[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence and severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Japan tends to increase in elderly women. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, acts as a prokinetic agent and improves gastric emptying and gastric accommodation. Our previous prospective randomized placebo-controlled study showed that RKT combined with a standard-dose of rabeprazole (RPZ) significantly improved the acid-related dysmotility symptoms (ARD) in elderly patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of elderly PPI-refractory NERD patients with ARD symptoms who responded to RKT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, combined with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in patients with PPI-refractory non-erosive reflux disease (NERD).
Patients with PPI-refractory NERD (n = 242) were randomly assigned to the RKT group [rabeprazole (10 mg/day) + RKT (7.5 g/t.i.d.) for 8 weeks] or the placebo group (rabeprazole + placebo). After the 4- and 8-week treatments, we assessed symptoms and quality of life (QOL) using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG), Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), and Short-Form Health Survey-8 (SF-8).
There were no significant differences in FSSG and GSRS score improvement between these groups after the 4- and 8-week treatments. The mental component summary (MCS) scores of the SF-8 improved more in the RKT group (from 45.8 ± 8.1 to 48.5 ± 7.4) than in the placebo group (from 47.7 ± 7.1 to 48.4 ± 7.5) after the 4-week treatment (P < 0.05). The 8-week treatment with RKT was more effective for improvement of the degree of MCS score in patients with a low body mass index (<22) (P < 0.05) and significantly improved the acid-related dysmotility symptoms of FSSG in female and elderly patients (≥65 years).
There were no significant differences in improvement of GERD symptoms in patients with PPI-refractory NERD between these groups. However, RKT may be useful for improving mental QOL in non-obese patients and acid-related dyspeptic symptoms, especially in women and the elderly.
Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related diseases are responsible for a tremendous amount of morbidity and mortality in Japan. We estimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection by sex, birth year, and geographic area among Japanese adults.
This cross-sectional study included 14,716 subjects aged 20 years or more who underwent a health checkup between May 1997 and March 2013 in seven geographic areas throughout Japan. Relevant information on the demographics and status of H. pylori infection was retrieved from the electronic database. The univariate log-binominal regression model was used to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection, taking birth year into consideration. The multivariate log-binominal regression model was used to compare the prevalence of H. pylori infection between seven geographic areas.
The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 37.6% in women and 43.2% in men. Among seven geographic areas, Hokkaido showed the lowest prevalence (29.4%), while Yamagata Prefecture represented the highest (54.5%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was highest in the 1940-1949 birth cohort and then decreased in the ensuing birth cohorts; the risk ratio (RR) was 0.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.87) for changes in the 10-year birth cohort. Individuals in Yamagata Prefecture had the highest RR of acquiring H. pylori infection in all three birth cohorts (RR = 1.53 for 1940, RR = 1.69 for 1950, and RR = 1.85 for 1960) when compared with those in Hokkaido.
The prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age and exhibits geographic variation in Japan. There has been a striking decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, especially in younger Japanese populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines for gastroenterological endoscopy in patients undergoing antithrombotic treatment have been produced by the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society in collaboration with the Japan Circulation Society, the Japanese Society of Neurology, the Japan Stroke Society, the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis and the Japan Diabetes Society. Previous guidelines from the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society have focused primarily on prevention of hemorrhage after gastroenterological endoscopy as a result of continuation ofantithrombotic therapy, without considering the associated risk of thrombosis. The new edition of the guidelines includes discussions of gastroenterological hemorrhage associated with continuation of antithrombotic therapy, as well as thromboembolism associated with withdrawal of antithrombotic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication has been shown to inhibit gastric cancer, it does not completely suppress it. Therefore, risk factors of gastric cancer development following H. pylori eradication were examined. Material and methods. A total of 2355 patients (1501 males and 824 females) underwent successful eradication of H. pylori. Endoscopic atrophy, histological gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) staging were subsequently evaluated. Results. Following eradication, 33/2355 patients (25 males and 8 females) developed gastric cancer. Compared to a nongastric cancer group that was matched according to gender and age, the incidence of endoscopic atrophy (3.52 ± 1.45 vs. 4.85 ± 1.18, p < 0.001), histological atrophy at the greater curvature of the antrum (1.42 ± 0.80 vs. 1.95 ± 0.86, p = 0.0059), inflammation (2.05 ± 0.59 vs. 2.33 ± 0.66, p = 0.031), IM at the greater curvature of the corpus (0.06 ± 0.30 vs. 0.24 ± 0.54, p = 0.029), the ratio of OLGA-stage 0-II/III, IV (13/8 vs. 55/11, p = 0.038) were significantly higher for the gastric cancer group. Multivariate analysis also showed the highest odds ratio (6.26, 95% confidence interval or CI, 1.28-30.60, p = 0.023) for IM at the greater curvature of the corpus. Conclusions. Severe endoscopical atrophy, OLGA staging, histological atrophy at the antrum, inflammation, and particularly IM at the corpus, were identified as risk factors for gastric cancer development following H. pylori eradication. Therefore, eradication should be performed before these predictors develop.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subjects infected with H. pylori containing cagA do not always induce serum CagA antibody. Our previous meta-analysis showed that serum CagA seropositivity was associated with gastric cancer even in East Asian countries. However, it remains unclear why serum CagA positive status is associated with gastric cancer. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between anti CagA antibody titer and the levels of pepsinogen, and histological score.
