoma histologically and immunohistochemically. As the studied probe can be utilized in routinely processed tissue, FISH provides an excellent alternative to reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in cases where fresh tissue is unavailable.
Modern Pathology 01/2006; 18(12):1585-90. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.3800503 · 6.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has both excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast carcinoma. FISH has not been widely implemented in clinical practice because of reagent costs and the special instrumentation and expertise required to perform and integrate the assay. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2 protein is widely used, but false-positive and false-negative results are problematic. We developed a bright-field assay to visualize HER2 gene amplification and concomitant HER2 protein expression (EnzMet GenePro). This assay detects HER2 gene amplification via deposition of metallic silver by enzyme metallographytrade mark (EnzMettrade mark, Nanoprobes, Yaphank, NY) combined with HER2 protein detection by IHC using alkaline phosphatase and fast red K substrate visualization (CB11;Ventana, Tucson, AZ). The assay was performed on 94 invasive breast carcinomas, for which FISH (PathVysiontrade mark, Vysis, Downer's Grove, IL), conventional IHC (CB11), and enzyme metallography (EnzMettrade mark) results were known. The EnzMettrade mark component of the assay was scored as either HER2 gene amplified, polysomic, or nonamplified. The IHC component was scored using the conventional FDA scale of 0 to 3+. Concordance of the EnzMet component of the assay versus FISH was assessed and showed an excellent correlation (Pearson coefficient of 0.95; P < 0.001). The combination of gene and protein detection (EnzMet GenePro) displayed a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 92.6% (95% confidence interval 85.3-97.0), facilitated recognition of gene/protein discordances, and allowed for efficient interpretation of the slide by conventional light microscopy. The interobserver kappa for each component was excellent (IHC, kappa = 0.94; and EnzMettrade mark, kappa = 0.96). EnzMet is the first bright-field ISH assay in our experience that routinely and nonambiguously detects endogenous HER2 signals, essential for a reliable clinical HER2 assay, and in combination with HER2 protein enables improved diagnosis in borderline cases.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 12/2005; 29(11):1505-11. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has both excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast carcinoma. FISH has not been widely implemented in clinical practice because of reagent costs and the special instrumentation and expertise required to perform and integrate the assay. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2 protein is widely used, but false-positive and false-negative results are problematic. We developed a bright-field assay to visualize HER2 gene amplification and concomitant HER2 protein expression (EnzMet GenePro). This assay detects HER2 gene amplification via deposition of metallic silver by enzyme metallography™ (EnzMet™, Nanoprobes, Yaphank, NY) combined with HER2 protein detection by IHC using alkaline phosphatase and fast red K substrate visualization (CB11;Ventana, Tucson, AZ). The assay was performed on 94 invasive breast carcinomas, for which FISH (PathVysion™, Vysis, Downer's Grove, IL), conventional IHC (CB11), and enzyme metallography (EnzMet™) results were known. The EnzMet™ component of the assay was scored as either HER2 gene amplified, polysomic, or nonamplified. The IHC component was scored using the conventional FDA scale of 0 to 3+. Concordance of the EnzMet component of the assay versus FISH was assessed and showed an excellent correlation (Pearson coefficient of 0.95; P < 0.001). The combination of gene and protein detection (EnzMet GenePro) displayed a specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 92.6% (95% confidence interval 85.3-97.0), facilitated recognition of gene/protein discordances, and allowed for efficient interpretation of the slide by conventional light microscopy. The interobserver kappa for each component was excellent (IHC, κ = 0.94; and EnzMet™, κ = 0.96). EnzMet is the first bright-field ISH assay in our experience that routinely and nonambiguously detects endogenous HER2 signals, essential for a reliable clinical HER2 assay, and in combination with HER2 protein enables improved diagnosis in borderline cases.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 11/2005; 29(11):1505-1511. DOI:10.1097/01.pas.0000172294.67409.4f · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fascin is a globular actin cross-linking protein that has a major function in forming parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions that are key specialisations of the plasma membrane for environmental guidance and cell migration. Fascin is widely expressed in mesenchymal tissues and the nervous system and is low or absent in adult epithelia. Recent data from a number of laboratories have highlighted that fascin is up-regulated in many human carcinomas and, in individual tissues, correlates with the clinical aggressiveness of tumours and poor patient survival. In cell culture, over-expression or depletion of fascin modulates cell migration and alters cytoskeletal organisation. The identification of biomarkers to provide more effective early diagnosis of potentially aggressive tumours, or identify tumours susceptible to targeted therapies, is an important goal in clinical research. Here, we discuss the evidence that fascin is upregulated in carcinomas, its contributions to carcinoma cell behaviour and its potential as a candidate novel biomarker or therapeutic target.
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 10/2005; 37(9):1787-804. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.05.004 · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast carcinomas with amplification of HER2 on chromosome 17 are associated with HER2 protein overexpression, adversely affecting prognosis and predicting response to Herceptin therapy. Chromosome 17 polysomy is encountered in assessing HER2 gene status, and its impact on HER2 gene and protein expression remains unclear. This impact was investigated in breast carcinomas identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to have a gain of chromosome 17 (CEP17+; n = 56), using a dual probe assay, which detects HER2 gene copy number and enumerates chromosome 17 (HER2/CEP17; Vysis). Cases were immunostained for HER2 protein (CB-11, Ventana), and scored blinded to FISH. A subgroup was evaluated by isotopic in situ hybridization for HER2 mRNA expression. Controls included ten HER2 amplified and ten nonamplified tumors, eusomic for chromosome 17. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for HER2 protein was negative (0 or 1+) in 69% (39 of 56), 2+ in 27% (15 of 56), and 3+ in 3% (2 of 56) of CEP17+ cases. The mean CEP17 copy number among the three groups was similar (3.1, 3.0, and 3.1 for IHC 0/1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively). Isotopic in situ hybridization for HER2 mRNA performed on 26 CEP17+ cases (16 IHC 0-1+, 10 IHC 2+ or 3+) showed no increased HER2 mRNA expression (normalized to beta-actin mRNA). The mRNA expression and the IHC staining of the HER2-amplified and nonamplified controls was concordant with their FISH status. These results suggest that chromosome 17 polysomy in the absence of HER2 amplification does not have a significant biologic influence on HER2 gene expression in breast carcinoma.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 10/2005; 29(9):1221-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and in vitro evidence supports the concept that human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 ( HER2 ) gene amplification prediction of response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy in breast cancer is not a direct effect of HER2 overexpression, but the result of coamplification of topoisomerase II-alpha ( TOP2A ). We investigated the relationship of TOP2A to HER2 genomic alterations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the correlations with polysomic states for chromosome 17 (CEP17). One hundred thirty-eight cases of breast cancer HER2 gene amplified by 2-color FISH ( HER2 /CEP17) were reevaluated with a 3-color probe set ( HER2 /CEP17/ TOP2A ) to investigate the frequency of coamplification and deletion of TOP2A . TOP2A was never amplified in the absence of HER2 amplification and was coamplified with HER2 in 68 (50%) of 137 cases; HER2 gene copy number was higher than the TOP2A copy number ( P < .01). Of the 137 cases with HER2 amplification, 23 (16%) showed a monoallelic deletion of TOP2A . Of the 43 cases not amplified for HER2 , 27 (63%) were CEP17 eusomic, 13 (30%) polysomic, and 3 (7%) monosomic. Of the HER2 nonamplified cases, 2 (5%) showed monoallelic deletion of both the HER2 and TOP2A . The current study demonstrates the complex interrelationship between the HER2 and TOP2A genes in breast cancer. The clinical implications of TOP2A amplification and deletion in breast cancer need to be further defined. If TOP2A gene dosage can be confirmed to correlate with tumor responsiveness to anthracycline-based therapy in the clinical setting, FISH testing for TOP2A status may be warranted to aid in the selection of the most appropriate therapy.
