Masahiro Yoshida

International University of Health and Welfare, Otahara, Tochigi, Japan

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Publications (114)199.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Japanese (JPN) guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis were published in 2006. The severity assessment criteria for acute pancreatitis were later revised by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in 2008, leading to their publication as the JPN Guidelines 2010. Following the 2012 revision of the Atlanta Classifications of Acute Pancreatitis, in which the classifications of regional complications of pancreatitis were revised, the development of a minimally invasive method for local complications of pancreatitis spread, and emerging evidence was gathered and revised into the JPN Guidelines. A comprehensive evaluation was carried out on the evidence for epidemiology, diagnosis, severity, treatment, post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis and clinical indicators, based on the concepts of the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). With the graded recommendations, where the evidence was unclear, Meta-Analysis team for JPN Guidelines 2015 conducted an additional new meta-analysis, the results of which were included in the guidelines. Thirty-nine questions were prepared in 17 subject areas, for which 43 recommendations were made. The 17 subject areas were: Diagnosis, Diagnostic imaging, Etiology, Severity assessment, Transfer indication, Fluid therapy, Nasogastric tube, Pain control, Antibiotics prophylaxis, Protease inhibitor, Nutritional support, Intensive care, management of Biliary Pancreatitis, management of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, Interventions for the local complications, Post-ERCP pancreatitis and Clinical Indicator (Pancreatitis Bundles 2015). Meta-analysis was conducted in the following four subject areas based on randomized controlled trials: (1) prophylactic antibiotics use; (2) prophylactic pancreatic stent placement for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis; (3) prophylactic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis; and (4) peritoneal lavage. Using the results of the meta-analysis, recommendations were graded to create useful information. In addition, a mobile application was developed, which made it possible to diagnose, assess severity and check pancreatitis bundles. The JPN Guidelines 2015 were prepared using the most up-to-date methods, and including the latest recommended medical treatments, and we are confident that this will make them easy for many clinicians to use, and will provide a useful tool in the decision-making process for the treatment of patients, and optimal medical support. The free mobile application and calculator for the JPN Guidelines 2015 is available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/jpn-guideline2015.html. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 05/2015; 22(6). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.259 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taking together the recent dramatical changes of the revised Atlanta classification and evidence newly obtained such as the role of step-up approach for necrotizing pancreatitis, the revision committee of the Japanese (JPN) guidelines 2015 prompted to perform the extensive revision of the guidelines. The JPN guidelines 2015 was compared to the former edition 2010, and revision concepts and major revision points were reviewed. We compared the JPN 2015 with the other two guidelines, IAP (International Association of Pancreatology) / APA (American Pancreas Association) 2013 and American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) 2013, in order to clarify the distinct points. The meta-analysis team conducted a new meta-analysis of 4 subjects which have been associated with conflicting results. It is apparent that the revised guidelines have been created more systematically and more objectively. As of antibiotics prophylaxis, its use in early phase (within 72 hours of onset) for severe acute pancreatitis is recommended in JPN 2015 according to the results of original meta-analysis, whereas the other two guidelines do not recommend its routine use. An approach and management of local complications in necrotizing pancreatitis including infected necrosis are almost similar in the three guidelines. JPN 2015 alone emphasize the implementation of the pancreatitis bundles which specify the management and treatment within the first 48 h after the onset of severe acute pancreatitis. The JPN guidelines 2015 are proved to be the highest quality in terms of systematic literature review conducting an original analyses by the meta-analysis team, determining the grading of recommendations and providing pancreatitis bundles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 04/2015; 22(6). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.260 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The concept of borderline resectability has not yet been introduced for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC). In this study, the surgical results of ECC patients were analyzed to clarify the implications of surgery for distal ECC with portal vein (PV) invasion as a preliminary step for the introduction of the concept of borderline resectability.Methods The clinicopathological data of 129 patients who had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy of distal ECC were reviewed retrospectively. Combined PV resection was performed in 10 patients. The clinicopathological variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsPathological PV invasion was observed in eight of the 129 patients. The survival rates of patients with PV invasion were significantly poorer than those of patients without PV invasion: 3 and 5 years after surgery, 17% and 0% versus 50% and 39% (P < 0.001), respectively. Presence of pancreatic or PV invasion, tumor progression, nodal status, and residual tumor were significant prognostic factors on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, PV invasion was the only significant independent predictive factor of a poor prognosis.ConclusionsPV invasion of distal ECC should be regarded as indicating borderline resectability.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 04/2015; 22(4). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.198 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery launched the clinical practice guidelines for the management of biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas in 2008. Novel treatment modalities and handling of clinical issues have been proposed after the publication. New approaches for editing clinical guidelines, such as the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, also have been introduced for better and clearer grading of recommendations. Clinical questions (CQs) were proposed in seven topics. Recommendation, grade of recommendation and statement for each CQ were discussed and finalized by evidence-based approach. Recommendation was graded to grade 1 (strong) and 2 (weak) according to the concept of GRADE system. The 29 CQs covered seven topics: (1) prophylactic treatment, (2) diagnosis, (3) biliary drainage, (4) surgical treatment, (5) chemotherapy, (6) radiation therapy, and (7) pathology. In 27 CQs, 19 recommendations were rated strong and 11 recommendations weak. Each CQ included the statement of how the recommendation was graded. This guideline provides recommendation for important clinical aspects based on evidence. Future collaboration with cancer registry will be a key for assessment of the guidelines and establishment of new evidence. Free full-text articles and a mobile application of this guideline are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/biliary-tract2.html. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 03/2015; 22(4). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.233 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics use for acute necrotizing pancreatitis has been explored and a number of systematic reviews have been published with conflicting results. The timing of antibiotics administration can be fundamental to their effectiveness, but thus far no reviews have focused on the timing of administration. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic antibiotics for acute necrotizing pancreatitis was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina. Trials in which antibiotics were administered within 72 h after onset of symptoms or 48 h after admission were included. Our primary outcomes were the mortality rate and the incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis, and secondary outcomes were the incidence of non-pancreatic infection and the incidence of surgical intervention. The search revealed six RCTs with a total of 397 patients. The mortality rates were significantly different for those taking antibiotics (7.4%), and controls (14.4%) (odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.94). Also, early prophylactic antibiotics use was associated with reduced incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis (antibiotics 16.3%, controls 25.1%; OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.92). Early use of prophylactic antibiotics for acute necrotizing pancreatitis is associated with reduced mortality and lower incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 02/2015; 22(4). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.221
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    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 04/2013; 20(5). DOI:10.1007/s00534-013-0617-z · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 03/2013; 20(4). DOI:10.1007/s00534-013-0601-7 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07), diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria for acute cholangitis have been presented and extensively used as the primary standard all over the world. However, it has been found that there are crucial limitations in these criteria. The diagnostic criteria of TG07 do not have enough sensitivity and specificity, and its severity assessment criteria are unsuitable for clinical use. A working team for the revision of TG07 was organized in June, 2010, and these criteria have been updated through clinical implementation and its assessment by means of multi-center analysis. The diagnostic criteria of acute cholangitis have been revised as criteria to establish the diagnosis where cholestasis and inflammation demonstrated by clinical signs or blood test in addition to biliary manifestations demonstrated by imaging are present. The diagnostic criteria of the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) have high sensitivity (87.6 %) and high specificity (77.7 %). TG13 has better diagnostic capacity than TG07. Severity assessment is classified as follows: Grade III: associated with organ failure; Grade II: early biliary drainage should be conducted; Grade1: others. As for the severity assessment criteria of TG07, separating Grade II and Grade I at the time of diagnosis was impossible, so they were unsuitable for clinical practice. Therefore, the severity assessment criteria of TG13 have been revised so as not to lose the timing of biliary drainage or treatment for etiology. Based on evidence, five predictive factors for poor prognosis in acute cholangitis--hyperbilirubinemia, high fever, leukocytosis, elderly patient and hypoalbuminemia--have been extracted. Grade II can be diagnosed if two of these five factors are present.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0561-3 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bundles that define mandatory items or procedures to be performed in clinical practice have been increasingly used in guidelines in recent years. Observance of bundles enables improvement of the prognosis of target diseases as well as guideline preparation. There were no bundles adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007, but the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) have adopted this useful tool. Items or procedures strongly recommended in clinical practice have been prepared in the practical guidelines and presented as management bundles. TG13 defined the mandatory items for the management of acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis. Critical parts of the bundles in TG13 include diagnostic process, severity assessment, transfer of patients if necessary, therapeutic approach, and time course. Their observance should improve the prognosis of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. When utilizing TG13 management bundles, further clinical research needs to be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and outcomes of the bundles. It is also expected that the present report will lead to evidence construction and contribute to further updating of the Tokyo Guidelines.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0562-2 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Tokyo Guidelines of 2007 (TG07) described the techniques and recommendations of biliary decompression in patients with acute cholangitis. TG07 recommended that endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage should be selected as a first-choice therapy for acute cholangitis because it is associated with a low mortality rate and shorter duration of hospitalization. However, TG07 did not include the whole technique of standard endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage, for example, biliary cannulation techniques including contrast medium-assisted cannulation, wire-guided cannulation, and treatment of duodenal major papilla using endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD). Furthermore, recently single- or double-balloon enteroscopy-assisted biliary drainage (BE-BD) and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) have been reported as special techniques for biliary drainage. Nevertheless, the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) recommends that endoscopic drainage should be first-choice treatment for biliary decompression in patients with non-surgically altered anatomy and suggests that the choice of cannulation technique or drainage method (endoscopic naso-biliary drainage and stenting) depends on the endoscopist's preference but EST should be selected rather than EPBD from the aspect of procedure-related complications. In terms of BE-BD and EUS-BD, although there are many reports on the their usefulness, they should be performed by skilled endoscopists in high-volume institutes, who are good at enteroscopy or echoendosonography, respectively, because procedures and devices are not yet established.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0569-8 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) were first published in the Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. The fundamental policy of TG07 was to achieve the objectives of TG07 through the development of consensus among specialists in this field throughout the world. Considering such a situation, validation and feedback from the clinicians' viewpoints were indispensable. What had been pointed out from clinical practice was the low diagnostic sensitivity of TG07 for acute cholangitis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. In June 2010, we set up the Tokyo Guidelines Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) and started the validation of TG07. We also set up new diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria by retrospectively analyzing cases of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, including cases of non-inflammatory biliary disease, collected from multiple institutions. TGRC held meetings a total of 35 times as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad. On June 9 and September 6, 2011, and on April 11, 2012, we held three International Meetings for the Clinical Assessment and Revision of Tokyo Guidelines. Through these meetings, the final draft of the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) was prepared on the basis of the evidence from retrospective multi-center analyses. To be specific, discussion took place involving the revised new diagnostic criteria, and the new severity assessment criteria, new flowcharts of the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, recommended medical care for which new evidence had been added, new recommendations for gallbladder drainage and antimicrobial therapy, and the role of surgical intervention. Management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were introduced for effective dissemination with the level of evidence and the grade of recommendations. GRADE systems were utilized to provide the level of evidence and the grade of recommendations. TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates adapted for clinical practice. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The bundles for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis are presented in a separate section in TG13.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0566-y · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its publication in 2007, the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) have been widely adopted. The validation of TG07 conducted in terms of clinical practice has shown that the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis are highly reliable but that the definition of definite diagnosis is ambiguous. Discussion by the Tokyo Guidelines Revision Committee concluded that acute cholecystitis should be suspected when Murphy's sign, local inflammatory findings in the gallbladder such as right upper quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness, and fever and systemic inflammatory reaction findings detected by blood tests are present but that definite diagnosis of acute cholecystitis can be made only on the basis of the imaging of ultrasonography, computed tomography or scintigraphy (HIDA scan). These proposed diagnostic criteria provided better specificity and accuracy rates than the TG07 diagnostic criteria. As for the severity assessment criteria in TG07, there is evidence that TG07 resulted in clarification of the concept of severe acute cholecystitis. Furthermore, there is evidence that severity assessment in TG07 has led to a reduction in the mean duration of hospital stay. As for the factors used to establish a moderate grade of acute cholecystitis, such as leukocytosis, ALP, old age, diabetes, being male, and delay in admission, no new strong evidence has been detected indicating that a change in the criteria used in TG07 is needed. Therefore, it was judged that the severity assessment criteria of TG07 could be applied in the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) with minor changes. TG13 presents new standards for the diagnosis, severity grading and management of acute cholecystitis.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0568-9 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a management strategy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis according to the severity assessment. For Grade I (mild) acute cholangitis, initial medical treatment including the use of antimicrobial agents may be sufficient for most cases. For non-responders to initial medical treatment, biliary drainage should be considered. For Grade II (moderate) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed along with the administration of antibiotics. For Grade III (severe) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support is required. After hemodynamic stabilization has been achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. In patients with Grade II (moderate) and Grade III (severe) acute cholangitis, treatment for the underlying etiology including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient's general condition has been improved. In patients with Grade I (mild) acute cholangitis, treatment for etiology such as endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis might be performed simultaneously, if possible, with biliary drainage. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the first-line treatment in patients with Grade I (mild) acute cholecystitis while in patients with Grade II (moderate) acute cholecystitis, delayed/elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy after initial medical treatment with antimicrobial agent is the first-line treatment. In non-responders to initial medical treatment, gallbladder drainage should be considered. In patients with Grade III (severe) acute cholecystitis, appropriate organ support in addition to initial medical treatment is necessary. Urgent or early gallbladder drainage is recommended. Elective cholecystectomy can be performed after the improvement of the acute inflammatory process.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0563-1 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with gallstones, frequency of severe cholecystitis and cholangitis, onset of cholecystitis and cholangitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and medications, mortality rate, and recurrence rate. The primary etiology of acute cholangitis/cholecystitis is the presence of stones. Next to stones, the most significant etiology of acute cholangitis is benign/malignant stenosis of the biliary tract. On the other hand, there is another type of acute cholecystitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, in which stones are not involved as causative factors. Risk factors for acute acalculous cholecystitis include surgery, trauma, burn, and parenteral nutrition. After 2000, the mortality rate of acute cholangitis has been about 10 %, while that of acute cholecystitis has generally been less than 1 %. After the publication of TG07, diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria were standardized, and the distribution of cases according to severity and comparison of clinical data among target populations have become more subjective. The concept of healthcare-associated infections is important in the current treatment of infection. The treatment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis substantially differs from that of community-acquired infections. Cholangitis and cholecystitis as healthcare-associated infections are clearly described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13).Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0564-0 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes typical diseases and morbidities classified in the category of miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis. The paper also comments on the evidence presented in the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG 07) published in 2007 and the evidence reported subsequently, as well as miscellaneous etiology that has not so far been touched on. (1) Oriental cholangitis is the type of cholangitis that occurs following intrahepatic stones and is frequently referred to as an endemic disease in Southeast Asian regions. The characteristics and diagnosis of oriental cholangitis are also commented on. (2) TG 07 recommended percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with cholestasis (many of the patients have obstructive jaundice or acute cholangitis and present clinical signs due to hilar biliary stenosis or obstruction). However, the usefulness of endoscopic naso-biliary drainage has increased along with the spread of endoscopic biliary drainage procedures. (3) As for biliary tract infections in patients who underwent biliary tract surgery, the incidence rate of cholangitis after reconstruction of the biliary tract and liver transplantation is presented. (4) As for primary sclerosing cholangitis, the frequency, age of predilection and the rate of combination of inflammatory enteropathy and biliary tract cancer are presented. (5) In the case of acalculous cholecystitis, the frequency of occurrence, causative factors and complications as well as the frequency of gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder perforation and diagnostic accuracy are included in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13).Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0565-z · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now accepted as a surgical procedure for acute cholecystitis when it is performed by an expert surgeon. There are several lines of strong evidence, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses, supporting the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis. The updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) describe the surgical treatment for acute cholecystitis according to the grade of severity, the timing, and the procedure used for cholecystitis in a question-and-answer format using the evidence concerning surgical management of acute cholecystitis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty-eight publications were selected for a careful examination of their full texts, and the types of surgical management of acute cholecystitis were investigated using this evidence. The items concerning the surgical management of acute cholecystitis were the optimal surgical treatment for acute cholecystitis according to the grade of severity, optimal timing for the cholecystectomy, surgical procedure used for cholecystectomy, optimal timing of the conversion of cholecystectomy from laparoscopic to open surgery, and the complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. RESULTS: There were eight RCTs and four meta-analyses concerning the optimal timing of the cholecystectomy. Consequently, it was found that cholecystectomy is preferable early after admission. There were three RCTs and two meta-analyses concerning the surgical procedure, which concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is preferable to open procedures. Literature concerning the surgical treatment according to the grade of severity could not be quoted, because there have been no publications on this topic. Therefore, the treatment was determined based on the general opinions of professionals. CONCLUSION: Surgical management of acute cholecystitis in the updated TG13 is fundamentally the same as in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07), and the concept of a critical view of safety and the existence of extreme vasculobiliary injury are added in the text to call the surgeon's attention to the need to reduce the incidence of bile duct injury. Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0567-x · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is considered a safe alternative to early cholecystectomy, especially in surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Although randomized prospective controlled trials are lacking, data from most retrospective studies demonstrate that PTGBD is the most common gallbladder drainage method. There are several alternatives to PTGBD. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration is a simple alternative drainage method with fewer complications; however, its clinical usefulness has been shown only by case-series studies. Endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage and gallbladder stenting via a transpapillary endoscopic approach are also alternative methods in acute cholecystitis, but both of them have technical difficulties resulting in lower success rates than that of PTGBD. Recently, endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural gallbladder drainage has been reported as a special technique for gallbladder drainage. However, it is not yet an established technique. Therefore, it should be performed in high-volume institutes by skilled endoscopists. Further prospective evaluations of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of these various approaches are needed. This article describes indications and techniques of drainage for acute cholecystitis.Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0570-2 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy with appropriate antimicrobial agents is an important component in the management of patients with acute cholangitis and/or acute cholecystitis. In the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13), we recommend antimicrobial agents that are suitable from a global perspective for management of these infections. These recommendations focus primarily on empirical therapy (presumptive therapy), provided before the infecting isolates are identified. Such therapy depends upon knowledge of both local microbial epidemiology and patient-specific factors that affect selection of appropriate agents. These patient-specific factors include prior contact with the health care system, and we separate community-acquired versus healthcare-associated infections because of the higher risk of resistance in the latter. Selection of agents for community-acquired infections is also recommended on the basis of severity (grades I-III). Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html .
