S Cajavec

University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Grad Zagreb, Croatia

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Publications (9)15.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of serum antibodies directed against classical swine fever (CSF) virus and other pestiviruses among the wild boar (Sus scrofa) population in Croatia was investigated. During 2003, serum samples from 214 wild boars were collected in 10 hunting areas in the continental part of the country. The sera were examined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and in the virus neutralization test (VNT). Out of 214 sera tested 111 (51.87 %) were positive by ELISA and regarding neutralising antibodies, against CSFV 75 (35.05 %) samples were positive. In the VNT with the C-strain (conventional live vaccine strain China) and the strain Uelzen were used. Samples were also tested for neutralizing antibodies against border disease virus (BDV) using the strain 137/4 and against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) using the NADL strain. Neutralizing antibodies against the C-strain were detected in 36 sera (16.82 %), against strain Uelzen in 17 sera (7.94 %) and in 22 sera (10.28 %) against both strains. In five sera (2.33 %) neutralizing antibodies against BVDV and BDV were found.
    DTW. Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift 05/2007; 114(4):145-8. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of two infectious bursal disease vaccines on the activities of hepatic microsomal enzymes aniline hydroxylase, ethylmorphine N-demethylase, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aryl sulphotransferase and p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase was investigated in chickens. The vaccines contained attenuated Winterfield 2512 and VMG-91 strains, respectively. The activities of enzymes were determined on postvaccination days 0, 2, 5 and 7. At the same time, post-mitochondrial supernatant, cytosolic and microsomal pellet protein concentrations were determined. As expected, the antibody titres against infectious bursal disease virus in the serum were increased in both tested groups in relation to each administered vaccine. Using RT-PCR, the presence of the VP2 gene fragment of virus in the liver of chicken was demonstrated 4 and 6 h after vaccination. The results of this study suggest that the two commercial vaccines modulate the activities of five enzymes tested, and that the two attenuated vaccines applied triggered induction and/or inhibition of phases I and II of biotransformation enzyme activities.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 07/2006; 54(2):281-93. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The insoluble immune complexes (ICs) were prepared under the conditions of double immunodiffusion in gel, using the suspension of the ultrasound treated PK-15 cell-line infected with porcine parvovirus (PPV) containing both viral particles and viral proteins, as well as pig or rabbit anti-PPV polyclonal immune sera. The immunodiffusion performed in an agarose gel allows only viral subunits with a molecular mass equal to or less than 1000 kDa, rather than the viral particles, to diffuse through the gel and reach the point where the immunoprecipitate is to be formed. The immunoprecipitation under the conditions of the diffusion ensures the optimal, i.e. equimolar ratio of both immunoprecipitating components, antibody/antigen in the IC. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Western blot analyses showed the ICs were composed of two proteins, a protein in which molecular mass corresponded to the VP2 of the PPV and a protein with a molecular mass of the IgG. This suggests that the ICs are mainly composed of the VP2 antigen and IgG class antibodies. The potency of the IC-vaccines prepared in the form of a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion was compared with that of a commercially available, inactivated oil vaccine. The vaccination of gilts, 6 weeks before mating, with the IC containing allogeneic pig antibodies, resulted in the development of high and long-lasting anti-PPV antibody titres, similar to those generated by the licenced vaccine (P > 0.01). The content of the virus material administered by the IC was twice lower than that in the licenced vaccine. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed in the gilts during the period of the trial with the IC vaccine. The number of viable piglets per litter varied between 9 and 12 and no signs of the PPV infection were detected. Rabbits were used as one of the alternative laboratory animal models accepted for the testing of the vaccine against the PPV. The rabbit humoral immune response generated by the IC containing the allogeneic antibodies were higher than that generated by the ICs containing the xenogeneic pig antibodies. It was similar to that generated by two-times higher content of the virus material administered by a commercially available vaccine. The IC-based vaccines belong to non-replicating, subunit vaccines, which are both ecologically convenient and the safest vaccines of all.
    Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 02/2006; 53(1):17-23. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serologic evidence of exposure to porcine parvovirus (PPV) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia was investigated. Serum samples from 219 wild boars captured during 2003 from 12 different locations in the Republic of Croatia were tested by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antibodies to PPV were detected in 91 (41.6%) of tested samples and positive results were detected in wild boar from all sample locations. Adults had a significantly higher prevalence (70%) than juveniles (31%; P < 0.01). Our results indicate that wild boar populations throughout the Republic of Croatia are exposed to PPV.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 10/2005; 41(4):796-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and a nested polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription (RT-PCR) were used for the detection of the Chinese strain (C strain) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in blood and tissue samples of experimentally inoculated piglets. One group of 10 piglets was inoculated with C strain material from rabbits and a second one with material from infected minipig kidney (MPK) cell culture. Tested blood samples were taken on the day of inoculation as well as on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16. Samples of spleen, tonsil and brain tissue were collected from piglets on days 6, 8, 10, 13 and 16 and tested for glycoprotein E(RNS) and protein NS2-3 using commercially available ELISA kits. E(RNS) and NS2-3 were detected earlier in blood samples of piglets inoculated with the C strain propagated in a cell culture. Regardless of propagation the presence of the viral E(RNS) and NS2-3 was detected in spleen and tonsil samples simultaneously. The C strain propagated in a cell culture was found in only one brain sample, whereas, the virus propagated in rabbits was detected in 70% of the brain samples. For the detection of the CSFV RNA in blood samples, a part within the 5' non-coding region was amplified. The differences in the results gained by antigen detection in blood samples decreased when nested RT-PCR was used.
