Rose Parkinson

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

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Publications (9)34.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: DNA vaccination is an invaluable approach for immune therapy in that it lacks vector interference and thus permits repeated vaccination boosts. However, by themselves, DNA-based vaccines are typically poor inducers of Ag-specific immunity in humans and non-human primates. Cytokines, such as IL-12 and IL-15, have been shown to be potent adjuvants for the induction and maintenance of cellular immune responses, in particular during HIV infection. In this study, we examined the ability of therapeutic vaccination with SIV-DNA+IL-12 or IL-15 as molecular adjuvants to improve DNA vaccine potency and to enhance memory immune responses in SIV-infected macaques. Our results demonstrate that incorporating IL-12 into the vaccine induces SIV-specific CD8 effector memory T cell (T(EM)) functional responses and enhances the capacity of IFN-gamma-producing CD8 T(EM) cells to produce TNF. Lower levels of PD-1 were expressed on T cells acquiring dual function upon vaccination as compared with mono-functional CD8 T(EM) cells. Finally, a boost with SIV-DNA+IL-15 triggered most T cell memory subsets in macaques primed with either DNA-SIV or placebo but only CD8 T(EM) in macaques primed with SIV-DNA+IL-12. These results indicate that plasmid IL-12 and IL-15 cytokines represent a significant addition to enhance the ability of therapeutic DNA vaccines to induce better immunity.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2008; 180(12):7969-79. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cell-mediated immune profile induced by a recombinant DNA vaccine was assessed in the simian/HIV (SHIV) and macaque model. The vaccine strategy included coimmunization of a DNA-based vaccine alone or in combination with an optimized plasmid encoding macaque IL-15 (pmacIL-15). We observed strong induction of vaccine-specific IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) and CD4(+) effector T cells in the vaccination groups. Animals were subsequently challenged with 89.6p. The vaccine groups were protected from ongoing infection, and the IL-15 covaccinated group showed a more rapidly controlled infection than the group treated with DNA vaccine alone. Lymphocytes isolated from the group covaccinated with pmacIL-15 had higher cellular proliferative responses than lymphocytes isolated from the macaques that received SHIV DNA alone. Vaccine antigen activation of lymphocytes was also studied for a series of immunological molecules. Although mRNA for IFN-gamma was up-regulated after antigen stimulation, the inflammatory molecules IL-8 and MMP-9 were down-regulated. These observed immune profiles are potentially reflective of the ability of the different groups to control SHIV replication. This study demonstrates that an optimized IL-15 immune adjuvant delivered with a DNA vaccine can impact the cellular immune profile in nonhuman primates and lead to enhanced suppression of viral replication.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2007; 104(47):18648-53. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present era of increasing resistance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to antiviral drugs, exploration of adjunct therapies directed at immune responses in combination with antiretroviral drugs may be of value for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this study, we designed a model for immune therapy using SIVmac251 infection in rhesus macaques. We explored the outcomes of primary infection on viral loads and the resulting T-cell immune responses in primates. The SIV-infected rhesus macaque model exhibited features similar to those observed in HIV-1 infection of humans. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) segregation with viral loads were found to associate with viral containment and hence the duration of the disease-free latency period. Thus a better understanding of the relative roles of MHC class I allele in control of viral replication may provide important information for prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine designs. Mamu-A01 is significantly associated with higher immune response and control of viral replication. This allele is frequent in rhesus macaques of Indian origin (22%). Interestingly, Mamu-B01 (26% animals) was associated with lower immune responses and higher viral loads. Another allele, A08 was also predominantly present in 37% of the animals in this study. We observed higher viral replication in individual SIV-infected rhesus monkeys that did not demonstrate strong cellular immune responses. The results are important for understanding SIV disease progression in different MHC Mamu alleles and also for improving the interpretation and quality of pre-clinical studies in rhesus monkeys.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 09/2006; 35(4-5):202-9. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses play a significant part in controlling HIV-1 viral replication and are an important component of an HIV-1 vaccine induced immune response. We reported earlier that recombinant DNA vaccine delivered intramuscularly, and recombinant Listeria monocytogenes, delivered orally induced CD8+ and CD4+ T cell immune responses in rhesus macaques and that this vaccine protocol showed partial protection against an SIV239 challenge. In this paper, we have analyzed the SIV antigen-specific immune responses at the time of challenge and during the subsequent infection course. We find that the immune status of the animals, as measured by the frequency of antigen-specific IFN-gamma secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, at the time of challenge correlates more strongly with viral loads at set point than peak viral loads. The correlation between the immune response and viral load was strongest early, as viral set-point was just being established and disintegrates overtime. This study demonstrates the cellular immune response to SIV at the time of challenge of a nonhuman primate is able to impact on viral set-point following SIV239 challenge. Further, this study demonstrates that as virus replicates the T cell immune response to SIV antigens induced by the vaccine is modulated by antigen encountered by immune cells during viral replication.
    Vaccine 06/2006; 24(21):4498-502. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 01/2006; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Supercoiled plasmids are an important component of gene-based delivery vehicles. A number of production methods for clinical applications have been developed, each resulting in very high-quality product with low levels of residual contaminants. There is, however, no consensus on the optimal methods to characterize plasmid quality, and further, to determine if these methods are predictive of either product stability or biological activity. We have produced two plasmids using four production purification methodologies based on PolyFlo and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), either alone or in tandem processes. In each case, the product was analyzed using standard molecular biological methods. We also performed a number of biophysical analyses such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Minimal differences were detected among the preparations based on the more standard molecular biological methods. Some small differences were detected, however, using biophysical techniques, particularly FTIR and DSC, which may reflect small variations in plasmid tertiary structure and thermal stability. Stability after heat exposure at 60 degrees C, exposure to fetal bovine serum and long-term storage at 4 degrees C varied between plasmids. One plasmid showed no difference in stability depending on the production process, but the other showed significant differences. Evaluation in vivo in models for gene immunization and gene therapy showed significant differences in the response depending on the method of purification. Preparations using a tandem process of PolyFlo used in two separation modes provided higher biological activity compared to a tandem HIC/PolyFlo process or either resin used alone in a single column process. These data indicate that the process by which supercoiled plasmids are made can influence plasmid stability and biological activity and emphasize the need for more rigorous methods to evaluate supercoiled plasmids as gene-delivery vehicles.
    DNA and Cell Biology 01/2006; 24(12):819-31. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current evidence suggests that a strong induced CD8 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cell mediated immune response may be an important aspect of an HIV vaccine. The response rates and the magnitude of the CTL responses induced by current DNA vaccines in humans need to be improved and cellular immune responses to DNA vaccines can be enhanced in mice by co-delivering DNA plasmids expressing immune modulators. Two reported to work well in the mouse systems are interleukin (IL)-12 and CD40L. We sought to compare these molecular adjuvants in a primate model system. The cDNA for macaque IL-12 and CD40L were cloned into DNA vectors. Groups of cynomolgus macaques were immunized with 2 mg of plasmid expressing SIVgag alone or in combination with either IL-12 or CD40L. CD40L did not appear to enhance the cellular immune response to SIVgag antigen. However, more robust results were observed in animals co-injected with the IL-12 molecular adjuvant. The IL-12 expanded antigen-specific IFN-gamma positive effector cells as well as granzyme B production. The vaccine immune responses contained both a CD8 component as well a CD4 component. The adjuvanted DNA vaccines illustrate that IL-12 enhances a CD8 vaccine immune response, however, different cellular profiles.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 11/2005; 34(5-6):262-70. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines are a promising technology for the induction of Ag-specific immune responses, and much recent attention has gone into improving their immune potency. In this study we test the feasibility of delivering a plasmid encoding IL-15 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant for the induction of improved Ag-specific CD8(+) T cellular immune responses. Because native IL-15 is poorly expressed, we used PCR-based strategies to develop an optimized construct that expresses 80-fold higher than the native IL-15 construct. Using a DNA vaccination model, we determined that immunization with optimized IL-15 in combination with HIV-1gag DNA constructs resulted in a significant enhancement of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion, and strong induction of long-lived CD8(+) T cell responses. In an influenza DNA vaccine model, coimmunization with plasmid expressing influenza A PR8/34 hemagglutinin with the optimized IL-15 plasmid generated improved long term CD8(+) T cellular immunity and protected the mice against a lethal mucosal challenge with influenza virus. Because we observed that IL-15 appeared to mostly adjuvant CD8(+) T cell function, we show that in the partial, but not total, absence of CD4(+) T cell help, plasmid-delivered IL-15 could restore CD8 secondary immune responses to an antigenic DNA plasmid, supporting the idea that the effects of IL-15 on CD8(+) T cell expansion require the presence of low levels of CD4 T cells. These data suggest a role for enhanced plasmid IL-15 as a candidate adjuvant for vaccine or immunotherapeutic studies.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2005; 175(1):112-23. · 5.52 Impact Factor