[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matriptase-2 (also known as TMPRSS6) is a critical regulator of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin in the liver; matriptase-2 cleaves membrane-bound hemojuvelin and consequently alters bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hemojuvelin and hepcidin are expressed in the retina and play a critical role in retinal iron homeostasis. However, no information on the expression and function of matriptase-2 in the retina is available. The purpose of the present study was to examine the retinal expression of matriptase-2 and its role in retinal iron homeostasis.
RT-PCR, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the expression of matriptase-2 and other iron-regulatory proteins in the mouse retina. Polarized localization of matriptase-2 in the RPE was evaluated using markers for the apical and basolateral membranes. Morphometric analysis of retinas from wild-type and matriptase-2 knockout (Tmprss6(msk/msk) ) mice was also performed. Retinal iron status in Tmprss6(msk/msk) mice was evaluated by comparing the expression levels of ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 between wild-type and knockout mice. BMP signaling was monitored by the phosphorylation status of Smads1/5/8 and expression levels of Id1 while interleukin-6 signaling was monitored by the phosphorylation status of STAT3.
Matriptase-2 is expressed in the mouse retina with expression detectable in all retinal cell types. Expression of matriptase-2 is restricted to the apical membrane in the RPE where hemojuvelin, the substrate for matriptase-2, is also present. There is no marked difference in retinal morphology between wild-type mice and Tmprss6(msk/msk) mice, except minor differences in specific retinal layers. The knockout mouse retina is iron-deficient, demonstrable by downregulation of the iron-storage protein ferritin and upregulation of transferrin receptor 1 involved in iron uptake. Hepcidin is upregulated in Tmprss6(msk/msk) mouse retinas, particularly in the neural retina. BMP signaling is downregulated while interleukin-6 signaling is upregulated in Tmprss6(msk/msk) mouse retinas, suggesting that the upregulaton of hepcidin in knockout mouse retinas occurs through interleukin-6 signaling and not through BMP signaling.
The iron-regulatory serine protease matriptase-2 is expressed in the retina, and absence of this enzyme leads to iron deficiency and increased expression of hemojuvelin and hepcidin in the retina. The upregulation of hepcidin expression in Tmprss6(msk/msk) mouse retinas does not occur via BMP signaling but likely via the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. We conclude that matriptase-2 is a critical participant in retinal iron homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia and polymorphisms in the cholesterol exporter ABCA1 are linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Excessive iron in retina also has a link to AMD pathogenesis. Whether these findings mean a biological/molecular connection between iron and cholesterol is not known. Here we examined the relationship between retinal iron and cholesterol using a mouse model (Hfe(-/-)) of hemochromatosis, a genetic disorder of iron overload. We compared the expression of the cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 and cholesterol content in wild type and Hfe(-/-) mouse retinas. We also investigated the expression of Bdh2, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the endogenous siderophore 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) in wild type and Hfe(-/-) mouse retinas, and the influence of this siderophore on ABCA1/ABCG1 expression in retinal pigment epithelium. We found that ABCA1 and ABCG1 were expressed in all retinal cell types, and that their expression was decreased in Hfe(-/-) retina. This was accompanied with an increase in retinal cholesterol content. Bdh2 was also expressed in all retinal cell types, and its expression was decreased in hemochromatosis. In ARPE-19 cells, 2,5-DHBA increased ABCA1/ABCG1 expression and decreased cholesterol content. This was not due to depletion of free iron because 2,5-DHBA (a siderophore) and deferiprone (an iron chelator) had opposite effects on transferrin receptor expression and ferritin levels. We conclude that iron is a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis in retina and that removal of cholesterol from retinal cells is impaired in hemochromatosis. Since excessive cholesterol is pro-inflammatory, hemochromatosis might promote retinal inflammation via cholesterol in AMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidant- and inflammation-induced damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is central to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, developing novel strategies to protect these cells is important. We reported previously on the robust antioxidant and therefore cell-protective effects of the cysteine pro-drug L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) in cultured human RPE cells. New reports citing a novel anti-inflammatory role for OTC in addition to the known glutathione-stimulating and antioxidant properties emerged recently; however, this role has not been evaluated in RPE cells or in intact retina. Given the crucial causative roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in AMD pathogenesis, knowing whether OTC might exhibit a similar benefit in this cell and tissue type has high clinical relevance; thus, we evaluated OTC in the present study.
ARPE-19 and primary RPE cells isolated from wild-type, Gpr109a(-/-) , or Slc5a8(-/-) mouse eyes were exposed to TNF-α in the presence or absence of OTC, followed by analysis of IL-6 and Ccl2 expression with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (i.e., IL-1β, TGF-β, ABCG1, ABCA1, reduced glutathione, and dihydroethidium) were evaluated in Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) double knockout mice on rd8 background (DKO rd8) treated with OTC (10 mg/ml) in drinking water for a period of 5 months.
OTC treatment significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-6 and Ccl2 in TNF-α-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. Studies conducted using DKO rd8 animals treated with OTC in drinking water confirmed these findings. Cellular and molecular markers of inflammation were significantly suppressed in the retinas of the OTC-treated DKO rd8 animals. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible mechanism(s) to explain these actions revealed that although OTC is an agonist of the anti-inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor GPR109A and a transportable substrate of the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter SMCT1 (SLC5A8), these properties may play a role but do not explain entirely the anti-inflammatory effects this compound elicits in cultured RPE cells and the intact mouse retina.
This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report of the suppressive effects of OTC on inflammation in cultured RPE cells and on inflammation and oxidative stress in the retina in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GPR109A, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is activated by niacin and butyrate. Upon activation in colonocytes, GPR109A potentiates anti-inflammatory pathways, induces apoptosis, and protects against inflammation-induced colon cancer. In contrast, GPR109A activation in keratinocytes induces flushing by activation of Cox-2-dependent inflammatory signaling and, the receptor expression is upregulated in human epidermoid carcinoma. Thus, depending on the cellular context and tissue, GPR109A functions either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. However, the expression status and the functional implications of this receptor in the mammary epithelium are not known. Here we show that GPR109A is expressed in normal mammary tissue and, irrespective of the hormone receptor status, its expression is silenced in human primary breast tumor tissues, breast cancer cell lines, and in tumor tissues of three different murine mammary tumor models. Functional expression of this receptor in human breast cancer cell lines decreases cAMP production, induces apoptosis, and blocks colony formation and mammary tumor growth. Transcriptome analysis revealed that GPR109A activation inhibits genes, which are involved in cell survival and anti-apoptotic signaling, in human breast cancer cells. In addition, deletion of Gpr109a in mice increased tumor incidence and triggered early onset of mammary tumorigenesis with increased lung metastasis in MMTV-Neu mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer. These findings suggest that GPR109A is a tumor suppressor in mammary gland and that pharmacological induction of this gene in tumor tissues followed by its activation with agonists could be an effective therapeutic strategy to treat breast cancer.
Cancer Research 12/2013; 74(4). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1451 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SLC5A8 is a putative tumor suppressor that is inactivated in more than 10 different types of cancer, but neither the oncogenic signaling responsible for SLC5A8 inactivation nor the functional relevance of SLC5A8 loss to tumor growth has been elucidated. Here, we identify the oncogenic HRAS (HRAS(G12V)) as a potent mediator of SLC5A8 silencing in human non-transformed normal mammary epithelial cell lines and in mouse mammary tumor through DNMT1. Further, we demonstrate that loss of Slc5a8 increases cancer-initiating stem cell formation, and promotes mammary tumorigenesis and lung metastasis in HRAS-driven murine model of mammary tumor. Mammary gland-specific overexpression of SLC5A8 (MMTV-Slc5a8 transgenic mouse) as well as induction of endogenous Slc5a8 in mice with inhibitors of DNA methylation protect against HRAS-driven mammary tumor. Collectively, our results provide the tumor-suppressive role of SLC5A8 and identify the oncogenic HRAS as a mediator of tumor-associated silencing of this tumor suppressor in mammary gland. These findings suggest that pharmacological approaches to reactivate SLC5A8 expression in tumor cells have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a common pathological factor in degenerative retinal diseases; therefore, identifying novel strategies for its limitation is critically important and highly relevant clinically. Along these lines, our present goal was to evaluate the effect(s) of the fumarate ester and antipsoriatic agent monomethylfumarate (MMF) on the expression and functional activity of the cystine/glutamate exchanger SLC7A11 (system x), a transport system critical to potentiation of antioxidant signaling in retina.
ARPE-19 and primary mouse RPE cells were cultured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of MMF (0-5000 μM) for 0 to 24 hours. MMF (10 mM) was also delivered intravitreally to mouse eyes. RT-PCR, radiolabeled uptake, Western blotting, and glutathione (GSH) assays were then used to evaluate the effects of MMF on endogenous antioxidant machinery.
MMF induced system x, Nrf2, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) in cultured RPE cells. Additionally, the compound was recognized as a transportable substrate by the Na-coupled monocarboxylate transporter SLC5A8 (SMCT1). In vivo these factors were evidenced by a significant increase in retinal levels of GSH.
MMF stimulates multiple pathways in retinal cells that potentiate cellular events leading to the upregulation of genes/mechanisms that function to protect retina against various forms of insult; upregulation of system x is one such consequence. To our knowledge, this is the first report that fumarate esters, compounds already employed clinically for other indications, are effective in retina via x induction. This novel, hitherto unknown mechanism helps to explain the antioxidant feature of these compounds and highlights their therapeutic potential in retina.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses GPR109A, a receptor for the vitamin niacin and the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB). Because diabetes results in elevated levels of β-HB, here we studied expression of the receptor in diabetic retina. We also investigated its functional relevance in RPE.
Retinal expression of GPR109A in diabetic mice and postmortem human eyes was evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR). ARPE-19 cells and primary wild-type and Gpr109a(-/-) mouse RPE cells were exposed to TNF-α in the presence or absence of niacin or β-HB, followed by analysis of IL-6 and Ccl2 expression via real-time qPCR and ELISA.
GPR109A expression was increased in diabetic mouse and human retina. TNF-α increased the expression and secretion of IL-6 and Ccl2 in ARPE-19 cells. Niacin and β-HB suppressed these effects, implicating GPR109A as the target responsible for mediation of the observed effects. Primary RPE cells from wild-type mice behaved similarly. In contrast, GPR109A ligands failed to suppress TNF-α-induced expression and secretion of IL-6 and Ccl2 in primary RPE cells from Gpr109a(-/-) mice, confirming that the observed anti-inflammatory effects were mediated specifically by Gpr109a.
GPR109A plays an anti-inflammatory role in RPE and its expression is upregulated in diabetes. Inflammation is a key causative factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We speculate that the increased expression of GPR109A and elevation of its ligand β-HB in diabetes are mechanisms by which the tissue attempts to fight inflammation in this disease. Pharmacological activation of GPR109A may therefore have therapeutic potential in clinical management of diabetic retinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sodium-coupled oligopeptide transporters 1 and 2 (SOPT1 and SOPT2) transport peptides consisting of at least five amino acids and show potential for the delivery of therapeutically relevant peptides/peptidomimetics. Here, we examined the expression of these two transporters in the retinal neuronal cell line RGC-5. These cells showed robust uptake activity for the synthetic pentapeptide DADLE ([D-Ala(2),D-Leu(5)]-Enkephalin). The uptake was Na(+) dependent and saturable (K(t), 6.2 ± 0.6 μM). A variety of oligopeptides inhibited DADLE uptake. The uptake of the competing oligopeptides was directly demonstrated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Ile-Arg-Pro-Lys-Leu-Lys in RGC-5 cells and primary mouse retinal ganglion cells. The characteristics of DADLE uptake matched those of SOPT2. We then examined the expression of SOPT1 in these cells with deltorphin II (Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-NH(2)) as the substrate and found that RGC-5 cells also expressed SOPT1. As it is already known that SOPT1 is expressed in the neuronal cell line SK-N-SH, we investigated SOPT2 expression in these cells to determine whether the presence of both oligopeptide transporters is a common feature of neuronal cells. These studies showed that SK-N-SH cells also expressed SOPT2. This constitutes the first report on the functional characterization of SOPT1 and SOPT2 in retinal neuronal cells and on the expression of SOPT2 in nonretinal neuronal cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemochromatosis is a genetic disorder of iron overload resulting from loss-of-function mutations in genes coding for the iron-regulatory proteins HFE (human leucocyte antigen-like protein involved in iron homoeostasis), transferrin receptor 2, ferroportin, hepcidin and HJV (haemojuvelin). Recent studies have established the expression of all of the five genes in the retina, indicating their importance in retinal iron homoeostasis. Previously, we demonstrated that HJV is expressed in RPE (retinal pigment epithelium), the outer and inner nuclear layers and the ganglion cell layer. In the present paper, we report on the consequences of Hjv deletion on the retina in mice. Hjv-/- mice at ≥18 months of age had increased iron accumulation in the retina with marked morphological damage compared with age-matched controls; these changes were not found in younger mice. The retinal phenotype in Hjv-/- mice included hyperplasia of RPE. We isolated RPE cells from wild-type and Hjv-/- mice and examined their growth patterns. Hjv-/- RPE cells were less senescent and exhibited a hyperproliferative phenotype. Hjv-/- RPE cells also showed up-regulation of Slc7a11 (solute carrier family 7 member 11 gene), which encodes the 'transporter proper' subunit xCT in the heterodimeric amino acid transporter xCT/4F2hc (cystine/glutamate exchanger). BMP6 (bone morphogenetic protein 6) could not induce hepcidin expression in Hjv-/- RPE cells, confirming that retinal cells require HJV for induction of hepcidin via BMP6 signalling. HJV is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, and the membrane-associated HJV is necessary for BMP6-mediated activation of hepcidin promoter in RPE cells. Taken together, these results confirm the biological importance of HJV in the regulation of iron homoeostasis in the retina and in RPE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NAD-dependent histone deacetylase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is overexpressed and catalytically activated in a number of human cancers, but recent studies have actually suggested that it may function as a tumor suppressor and metastasis inhibitor in vivo. In breast cancer, SIRT1 stabilization has been suggested to contribute to the oncogenic potential of the estrogen receptor α (ERα), but SIRT1 activity has also been associated with ERα deacetylation and inactivation. In this study, we show that SIRT1 is critical for estrogen to promote breast cancer. ERα physically interacted and functionally cooperated with SIRT1 in breast cancer cells. ERα also bound to the promoter for SIRT1 and increased its transcription. SIRT1 expression induced by ERα was sufficient to activate antioxidant and prosurvival genes in breast cancer cells, such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and to inactivate tumor suppressor genes such as cyclin G2 (CCNG2) and p53. Moreover, SIRT1 inactivation eliminated estrogen/ERα-induced cell growth and tumor development, triggering apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicated that SIRT1 is required for estrogen-induced breast cancer growth. Our findings imply that the combination of SIRT1 inhibitors and antiestrogen compounds may offer more effective treatment strategies for breast cancer.
Cancer Research 09/2011; 71(21):6654-64. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1446 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of SLC5A8 in the transport of 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) and to determine whether OTC augments glutathione production in RPE cells, thereby providing protection against oxidative stress.
SLC5A8-mediated transport of OTC was monitored in Xenopus laevis oocytes by electrophysiological means. Saturation kinetics, Na(+)-activation kinetics, and inhibition by ibuprofen were analyzed by monitoring OTC-induced currents as a measure of transport activity. Oxidative stress was induced in ARPE-19 cells and primary RPE cells isolated from wild type and Slc5a8(-/-) mouse retinas using H(2)O(2), and the effects of OTC on cell death and intracellular glutathione concentration were examined.