    Veterinary Microbiology 08/2001; 81(1):1-8. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A four-component vaccine, prepared by combining the single vaccines, contains subunits of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses, as well as whole inactivated infectious bursal disease and egg drop syndrome viruses. The vaccine is prepared in the form of a low-viscosity water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with low mineral oil content. Heavy breeders were vaccinated at the age of 20 weeks by intramuscular administration of 0.5 ml vaccine/bird in an experiment carried out under field conditions, involving 5000 female and 450 male parents. The birds had previously been vaccinated with live vaccines according to an obligatory field vaccination programme. Vaccination with the WOWE vaccine near the point of lay elicited serological responses protecting both the parents and their progeny. Each of the antigens administered in the four-component vaccine was as effective as the respective single component vaccine. The mortality, recorded during the 31-week experimental period, was 6.2%. Mortality and morbidity were not triggered by viruses against which vaccination was carried out. Egg production was not affected by the vaccination and was 170.2 eggs per hen during the 28-week production period.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 02/1998; 46(1):25-34. · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • B Pokrić, S Juros, H Hlavaty, S Cajavec
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    ABSTRACT: The two-dimensional double immunodiffusion, the so-called 'two-cross' method, is introduced for determination of the size of antigenic subunits released after solubilization of enveloped viruses with non-ionic detergents. The method enables the determination of diffusion coefficients and calculation of relative molecular masses of immunoreacting components without using any standard and without prior isolation, purification or labelling of material to be analysed. The molecular masses of surface antigenic fragments of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) disrupted by non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 were determined. Two antigenic fragments, the larger having a molecular mass between 350 and 187 kDa and the smaller from 140 to 86 kDa, were released by the action of 0.1-1.0% detergent at 20 degrees C. One fragment, whose molecular mass varied from 210 to 187 kDa, was obtained at 37 degrees C after treatment of NDV with 0.2-1.0% detergent, respectively The detergent disruption of purified NDV is studied for comparison. No difference was found whether purified or NDV in allantoic fluid was subjected to the same detergent extraction.
    Biologicals 07/1993; 21(2):157-62. · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • B Pokrić, D Sladić, S Juros, S Cajavec
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    ABSTRACT: An immune complex (IC), composed of antigenic subunits of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and specific polyclonal allogeneic antibodies, was used to protect chickens against NDV. Antibodies in the IC were chicken immunoglobulin G. The antibody:antigen ratio in IC was 2.03. The IC was prepared at equivalence by direct mixing of NDV-infected allantoic fluid, treated with Triton X-100, and chicken anti-NDV serum. In order to bind NDV antigenic subunits to specific antibodies, previous isolation and purification of antigen is not required. Chickens were immunized with 1 mg IC, containing 0.3788 mg of viral antigens. The IC, prepared in the form of an oil-emulsion, was administered intramuscularly. The IC generated high levels of anti-NDV antibodies and successfully protected chickens against live virus challenge. Therefore, the IC could be recommended as a safe and environmentally convenient vaccine.
    Vaccine 02/1993; 11(6):655-9. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • S Cajavec, Z Bidin, D Sladić, B Pokrić
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    ABSTRACT: The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was solubilized with 10% w/v Tween 80 and inactivated with 0.05% v/v formalin. The average molecular mass of the released antigenic subunits was 307 kD. The tested vaccine was prepared in the form of a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion (WOWE) vaccine. The oil-to-aqueous ratio was 1:2. The solubilized NDV was administered alone or built in a tetravalent WOWE vaccine. A dose of the monovalent vaccine containing an equivalent of 44.7 microliters of detergent-treated NDV-allantoic fluid (NDV-AF) was sufficient for the complete protection of the commercially available chickens vaccinated at the age of 5 wk and challenged 7 wk later. The anti-NDV-free chickens, vaccinated at 4 wk of age and challenged 2 wk postvaccination, were 100% and 73% protected by a vaccinal dose containing 178.6 and 89.3 microliters of detergent-treated NDV-AF, respectively. Commercially available light pullets, primary vaccinated with live lentogenic NDV vaccine, generated a protective level of NDV antibodies after revaccination with WOWE vaccine containing 89.3 microliters of detergent treated NDV-AF. Laying hens were revaccinated under field conditions at the beginning of the laying cycle by the tetravalent vaccine. A vaccinal dose/bird containing 11.2 microliters of detergent-treated NDV-AF elicited a long-lasting high level of NDV neutralizing antibodies.
    Avian Diseases 40(1):193-201. · 1.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

44 Citations
15.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2006
    • University of Zagreb
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Zagreb, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2001–2006
    • Croatian Veterinary Institute
      • Department of Virology
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1993
    • Ruder Boskovic Institute
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia