[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lovastatin is an effective inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. A previous study demonstrated that lovastatin can also suppress airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in murine model of asthma. We aimed to investigate the effect of lovastatin on mucus secretion and inflammation-associated gene expression in the lungs of murine model of asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fruits of Vitex rotundifolia L. are widely used to treat inflammation of the airway in Traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies found that casticin, isolated from Vitex rotundifolia, could induce apoptosis of tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of casticin and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages.Materials and methodsRAW264.7 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of casticin (0.3–10 μM), and then treated with LPS to induce inflammation. We assayed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using ELISA, and examined the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 by Western blot. We also investigated the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism by analyzing inflammatory-associated signaling pathways, including the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.ResultsWe found casticin inhibited the levels of nitric oxide and PGE2, and decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In addition, iNOS and COX-2 expression levels were suppressed and casticin increased HO-1 and Nrf2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, casticin significantly inhibited NF-κB subunit p65 proteins in the nucleus and decreased Akt and MAPK activation.Conclusion
These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of casticin is due to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators by blocking the NF-κB, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrine has been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and found to show anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-cachectic effects in hepatomas. The present study investigated whether matrine suppressed eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice, and decreased the inflammatory response of tracheal epithelial cells.
BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to induce allergic asthma in mice. These asthmatic mice were given various doses of matrine by intraperitoneal injection. Additionally, activated human tracheal epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) were treated with matrine, and evaluated for levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
We found that matrine significantly decreased AHR, and suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and inflammatory response in the lung tissue of asthmatic mice. Matrine also reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and suppressed OVA-IgE production in serum. Furthermore, matrine treatment of activated BEAS-2B cells decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and eotaxins, as well as suppressed ICAM-1 expression and thus adhesion of eosinophils to inflammatory BEAS-2B cells in vitro.
Our findings suggest that matrine can improve allergic asthma in mice, and therefore has potential therapeutic potential in humans.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sophoraflavanone G (SG; 5,7,D, 2',4'-tetrahydroxy-8-lavandulylflavanone) has been isolated from Sophora flavescens and found to be effective against bacteria and to decrease cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophage. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of SG are not well understood. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of SG (2.5 - 20 μM) and inflammatory responses were induced with lipopolysaccharide. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined. Western blot was used to examine the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), COX-2, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To investigate the molecular mechanism, we analyzed inflammatory-associated signaling pathways, including nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SG inhibited the levels of nitric oxide and PGE2 and decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 was also suppressed. However, SG increased HO-1 production in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly decreased MAPK activation and inhibited NF-κB subunit p65 proteins to translocate into the nucleus. These results suggest that SG has an anti-inflammatory effect, inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators production via interruption of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 09/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th2 cells are overexpressed in the skin and serum of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Previously, we found that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreased eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice through the suppression of Th2-associated cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that DHEA might improve the symptoms of AD syndrome.
In this study, we evaluated the symptom improvement and anti-inflammatory response that result from the modulation of immunity by DHEA modulated in AD-like mice.
Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. On days 14-29 after sensitization, mice were treated with cutaneous (skin smear) or oral administration of DHEA. In addition, human keratinocyte (HaCat) cells were used to evaluate the effect of DHEA on the in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
Both cutaneous and oral DHEA were able to decrease ear swelling and skin inflammation in AD-like mice. DHEA also attenuated eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into ear and skin tissue. Additionally, Th2-associated cytokines were inhibited in splenocyte culture, and suppressed the levels of IgE and interleukin 4 in serum. Oral and cutaneous administration of DHEA reduced the inflammatory response, as evidenced by AD-like skin lesions, in a similar manner. DHEA significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines and chemokines through the nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways in tumor necrosis factor-α activated HaCat cells.
DHEA ameliorates AD-like mouse skin inflammation and reduces eosinophil and mast cell infiltration by reducing the production of Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines.