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 01/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0572-0 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese Guidelines for management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were published in 2005 as the first practical guidelines presenting diagnostic and severity assessment criteria for these diseases. After the Japanese version, the Tokyo Guidelines (TG07) were reported in 2007 as the first international practical guidelines. There were some differences between the two guidelines, and some weak points in TG07 were pointed out, such as low sensitivity for diagnosis and the presence of divergence between severity assessment and clinical judgment for acute cholangitis. Therefore, revisions were started to not only make them up to date but also concurrent with the same diagnostic and severity assessment criteria. The Revision Committee for the revision of TG07 (TGRC) performed validation studies of TG07 and new diagnostic and severity assessment criteria of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. These were retrospective multi-institutional studies that collected cases of acute cholangitis, cholecystitis, and non-inflammatory biliary disease. TGRC held 35 meetings as well as international email exchanges with co-authors abroad and held three International Meetings. Through these efforts, TG13 improved the diagnostic sensitivity for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis, and presented criteria with extremely low false positive rates. Furthermore, severity assessment criteria adapted for clinical use, flowcharts, and many new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were presented. The world's first management bundles of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were also presented. The revised Japanese version was published with the same content as TG13. An electronic application of TG13 that can help to diagnose and assess the severity of these diseases using the criteria of TG13 was made for free download.
    Journal of UOEH 01/2013; 35(4):249-257. DOI:10.7888/juoeh.35.249
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    ABSTRACT: The Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) were published in 2007 as the world's first guidelines for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. The diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of acute cholecystitis have since been widely used all over the world. A validation study of TG07 has shown that the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis are highly reliable but that the definition of definite diagnosis is ambiguous. In addition, considerable new evidence referring to acute cholecystitis as well as evaluations of TG07 have been published. Consequently, we organized the Tokyo Guidelines Revision Committee to evaluate TG07, recognize new evidence, and conduct a multi-center analysis to revise the guidelines (TG13). We retrospectively analyzed 451 patients with acute cholecystitis from multiple tertiary care centers in Japan. All 451 patients were first evaluated using the criteria in TG07. The "gold standard" for acute cholecystitis in this study was a diagnosis by pathology. The validity of TG07 diagnostic criteria was investigated by comparing clinical with pathological diagnosis. Of 451 patients evaluated, a total of 227 patients were given a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis by pathological examination (prevalence 50.3 %). TG07 criteria provided a definite diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 224 patients. The sensitivity of TG07 diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis was 92.1 %, and the specificity was 93.3 %. Based on the preliminary results, new diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis were proposed. Using the new criteria, the sensitivity of definite diagnosis was 91.2 %, and the specificity was 96.9 %. The accuracy rate was improved from 92.7 to 94.0 %. In regard to severity grading among 227 patients, 111 patients were classified as Mild (Grade I), 104 as Moderate (Grade II), and 12 as Severe (Grade III). The proposed new diagnostic criteria achieved better performance than the diagnostic criteria in TG07. Therefore, the proposed criteria have been adopted as new diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis and are referred to as the 2013 Tokyo Guidelines (TG13). Regarding severity assessment, no new evidence was found to suggest that the criteria in TG07 needed major adjustment. As a result, TG07 severity assessment criteria have been adopted in TG13 with minor changes.
    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 08/2012; 19(5):578-85. DOI:10.1007/s00534-012-0548-0 · 2.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
199.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • International University of Health and Welfare
      Otahara, Tochigi, Japan
  • 2009
    • KAKEN HOSPITAL
      Ichikawa, Chiba, Japan
  • 1996–2009
    • Teikyo University Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2008
    • Teikyo University
      • Department of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006
    • Chiba University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan