[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates.
Journal of Virology 09/2011; 85(22):12053-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The macrophage-tropic lentivirus, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), encodes the small auxiliary protein S2 from a short open reading frame that overlaps the amino terminus of env EIAV S2 is dispensable for virus replication in cultured cells but is required for disease production. S2 is approximately 7 kDa and has no overall amino acid sequence homology to other cellular or viral proteins. Therefore it is likely that S2 plays a role as an adaptor protein. To further investigate S2 function we performed a yeast-2-hybrid screen to identify cellular proteins that interact with EIAV S2. The screen identified two human cellular proteins, amplified in osteosarcoma (OS-9) and proteasome 26S ATPase subunit 3 (PSMC3) that interact with S2. The equine homologues of these proteins were cloned and their interactions with S2 confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation assays. We identified two OS-9 isoforms that interact with S2 and a third splice variant that does not, indicating a region of OS-9 apparently required for the S2 interaction. The roles of these cellular proteins during EIAV infection have not been determined.
Virus Research 08/2010; 151(2):235-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection is distinctive in that it causes a rapid onset of clinical disease relative to other retroviruses. In order to understand the interaction dynamics between EIAV and the host immune response, we explored the effects of EIAV and its S2 protein in the regulation of the cytokine and chemokine response in macrophages. EIAV infection markedly altered the expression pattern of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines monitored in the study. Comparative studies in the cytokine response between EIAV(17) and EIAV(17DeltaS2) infection revealed that S2 enhances the expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-8, MCP-2, MIP-1beta and IP-10. Moreover, S2 specifically induced the expression of the newly discovered cytokine, IL-34. Taken together, these results may help explain the effect of cytokine and chemokine dysregulation in EIAV pathogenesis and suggest a role of S2 in optimizing the host cell environment to promote viral dissemination and replication.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Here, we investigate the effect of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) on the expression of MMP-9 in ENU1564, an ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. We observed that FGF-1 induces a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 mRNA, protein, and activity in ENU1564 cells. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of MMP-9 regulation by FGF-1, we investigated the role of components of PI3K-Akt and MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathways in our system since NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factor binding sites have been characterized in the upstream region of the MMP-9 gene. We demonstrated that FGF-1 increases Akt phosphorylation, triggers nuclear translocation of NF-kappaBp65, and enhances degradation of cytoplasmic IkappaBalpha. Pretreatment of cells with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly inhibited MMP-9 protein expression in FGF-1-treated cells. Conversely, our data show that FGF-1 increases ERK phosphorylation in ENU1564 cells, increases c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner, and triggers nuclear translocation of c-jun. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a MEK1/2 inhibitor significantly inhibited MMP-9 protein expression in FGF-1 treated cells. Finally, we observed increased DNA binding of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in FGF-1-treated cells and that mutation of either NF-kappaB or AP-1 response elements prevented MMP-9 promoter activation by FGF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that FGF-1-induced MMP-9 expression in ENU1564 cells is associated with increasing DNA binding activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and involve activation of a dual signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt and MEK1/2-ERK.