Human Pathlogy 05/2005; 36(4):348-56. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2005.01.016 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The invasion and metastasis of tumor cells is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients. In the current study, we investigated the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling motility-associated protein, in 210 invasive breast carcinomas with corresponding 5-year clinical follow-up. Fascin expression was compared with hormone receptor (ER/PR) status, HER2 status, cancer grade, cancer stage, metastasis pattern, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Fascin expression was seen in 16% (33/210) of the cases and correlated with ER negativity (22/33, P < 0.001), PR negativity (21/33, P < 0.001), Bloom-Richardson grade 3 (19/29, P < 0.001), and advanced stage (stage 3 or 4, P = 0.04). There was no correlation between fascin expression and HER2 status or pattern of metastases. Patients whose tumors were positive for fascin showed both a decreased mean disease-free survival (74.44 versus 100.52 months, P = 0.002) and mean overall survival (77.58 versus 98.98 months, P = 0.002), independent of tumor stage and HER2 status, but not independent of ER/PR status or cancer grade. Given fascin's role in altering cell motility, overexpression may contribute to a more aggressive clinical course in ER/PR-negative breast cancers. If so, then fascin may represent a new molecular target for therapeutic intervention in patients with ER-negative breast cancer.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2005; 11(1):186-92. · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Profiling the amplification and over-expression of the HER2 gene is a key component for defining the prognosis and management of invasive breast carcinoma. Clinical laboratory testing for HER2 gene amplification and over expression has been complicated by an unacceptably high rate of false positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, poor reproducibility for the '2+' category of IHC scoring, and reluctant acceptance of alternative testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) by the diagnostic pathology community. Novel chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assays have been developed that utilize bright field microscopy and a conventional light microscope for interpretation, but the analytical sensitivity of first generation CISH systems has been problematic. Novel second generation in situ hybridization detection methods based upon polymerized lg detection chemistry, autometallography or enzyme metallography, have been developed that routinely detect endogenous HER2 signals in normal cells (on slide hybridization control) and HER2 signals in both non-amplified and amplified patterns of HER2 genomic signatures. By combining the strength of polymerized peroxidase-labeled antibodies and metallography for gene amplification, with the detection of expression of HER2 encoded protein by IHC on the same slide, both HER2 gene amplification and protein over-expression can be simultaneously evaluated on a cell-by-cell basis in each microscopic field of carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic brush cytology is a promising surveillance technique for Barrett's esophagus. However, there is a need for ancillary biomarkers to increase the sensitivity of cytology and to allow identification of patients at increased risk for disease progression. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescence in situ hybridization of endoscopic brush cytology specimens and to determine if there are specific chromosomal changes in cytologic specimens from patients with cancer that are not present in patients without dysplasia.
Archival cytology slides from 16 patients with Barrett's esophagus were studied: 8 negative for dysplasia and 8 positive for adenocarcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect two alterations: HER-2 gene (17q11.2-q12) and 20q13.2 region amplification.
For 7 of 8 adenocarcinoma cases, there was amplification/aneusomy of at least one of the two analyzed regions by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the samples negative for dysplasia were abnormal for either of the two genomic regions studied.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization is feasible by using routine Barrett's esophagus cytologic specimens. Differences in genomic makeup can be detected in cells from patients negative for dysplasia and in those with adenocarcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the poor understanding of the disease at the molecular level. To better understand the genetics and biology of RCC, we profiled the expression of 7,129 genes in both clear cell RCC tissue and cell lines using oligonucleotide arrays.
Total RNAs isolated from renal cell tumors, adjacent normal tissue and metastatic RCC cell lines were hybridized to affymatrix HuFL oligonucleotide arrays. Genes were categorized into different functional groups based on the description of the Gene Ontology Consortium and analyzed based on the gene expression levels. Gene expression profiles of the tissue and cell line samples were visualized and classified by singular value decomposition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the expression alterations of selected genes in RCC.
Selected genes were annotated based on biological processes and clustered into functional groups. The expression levels of genes in each group were also analyzed. Seventy-four commonly differentially expressed genes with more than five-fold changes in RCC tissues were identified. The expression alterations of selected genes from these seventy-four genes were further verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Detailed comparison of gene expression patterns in RCC tissue and RCC cell lines shows significant differences between the two types of samples, but many important expression patterns were preserved.
This is one of the initial studies that examine the functional ontology of a large number of genes in RCC. Extensive annotation, clustering and analysis of a large number of genes based on the gene functional ontology revealed many interesting gene expression patterns in RCC. Most notably, genes involved in cell adhesion were dominantly up-regulated whereas genes involved in transport were dominantly down-regulated. This study reveals significant gene expression alterations in key biological pathways and provides potential insights into understanding the molecular mechanism of renal cell carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic brush cytology is a promising surveillance technique for Barrett's esophagus. Ancillary markers are sought to increase the sensitivity of cytology and allow identification of patients at increased risk for disease progression. To determine if there are specific genetic changes in Barrett's esophagus with associated high-grade dysplasia/intramucosal adenocarcinoma compared to those without dysplasia, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cytologic specimens using probes to chromosomes and genomic regions previously described as altered in this disease. We studied archival brush cytology slides from 40 Barrett's esophagus patients: 21 with biopsy-proven high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma and 19 with no dysplasia and a minimum 5 years of negative follow-up. Centromeric enumeration probes (CEP) for chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12, and locus-specific probes (LSI) for 9p21 (p16 gene), and 17p13.1 (p53 gene) loci along with their corresponding CEP (9 and 17, respectively) were used in this study. A positive FISH result was defined as the presence of cells with >2 CEP signals or with a loss of the LSI signals relative to their corresponding CEP. p53 locus loss and/or aneusomy of chromosomes 6, 7, 11, and 12 abnormalities could be detected by FISH in routinely processed endoscopic brush cytology specimens from 95% of biopsy-positive cases with a specificity of 100%. Interestingly, all five cases with cytologic changes classified as indefinite for dysplasia from patients with a positive biopsy showed changes by FISH. Loss of the p16 locus was seen commonly in patients both with and without dysplasia/carcinoma. Selected biomarkers from this study merit further investigation to determine their potential to detect genetic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus prior to the development of high-grade dysplasia.
Modern Pathology 05/2004; 17(5):588-96. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.3800088 · 6.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the United States, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed male cancer and the second leading cause of all male cancer deaths. Furthermore, incidence rates are higher in African Americans than in any other racial group. Our laboratory is attempting to decipher the environmental and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of prostate cancer in African Americans. Because Africa is a mineral-rich continent, and the zinc levels in the water and diet are high, it is hypothesized that Africans may have genetically downregulated their zinc absorption capacity; otherwise, they would absorb abnormally high levels of zinc, resulting in various serious neurodegenerative and biochemical disorders. It is therefore possible that people of African origin may have a lower capacity to absorb zinc when compared with other racial groups because of their inherent downregulation of zinc transporters. Extensive research has shown that low serum levels of zinc are associated with the increased incidence of prostate cancer. We have evaluated 58 prostate cancer tissues in 2 major racial groups (30 from whites and 28 from African Americans) for their ability to express 2 major human zinc transporters, hZIP1 and hZIP2. In all 30 prostate cancer specimens obtained from white people, the degree of expression of these 2 zinc receptors was high when compared with age-matched and Gleason score-matched specimens obtained from African American patients. We also found a significant downregulation of these 2 zinc transporters in normal prostate tissues from African American men when compared with age-matched white men. The loss of the unique ability to retain normal intracellular levels of zinc may be an important factor in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Our observation that the uptake of zinc may be different in racial groups is intriguing and relevant. Once these data are confirmed in larger groups, this finding could have significant application as a preventive maneuver for at least for some people. Because dietary zinc supplements are relatively nontoxic, any efficacy trial would be low-risk.
Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 10/2003; 11(3):253-60. DOI:10.1097/00129039-200309000-00009 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe set UroVysion (Vysis, Downers Grove, Illinois), containing probes to chromosomes 3, 7 and 17, and to the 9p21 band, has been recently shown to have high sensitivity and specificity for detecting transitional cell carcinoma. In this study we retrospectively tested 120 urine samples from patients with atypical, suspicious and negative cytology for whom concurrent and followup bladder biopsy data were available. We evaluated the ability of FISH to identify malignant cells in cytologically equivocal or negative cases.
Archived slides from 120 voided (47) or instrumented (73) urine cytology specimens from patients with concurrent bladder biopsy and a minimum of 12 months of biopsy followup were subjected to hybridization with UroVysion. The cohort included patients with biopsy proven transitional cell carcinoma, which was grades 1 to 3 in 23, 35 and 24, respectively, and stages pTis in 3, pTa in 64, pT1 in 6, pT2 in 6 and pT4 in 3, while it showed negative histology in 38. Cytology findings were suspicious, atypical and negative for transitional cell carcinoma in 31, 49 and 40 cases, respectively. A positive FISH result was defined as 5 transitional cells or greater with a gain of 2 or more of chromosomes 3, 7 or 17, 12 cells or greater with 9p21 deletion, or 10% or greater of cells with isolated trisomy of 1 of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17.
All except 12 of the 82 biopsy proven transitional cell carcinoma cases (11 pTa and 1 pT1 tumors) were positive by FISH (85% sensitivity). Sensitivity in patients with suspicious, atypical and negative cytology was 100%, 89% and 60%, respectively. Nine patients with atypical cytology had positive FISH in the setting of a negative concurrent bladder biopsy. However, 8 of these 9 patients (89%) had biopsy proven transitional cell carcinoma within 12 months following the date when the sample tested by FISH was obtained. The last of these patients with false-positive results had previously documented pTis disease, which was also present in the next bladder biopsy 15 months following the positive FISH result. The remaining 29 specimens from patients with negative biopsy and a negative 12-month followup tested negative by FISH (97% overall specificity).
The UroVysion FISH assay provides high sensitivity and specificity to detect transitional cell carcinoma in cytologically equivocal and negative urine samples. These results emphasize the important role of this assay in the management of bladder cancer.
The Journal of Urology 07/2003; 169(6):2101-5. DOI:10.1097/01.ju.0000066842.45464.cc · 3.75 Impact Factor