Eighty-eight H. pylori positive Japanese patients with gastritis were included. Serum CagA antibody titer, pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histological scores were evaluated according to Update Sydney System. CagA expression was examined by immunoblot.
Seroprevalence of CagA antibody was found in 75.0%. Interestingly, serum CagA antibody titer was significantly correlated with PG I and PG II levels (P = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively). Serum CagA antibody titer was also significantly correlated with mucosal inflammation in the corpus (P = 0.04). On the other hand, bacterial density was not related with CagA antibody titer. CagA expression level of the strains was irrespective of the status of PG and serum CagA antibody.
Subjects with higher serum CagA antibody titer can be considered as high risk population for the development of gastric cancer from the point of strong gastric inflammatory response even in Japan. Host recognition rather than bacterial colonization might be associated with the difference of serum CagA antibody titer.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 08/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major pathogen of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are recognized as precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. Many studies reported that H. pylori eradication had the preventive effect of gastric cancer. Moreover many studies mentioned the improvement of gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia. Two meta-analysis indicated the improvement of atrophic gastritis but not of intestinal metaplasia. In our study, intestinal metaplasia improved at lesser curvature of the corpus six years after eradication. H. pylori eradication has benefit for gastric cancer prevention provably due to improvement of the precancerous lesion such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Especially, H. pylori eradication before the appearance of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia has been considered to be effective in inhibiting the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, improvement or elimination of chronic gastritis with H. pylori eradication might have possibility of gastric cancer inhibition.
Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 08/2013; 71(8):1442-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The preventive effects of histamine 2 receptor antagonists vs. proton pump inhibitors on low-dose aspirin (LDA)-related gastroduodenal mucosal injury have not been fully investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers or erosions in patients taking LDA with either 40 mg/day of famotidine or 15 mg/day of lansoprazole for at least three months. METHODS: Of 84 eligible patients, two taking 40 mg/day of famotidine and four taking 15 mg/day of lansoprazole refused to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Ultimately, we performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 78 patients taking either 40 mg/day of famotidine (group F, n = 31) or 15 mg/day of lansoprazole (group L, n = 47). The prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers or erosions and the magnitude of gastric mucosal injury evaluated using modified Lanza scores were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: No patients in either group had gastroduodenal ulcers. Gastroduodenal erosions were more prevalent in group F than in group L (48.4% vs. 17.0%, p = 0.005). The modified Lanza scores (mean +/- SD) were significantly higher in group F than in group L (0.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.7, p = 0.007). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the use of lansoprazole was negatively associated with gastroduodenal erosions. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that 15 mg/day of lansoprazole may be more effective in preventing the development of LDA-related gastroduodenal erosions than 40 mg/day of famotidine. The preventive effects of these two regimens on the development of LDA-related gastroduodenal ulcers require further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDS: The present study sought to establish a standard third-line eradication regimen for Helicobacter pylori in Japan. METHODS: Subjects were 204 patients with H. pylori infection in whom the standard Japanese first- and second-line eradication therapies had proven unsuccessful. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following third-line eradication therapy groups: (1) LA group: lansoprazole (LPZ) 30 mg 4 times a day (qid) + amoxicillin (AMPC) 500 mg qid for two weeks; (2) LAL group: LPZ 30 mg twice a day (bid) + AMPC 750 mg bid + levofloxacin (LVFX) 300 mg bid for one week; (3) LAS group: LPZ 30 mg bid + AMPC 750 mg bid + sitafloxacin (STFX) 100 mg bid for one week. Patients for whom these therapies failed underwent a crossover fourth-line eradication regimen. Drug sensitivity was also tested for AMPC, clarithromycin (CAM), MNZ, LVFX, and STFX. RESULTS: Drug resistance rates prior to third-line eradication therapy were 86.4 % for CAM, 71.3 % for MNZ, 57.0 % for LVFX, 8.2 % for AMPC, and 7.7 % for STFX. Intention-to-treat analysis of third-line eradication therapy eradication rates showed a significantly higher rate in the LAS group (70.0 %) compared with the LA group (54.3 %; p < 0.05) and the LAL group (43.1 %; p < 0.001). The significantly lower rate in the LAL group than the LAS group was caused by bacterial resistance to LVFX. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that triple therapy with PPI, AMPC, and STFX for one week would be an effective standard third-line eradication regimen for H. pylori in Japan.
Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the vast majority of depressed patients visit primary health care clinics, they often remain undiagnosed and untreated. Therefore, early detection in primary care settings is important. There is a high correlation between number of physical symptoms and the presence of depression, yet little has been reported regarding this relationship in Japanese primary care clinics. We examined number of physical symptoms and depression in a department of general medicine of a Japanese hospital. We included patients with unexplained symptoms after multiple tests to rule out organic diseases. Twenty-one common symptoms were assessed using a symptom checklist. Depression was diagnosed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, a self-administered questionnaire designed to diagnose depression. Among 386 patients, 105 (27.2%) (average age: 49.7 ± 20.9 years, 28 men and 77 women) met the criteria for depression. Among the 21 symptoms, 14 were significantly more frequent in patients with depression than in those without depression. When patients had neither general fatigue, nor sleep disturbance nor appetite loss, none met the criteria for depression. Number of symptoms was significantly higher in patients with compared with those without depression. The prevalence of depression increased with number of symptoms: 2% (2/100) for 0 or 1 symptom, 42.4% (42/99) for four to five symptoms and 68.7% (22/32) for more than nine symptoms. Japanese primary care physicians can often rule out depression when patients have neither general fatigue, nor sleep disturbance nor appetite loss. A diagnosis of depression should be considered in patients who report multiple physical symptoms.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2013; 229(4):279-85. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: Successful eradication of H. pylori changes pathological findings of gastritis dramatically. However, change of endoscopic mucosal findings is not fully understood. To clarify the short-term changes of endoscopic mucosal findings after cure of H. pylori infection, a multicenter prospective trial was conducted. METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven patients with H. pylori infection from 12 institutions were enrolled into this prospective cohort trial. Nineteen endoscopic findings using high-resolution white light electronic endoscopy were assessed before and 2-4 months after eradication treatment of H. pylori. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by pathology of three stomach sites using hematoxylin-eosin stain or H. pylori-specific immunostaining. Endoscopic features of the successful eradication group and the failed eradication group were compared. The change of severity of endoscopic features before and after H. pylori eradication were compared between successful eradication and failed eradication. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six patients were analyzed. Eradication rate was 81% (102/126). Non-transparency of gastric juice, diffuse redness of fundic mucosa, enlarged fold, spotty redness of fundic mucosa, flat erosion of stomach, and hemoglobin index of fundic mucosa were significantly different between the successful eradication group and the failed eradication group. Gastric flat erosion was of higher frequency in the successful eradication group. When eradication was successful, spotty redness of fundic gland improved significantly. CONCLUSION: Assessment of endoscopic findings of spotty redness after eradication treatment is useful in the diagnosis of H. pylori eradication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a problematic issue for patients who take low-dose aspirin for long time. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the efficacy of combination therapy with proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. All the subjects received aspirin 100 mg and omeprazole 20 mg. The subjects were divided into two groups and received either rebamipide 300 mg or placebo, which was prescribed for 4 weeks. The subjects were instructed to record their gastrointestinal symptom rating scale before the study and 1 and 4 weeks after beginning the protocol. These scores of the groups were compared before and after the treatment to evaluate the severity of their symptoms and the number of symptom items present in each group. For the subjects receiving rebamipide, the total prevalence of lower gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly different from the placebo group (p=0.0093) at week 4. No troublesome symptoms were observed in the rebamipide group. Inconclusion, the administration of rebamipide prevented the occurrence of troublesome symptoms, especially lower gastrointestinal symptoms, in patients taking aspirin and omeprazole. Rebamipide is a candidate drug for combination therapy with proton pump inhibitors to prevent low-dose aspirin-induced gastrointestinal symptoms.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 11/2012; 51(3):216-20. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have the potential to injure the mucosa of the upper digestive tract and small bowel, whereas celecoxib (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) has less influence on the entire digestive tract mucosa. The present study was conducted to compare the extents of small bowel mucosal injury induced by celecoxib and loxoprofen (the most frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Japan). METHODS: Ten healthy adult males were given celecoxib (200 mg/day, Group C) and loxoprofen (180 mg/day, Group L) in a cross-over design for 14 days, and the influence of each drug on small bowel mucosa was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-treatment capsule endoscopy findings. We measured the percentage of patients with small bowel mucosal injury following administration of these drugs as primary endpoint. Additionally, mean number of small bowel mucosal injuries per subject was analyzed as secondary endpoint. RESULTS: The percentage of subjects experiencing small bowel mucosal injury as primary endpoint was 10% in Group C and 70% in Group L after treatment. This magnitude of the difference of between Group C and Group L was statistically significant (P = 0.031). The number of small bowel mucosal injuries as secondary endpoint differed significantly between the two groups, and the influence of celecoxib on small bowel injury was less than that of loxoprofen. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that celecoxib has less influence on small bowel mucosa than loxoprofen and can be used safely.