Journal of dermatological science 07/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Previous studies found that phloretin (PT) and phlorizin (PZ) could inhibit glucose transport, with PT being a better inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to evaluate the antiobesity effects of PT and PZ in 3T3-L1 cells and if they can modulate the relationship between adipocytes and macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with PT or PZ. Subsequently, transcription factors of adipogenesis and lipolysis proteins were measured. In addition, RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with PT or PZ were cultured in differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells to analyze inflammatory mediators and signaling pathways. PT significantly enhanced glycerol release and inhibited the adipogenesis-related transcription factors. PT also promoted phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and increased activity of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. PT suppressed the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways when RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells. PZ improved lipolysis and inhibited the macrophage inflammatory response less effectively than PT. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that PT is more effective than PZ at increasing lipolysis in adipocytes. In addition, PT also suppresses inflammatory response in macrophage that is stimulated by differentiated media from 3T3-L1 cells.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2013; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness. The over-activated Th2 and lung epithelium cells express many different cytokines and chemokines mainly contribute to the severity of lung inflammation. Clara cell 10 kD protein (CC10) that is highly expressed in airway epithelium cells and exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) 2/9 vector, composed with AAV2 rep and AAV9 cap genes, can efficiently and specifically target lung epithelium cells. Thus, AAV2/9 vector might carry therapeutic potential gene sequences for the treatment of asthma. This study tested whether AAV2/9 vector carrying CC10 could reduce inflammatory and asthmatic responses in OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. The results showed that AAV2/9-CC10 vector virus significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, CCL11, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, and eosinophilia in the lungs of sensitized mice. CC10 level in OVA-sensitized mice was rescued with the administration of AAV2/9-CC10 vector virus. Lung tissue remodeling, including collagen deposition and goblet cell hyperplasia was also alleviated. However, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE as well as Th2 cytokine levels in OVA-stimulated splenocyte culture supernatants were at the comparable levels to the sensitized control group. The results demonstrate that AAV2/9-CC10 vector virus relieved local inflammatory and asthmatic responses in lung. Therefore, we propose that AAV2/9-CC10 vector virus guaranteed sufficient CC10 expression and anti-inflammatory effect in asthmatic mice. It might be applied as a novel therapeutic approach for asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many reports suggest that phloretin and phlorizin have antioxidant properties and can inhibit glucose transportation, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of phloretin and phlorizin remain unclear. This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of phloretin and phlorizin in LPS-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of phloretin or phlorizin (3-100μM) and cell inflammatory responses were induced with LPS. Pretreated with 10μM phloretin significantly inhibited the levels of NO, PGE(2), IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that phloretin suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunit p65 proteins, and decreased phosphorylation in MAPK pathways. Surprisingly, phlorizin did not suppress the inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that phloretin has an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces levels of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators in RAW264.7 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Airway infiltration by eosinophils is a major characteristic of chronic asthma. CCL11 (eotaxin-1) is secreted by lung epithelial cells and functions as the major chemokine for eosinophil recruitment. Pseudotyped adeno-associated virus (AAV) 2/9, composed by the AAV2 rep and AAV9 cap genes, can efficiently target lung epithelial cells and might carry gene sequences with therapeutic potential for asthma. This study aimed to determine whether pseudotyped AAV2/9 virus carrying the small hairpin RNA targeting CCL11 and expressed by CMV/U6 promoter could reduce eosinophilia and asthmatic responses in mite allergen-sensitized mice. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal and challenged by intratracheal injection with recombinant Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2 allergen (rDp2). AAV2/9 viral vectors were intratracheally injected three days before the first challenge. AAV2/9 sh47 virus significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, airway resistance, CCL11 levels, and eosinophilia in the lungs of sensitized mice. Th2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-10, were also significantly reduced in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AAV2/9 sh47 virus-treated mice. Th2 cytokine levels were also reduced in rDp2-stimulated mediastinal lymphocytes in treated mice. However, serum levels of rDp2-specific IgG1 and IgE, as well as Th2 cytokine levels in rDp2-stimulated splenocyte culture supernatants, were comparable to the sensitized control group. The results suggest that AAV2/9 sh47 virus relieved local instead of systemic inflammatory responses. Therefore, the CMV/U6 promoter with AAV2/9 viral vector, which is preferable to target lung epithelia cells, might be applied as a novel therapeutic approach for asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous study found that eosinophil infiltration and Th2 cell recruitment are important causes of chronic lung inflammation in asthma. The plant flavonoid acacetin is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of orally administered acacetin in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized asthmatic mice and its underlying molecular mechanism. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal OVA injection. OVA-sensitized mice were fed acacetin from days 21 to 27. Acacetin treatment attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness and reduced eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia in lung tissue. Additionally, eotaxin-1- and Th2-associated cytokines were inhibited in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and suppressed the level of OVA-IgE in serum. Human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were used to examine the effect of acacetin on proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecule production in vitro. At the molecular level, acacetin significantly reduced IL-6, IL-8, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and eotaxin-1 in activated BEAS-2B cells. Acacetin also significantly suppressed the ability of eosinophils to adhere to inflammatory BEAS-2B cells. These results suggest that dietary acacetin may improve asthma symptoms in OVA-sensitized mice.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:910520. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), an herbal formula containing Angelica sinensis (AS) and Astragalus membranaceus (AM) (AS:AM = 1:5, designated as DBT1 here), has been used in Chinese medicine to enhance qi and blood circulation. In addition, DBT has served as a treatment for atopic dermatitis in dogs in Taiwan. It also may improve fibrosis in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis.
In this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of DBT1 in asthma in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice.
Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA and fed with DBT1 or modified formulas of DBT1, designated as DBT2 (AS:AM = 1:1) and DBT3 (AS:AM = 5:1), from days 21 to 27.
DBT1 suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung, and Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines were inhibited in BALF. In addition, levels of OVA-immunoglobulin E (IgE) also were suppressed in serum. However, treatment with DBT2 or DBT3 showed no improved effects relative to DBT1 in treating asthmatic symptoms.
These results suggest that orally administered DBT (DBT1) can reduce allergic reactions in OVA-sensitized mice.
Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 12/2011; 107(6):501-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory response and the mechanism by which dehydroepiandrosterone modulates immunity in ovalbumin-sensitized asthmatic mice. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and then treated with oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone on days 21 to 27. The results showed dehydroepiandrosterone could suppress airway hyperresponsiveness and decrease eosinophil infiltration of the lungs in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Moreover, dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited chemokines, including CCL11/eotaxin-1 and CCL24/eotaxin-2, and Th2-associated cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. After the inflammatory human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was treated with dehydroepiandrosterone, levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were inhibited, including IL-6, IL-8, CCL11, and CCL24. We suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited inflammation in bronchial epithelial cells as indicated by the suppression of Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines. Dehydroepiandrosterone also suppressed eosinophil migration and infiltration into the lung to improve the symptoms of asthma in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 06/2011; 31(4):656-65. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viscum coloratum Nakai is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases, including hemorrhage, hypertension, and inflammatory diseases. A previous study demonstrated a partially purified extract (PPE-SVC) and viscolin from Viscum coloratum Nakai inhibited phosphodiesterase activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-asthmatic effects of PPE-SVC and viscolin, from Viscum coloratum Nakai, in OVA-sensitized mice.
Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The mice were randomized into groups and treated with PPE-SVC, viscolin, or rolipram by intraperitoneal injection on 1h before each inhalation of OVA and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR).
PPE-SVC and viscolin suppressed AHR and reduced eosinophil infiltration of the lungs in OVA-sensitized mice. Moreover, PPE-SVC and viscolin inhibited chemokines, including CCL11 and CCL24, and Th2-associated cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, PPE-SVC and viscolin could not decrease IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 levels in cultures of OVA-activated spleen cells.
PPE-SVC and viscolin attenuate airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration in OVA-sensitized mice.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2011; 135(3):646-53. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous report demonstrated that the oral administration of short-term high dose Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (5 g/kg per day for 7days) decreased allergic reactions in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term oral administration of G. pentaphyllum attenuated airway inflammation in OVA-sensitized mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged with normal saline or OVA. OVA-sensitized mice were fed with 1.75 g/kg (low dose, GPL) or 5 g/kg (high dose, GPH) G. pentaphyllum extract, five days a week for 4 weeks. The airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined. The cytokine levels or antibodies in BALF, serum and spleen cell culture supernatants were also determined. Both high and low dose extracts reduced AHR, serum OVA-IgE, and Th2-associated cytokine levels in spleen cell supernatants and BALF in OVA-sensitized mice. These results show that long-term orally administered G. pentaphyllum extract reduced allergic reactions in OVA-sensitized mice.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2010; 48(10):2592-8. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing incidence of asthma in developing countries emphasizes the importance of identifying more effective treatments that have low cost. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (Cucurbitaceae), a common herbal tea in China, has been used to treat lung inflammation. Since the Th2 cytokines are the major mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma, Th1-biased immune responses caused by G. pentaphyllum might have the potential to relieve asthmatic symptoms. We hypothesized that oral administration of G. pentaphyllum extracts might suppress Th2 cytokine-induced airway inflammation responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitive mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection and challenged 3 times with OVA inhalation (IH) (the IH3 model). G. pentaphyllum was orally administered for 7 consecutive days before the end of the OVA challenge. In the IH5 model, 2 more OVA challenges were administered to mimic the encounter with an allergen after drug treatment. G. pentaphyllum extracts significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inhibited eosinophil infiltration in mice in both models. Serum OVA-specific antibodies were also reduced with the treatment. Decreased Th2-type cytokines and increased IFN-gamma were detected in the cultures of OVA-activated splenocytes from treated mice. Our results suggest that G. pentaphyllum extracts might be beneficial for asthma airway inflammation through the suppression of Th2 activity.
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 02/2008; 36(3):579-92. · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a popular herbal tea in China and some Asian countries. The modulatory function of G. pentaphyllum total plant extracts on immune cells was evaluated in this study. The extract was intraperitoneally injected into mice for 5 consecutive days. The production of antibodies from B cells or cytokines from T cells was determined mainly with ELISA. After the treatment, serum IgM and IgG2a were significantly enhanced and showed dose-dependent effect. Moreover, serum IgA and IgG1 were also increased when received the extract at the doses of 0.05 or 0.50 g/kg/day. In addition to the serum levels, the injection of the extract enhanced the production of all antibodies from LPS-activated spleen cells. Furthermore, more cytokines were secreted from Con A-stimulated splenocytes of G. pentaphyllum-treated mice. Our results suggest that the extract of G. pentaphyllum might promote immune responses through the activation of T and B cells.
Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 06/2007; 127(5):889-96. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginseng radix (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a popular herbal medicine used as a major ingredient in tonic recipes in eastern Asian countries. In our study, male BALB/c mice were treated orally with various doses of ginseng root extract for 5 consecutive days. The extract reduced the serum level of IgG but elevated the level of IgA. Under in vitro condition, the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated spleen cells from the ginseng-treated mice also showed a significant decrease in IgG production but an increase in IgA production. The serum level and production of IgM was unaffected. The interleukin-2, interferon-gamma (Th1-type cytokines), and interleukin-10 (Tr1-type cytokine) production by Con A-stimulated spleen cells from the ginseng-treated mice showed an upregulation relative to the control group. However, the production of interleukin-4 (Th2-type cytokine) showed no significant change. The activity of natural killer cells was increased in the ginseng group, but the percentages of T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)) and CD4(+)8(-), CD4(-)8(+) subset were reduced. Thus, short-term oral administration of ginseng extract appears to enhance Th1-type cytokine production.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 02/2006; 28(2):227-40. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginseng radix (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a popular herbal medicine in Oriental countries. We investigated the effect of long-term oral administration of ginseng extract on the antigen-specific antibody response. Male BALB/c mice were treated orally for 30 consecutive days with 2 g/kg of a 50% ethanol extract of ginseng root. Mice treated with ginseng and immunized with ovalbumin (OVA), resulting in an eight-fold increase in titers of anti-OVA immunoglobulin (Ig)G in the serum compared to the group receiving OVA immunization without ginseng treatment; the level of IgG was also significantly elevated in the mice treated with ginseng and immunized with OVA. Mice treated with ginseng without OVA immunization exhibited significantly reduced IgG and IgA production by spleen cells. However, IgG production was not affected in mice treated with ginseng and OVA immunization in spleen cells. Interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-4 secretion by spleen cells from either ginseng-treated mice or OVA-immunized mice were down-regulated compared to that in the control group; while the production of IL-10 was unchanged. The percentage of CD8+ cells was significantly reduced in spleen cells from ginseng-treated, OVA-immunized mice. Thus, long-term oral administration of ginseng extract appears to potentiate humoral immune response but suppress spleen cell functions.
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 02/2005; 33(4):651-61. · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a plant widely distributed in South-China, Korea, and Japan. It is taken as an herbal tea in China and some Asian countries. We had tried to use the extract of herb to intraperitoneally inject into mice for 5 consecutive days and found that it could enhance levels of IgG2a in serum and Th1 and Th2-associated cytokines in spleen cells cultured with Con A. We also asked the question of whether an oral administration of G. pentaphyllum could promote the production of serum IgG2a and Th cell-associate cytokines the same as intraperitoneal injection did. Our result showed that short-term oral administration of G. pentaphyllum could suppress the level of serum IgG1, and enhanced amounts of serum IgG2a and Th1-associated cytokines secretion from spleen cells cultures.