S S Banga

University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

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Publications (10)44.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The mei-41 gene of Drosophila melanogaster plays an essential role in meiosis, in the maintenance of somatic chromosome stability, in postreplication repair and in DNA double-strand break repair. This gene has been cytogenetically localized to polytene chromosome bands 14C4-6 using available chromosomal aberrations. About 60 kb of DNA sequence has been isolated following a bidirectional chromosomal walk that extends over the cytogenetic interval 14C1-6. The breakpoints of chromosomal aberrations identified within that walk establish that the entire mei-41 gene has been cloned. Two independently derived mei-41 mutants have been shown to carry P insertions within a single 2.2 kb fragment of the walk. Since revertants of those mutants have lost the P element sequences, an essential region of the mei-41 gene is present in that fragment. A 10.5 kb genomic fragment that spans the P insertion sites has been found to restore methyl methanesulfonate resistance and female fertility of the mei-41 D3 mutants. The results demonstrate that all the sequences required for the proper expression of the mei-41 gene are present on this genomic fragment. This study provides the foundation for molecular analysis of a function that is essential for chromosome stability in both the germline and somatic cells.
    MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 02/1995; 246(2):148-155.
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    ABSTRACT: The mus209B1 mutant of Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a complex pleiotropy of temperature-sensitive (ts) lethality, hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation and methyl methanesulfonate, suppression of position-effect variegation (PEV), and female sterility. Our discovery that mus209 encodes proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which is an indispensable component of the DNA replication apparatus, suggests that alterations to chromosome replication may underlie that pleiotropy. Nine lethal mutations, three of them ts, genetically define the Pcna locus. Temperature shift studies reveal that the vital function of PCNA is required throughout virtually all stages of fly development, and that maternally encoded PCNA is essential for embryogenesis. All three ts mutants strongly suppress PEV, which suggests a role for PCNA in chromatin assembly or modification.
    The EMBO Journal 04/1994; 13(6):1450-9. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    S S Banga, J B Boyd
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient technique has been developed for performing in vivo site-directed mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. This procedure involves directed repair of P-element-induced DNA lesions after injection of a modified DNA sequence into early embryos. An oligonucleotide of 50 base pairs, whose sequence spans the P-element insertion site, mediates base replacement in the endogenous gene. Restriction mapping, DNA sequencing, and polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrate that base substitutions present in an injected oligonucleotide are incorporated into genomic sequences flanking a P insertion site in the white gene. This analysis suggests that progeny bearing directed mutations are recovered with a frequency of about 0.5 x 10(-3). Because Drosophila remains a premier organism for the analysis of eukaryotic gene regulation, this system should find strong application in that analysis as well as in the analysis of DNA recombination, conversion, repair, and mutagenesis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1992; 89(5):1735-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • S S Banga, A Velazquez, J B Boyd
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    ABSTRACT: A genetic screen has been developed in Drosophila for identifying host-repair genes responsible for processing DNA lesions formed during mobilization of P transposable elements. Application of that approach to repair deficient mutants has revealed that the mei-41 and mus302 genes are necessary for recovery of P-bearing chromosomes undergoing transposition. Both of these genes are required for normal postreplication repair. Mutants deficient in excision repair, on the other hand, have no detected effect on the repair of transposition-induced lesions. These observations suggest that P element-induced lesions are repaired by a postreplication pathway of DNA repair. The data further support recent studies implicating double-strand DNA breaks as intermediates in P transposition, because the mei-41 gene has been genetically and cytologically associated with the repair of interrupted chromosomes. Analysis of this system has also revealed a striking stimulation of site-specific gene conversion and recombination by P transposition. This result strongly suggests that postreplication repair in this model eukaryote operates through a conversion/recombination mechanism. Our results also support a recently developed model for a conversion-like mechanism of P transposition (Engels et al., 1990). Involvement of the mei-41 and mus302 genes in the repair of P element-induced double-strand breaks and postreplication repair points to a commonality in the mechanisms of these processes.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/1991; 255(1):79-88. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-Linked methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutations were induced with hybrid dysgenesis using four P strains: pi 2, Harwich, T-007 and OK-1. Mutations were identified after two generations of backcrosses to M strain females to replace the autosomes. Among 51,471 X-chromosomes examined 10 carried stable MMS-sensitive mutations representing 8 independent events. Males of the mutant strains failed to induce gonadal dysgenesis in crosses to Oregon-R females at 28.5 degrees C. Complementation tests showed that 3 of the induced mutations were mei-9 alleles, 2 were mei-41 alleles, 1 was a mus102 allele, and 2 were alleles at a newly identified MMS-sensitive locus, mus112 (map position: 1-32.8). As assayed by in situ hybridization on polytene chromosomes, each X-chromosome had no more than four P element insertions. 4 of the 8 mutations recovered in this study proved to have P element insertions at or very close to sites to which MMS sensitivity has been mapped. Hybrid dysgenesis-induced reversion of 2 mutants, mei-9RT1 and mei-41RT2, is associated with the loss of the P element from regions 4B and 14C respectively.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 04/1990; 229(1):17-28. · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • Progress in clinical and biological research 02/1990; 340A:205-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The denV gene of bacteriophage T4 was fused to a Drosophila hsp70 (70-kDa heat shock protein) promoter and introduced into the germ line of Drosophila by P-element-mediated transformation. The protein product of that gene (endonuclease V) was detected in extracts of heat-shocked transformants with both enzymological and immunoblotting procedures. That protein restores both excision repair and UV resistance to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of this organism. These results reveal that the denV gene can compensate for excision-repair defects in two very different eukaryotic mutants, in that the mus201 mutants are typical of excision-deficient mutants in other organisms, whereas the mei-9 mutants exhibit a broad pleiotropism that includes a strong meiotic deficiency. This study permits an extension of the molecular analysis of DNA repair to the germ line of higher eukaryotes. It also provides a model system for future investigations of other well-characterized microbial repair genes on DNA damage in the germ line of this metazoan organism.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1989; 86(9):3227-31. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of cell science. Supplement 02/1987; 6:39-60.
  • S S Banga, R Shenkar, J B Boyd
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    ABSTRACT: 6 mutant alleles of the mei-41 locus in Drosophila melanogaster are shown to cause hypersensitivity to hydroxyurea in larvae. The strength of that sensitivity is directly correlated with the influence of the mutant alleles on meiosis in that: alleles exhibiting a strong meiotic effect (mei-41D2, mei-41D5, mei-41D7) are highly sensitive; alleles with negligible meiotic effects (mei-41(104)D1, mei-41(104)D2) are moderately sensitive and an allele which expresses meiotic effects only under restricted conditions (mei-41D9) has an intermediate sensitivity. This sensitivity is not a general feature of strong postreplication repair-deficient mutants, because mutants with that phenotype from other loci do not exhibit sensitivity (mus(2)205A1, mus(3)302D1, mus(3)310D1). The observed lethality is not due to hypersensitivity of DNA synthesis in mei-41 larvae to hydroxyurea as assayed by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Lethality is, however, potentially attributable to an abnormal enhancement of chromosomal aberrations by hydroxyurea in mutant mei-41 larvae. Both in vivo and in vitro exposure of neuroblast cells to hydroxyurea results in an increase in 3 types of aberrations which is several fold higher in mei-41 tissue. Since hydroxyurea disrupts DNA synthesis, these results further implicate the mei-41 locus in DNA metabolism and provide an additional tool for an elucidation of its function. The possible existence of additional genes of this nature is suggested by a more modest sensitivity to hydroxyurea which has been detected in two stocks carrying mutagen-sensitive alleles of alternate genes.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 12/1986; 163(2):157-65. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty genetic alterations, which involve the 4BC region of the Drosophila X chromosome, have been induced by ionizing radiation or by an endogenous mutator element. These mutations were recovered by screening for reversion of the dominant mutants Oce and Qd or for induction of the recessive mutants bi and rb. Among the 23 mutants generated by ionizing radiation, 20 have proven to be cytologically detectable chromosomal aberrations. Seven additional unique aberrations were generated in the Uc mutator strain. In total, 22 cytologically detectable deficiencies, 3 translocations, 1 inversion, 1 transposition, and 3 cytologically normal mutants have been recovered. Complementation analysis has permitted the cytogenetic localization of eight genes in the 4BC region. The mei-9 locus has been assigned to region 4B4-6, because this function is carried by Df(1)rb41 but not by Df(1)biD1. The norpA locus has been placed in the 4B6-C1 region based on its location between the distal breakpoints of Df(1)biD2 and Df(1)rb41. The genes lac, Qd, bi, and omb are localized to bands 4C5,6, rb to 4C6 and amb to 4C7,8. With one exception the complementation analysis has also permitted a determination of the linear sequence of these genes. This cytogenetic localization of these loci will facilitate the cloning and molecular analysis of genes controlling a key function in DNA repair and recombination (mei-9), and two fundamental neural functions (norpA and omb).
    Chromosoma 02/1986; 93(4):341-6. · 3.34 Impact Factor