Heterologous expression of human SLC5A8 in X. laevis oocytes induced Na(+)-dependent inward currents in the presence of OTC under voltage-clamp conditions. The transport of OTC via SLC5A8 was saturable, with a K(t) of 104 ± 3 μM. The Na(+)-activation kinetics was sigmoidal with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 ± 0.1, suggesting involvement of two Na(+) in the activation process. Ibuprofen, a blocker of SLC5A8, inhibited SLC5A8-mediated OTC transport; the concentration necessary for half-maximal inhibition was 17 ± 1 μM. OTC increased glutathione levels and protected ARPE-19 and primary RPE cells isolated from wild type mouse retinas from H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. These effects were abolished in primary RPE isolated from Slc5a8(-/-) mouse retinas.
OTC is a transportable substrate for SLC5A8. OTC augments glutathione production in RPE cells, thereby protecting them from oxidative damage. Transport via SLC5A8 is obligatory for this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GPR91, a succinate receptor, is expressed in retinal ganglion cells and induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. RPE also expresses VEGF, but whether this cell expresses GPR91 is not known. Excessive iron is also proangiogenic, and hemochromatosis is associated with iron overload. Therefore, we examined the expression and iron-dependent regulation of GPR91 in the RPE.
GPR91 expression was examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Hemochromatosis mice, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of retina, expression of CMV-US2 in RPE, and exposure of RPE to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) were used to examine the iron-dependent regulation of GPR91 expression. VEGF expression was quantified by qPCR. Knockdown of GPR91 in ARPE-19 cells was achieved with shRNA.
GPR91 was expressed in RPE but only in the apical membrane. Retinal expression of GPR91 was higher in hemochromatosis (Hfe(-/-)) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. Primary RPE cells from Hfe(-/-) mice had increased GPR91 expression compared with WT RPE cells. Iron accumulation in cells induced by CMV infection, expression of CMV-US2, or treatment with FAC increased GPR91 expression. VEGF expression in the Hfe(-/-) mouse retina was increased at ages younger than 18 months, but the expression was downregulated at older ages. The involvement of GPR91 in succinate-induced expression of VEGF in RPE cells was confirmed with GPR91-specific shRNA.
GPR91 is expressed in the RPE with specific localization to the apical membrane, indicating that succinate in the subretinal space serves as the GPR91 agonist. Excessive iron in the retina and RPE enhances GPR91 expression; however, VEGF expression does not always parallel GPR91 expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) express two transport systems (SOPT1 and SOPT2) for oligopeptides. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory peptide hormone consisting of 25 amino acids. This hormone binds to ferroportin, an iron exporter expressed on the cell surface, and facilitates its degradation. Here we investigated if hepcidin is a substrate for SOPT1 and SOPT2 and if the hormone has any intracellular function in RPE. Hepcidin inhibited competitively the uptake of deltorphin II (a synthetic oligopeptide substrate for SOPT1) and DADLE (a synthetic oligopeptide substrate for SOPT2) with IC50 values in the range of 0.4-1.7 μM. FITC-hepcidin was taken up into RPE, and this uptake was inhibited by deltorphin II and DADLE. The entry of FITC-hepcidin into cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. Incubation of RPE with hepcidin decreased the levels of ferroportin mRNA. This effect was not a consequence of hepcidin-induced ferroportin degradation because excessive iron accumulation in RPE, which is expected to occur in these cells as a result of ferroportin degradation, did not decrease but instead increased the levels of ferroportin mRNA. This study reveals for the first time a novel intracellular function for hepcidin other than its established cell surface action on ferroportin.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 405(2):244-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.01.018 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SMCT1 is a Na+-coupled monocarboxylate transporter expressed in a variety of tissues including kidney, thyroid, small intestine, colon, brain, and retina. We found recently that several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the activity of SMCT1. Here we evaluated the effect of diclofenac, also a NSAID, on SMCT1. SMCT1 cDNA was expressed heterologously in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines HRPE and ARPE-19, the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF7, and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transport was monitored by substrate uptake and substrate-induced currents. Na+-dependent uptake/current was considered as SMCT1 activity. The effect of diclofenac was evaluated for specificity, dose–response, and influence on transport kinetics. To study the specificity of the diclofenac effect, we evaluated the influence of this NSAID on the activity of several other cloned transporters in mammalian cells under identical conditions. In contrast to several NSAIDs that inhibited SMCT1, diclofenac stimulated SMCT1 when expressed in HRPE and ARPE-19 cells. The stimulation was marked, ranging from 2- to 5-fold depending on the concentration of diclofenac. The stimulation was associated with an increase in the maximal velocity of the transport system as well as with an increase in substrate affinity. The observed effect on SMCT1 was selective because the activity of several other cloned transporters, when expressed in HRPE cells and studied under identical conditions, was not affected by diclofenac. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect on SMCT1 observed in HRPE and ARPE-19 cells was not evident in MCF7 cells nor in the X. laevis expression system, indicating that SMCT1 was not the direct target for diclofenac. The RPE-specific effect suggests that the target of diclofenac that mediates the stimulatory effect is expressed in RPE cells but not in MCF7 cells or in X. laevis oocytes. Since SMCT1 is a concentrative transporter for metabolically important compounds such as pyruvate, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nicotinate, the stimulation of its activity by diclofenac in RPE cells has biological and clinical significance.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2010; 394(1-394):75-80. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.02.109 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sodium-coupled oligopeptide transporter (SOPT1) was described originally in ARPE-19 cells. The transporter is inducible by HIV-1 Tat. Recent studies of conjunctival epithelial cells have identified a second oligopeptide transporter (SOPT2). This study was conducted to determine whether the newly discovered SOPT2 is expressed in ARPE-19 cells, to examine whether the new transporter is also inducible by HIV-1 Tat, and to find out whether this transporter is expressed in primary RPE cells.
The transport activity of SOPT2 was monitored in control and Tat-expressing ARPE-19 cells and in primary mouse and human fetal RPE cells by the uptake of the synthetic opioid peptide DADLE ((H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH) and by its susceptibility to inhibition by small peptides. Substrate selectivity was examined by competition studies and kinetic parameters were determined by saturation analysis.
ARPE-19 cells express DADLE uptake activity that is inhibited by small peptides, indicating expression of SOPT2 in these cells. The activity of SOPT2 is induced by HIV-1 Tat. SOPT2 accepts endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides as substrates, but nonpeptide opiate antagonists are excluded. An 11-amino-acid HIV-1 Tat peptide also serves as a high-affinity substrate for the transporter. Primary cultures of mouse and human fetal RPE cells express SOPT2. The transporter is partially Na(+)-dependent with comparable substrate selectivity and inhibitor specificity in the presence and absence of Na(+).
ARPE-19 cells as well as primary mouse and human fetal RPE cells express the newly discovered oligopeptide transporter SOPT2, and the transporter is induced by HIV-1 Tat in ARPE-19 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short-chain fatty acids, generated in colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, protect against colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Among these bacterial metabolites, butyrate is biologically most relevant. GPR109A is a G-protein-coupled receptor for nicotinate but recognizes butyrate with low affinity. Millimolar concentrations of butyrate are needed to activate the receptor. Although concentrations of butyrate in colonic lumen are sufficient to activate the receptor maximally, there have been no reports on the expression/function of GPR109A in this tissue. Here we show that GPR109A is expressed in the lumen-facing apical membrane of colonic and intestinal epithelial cells and that the receptor recognizes butyrate as a ligand. The expression of GPR109A is silenced in colon cancer in humans, in a mouse model of intestinal/colon cancer, and in colon cancer cell lines. The tumor-associated silencing of GPR109A involves DNA methylation directly or indirectly. Reexpression of GPR109A in colon cancer cells induces apoptosis, but only in the presence of its ligands butyrate and nicotinate. Butyrate is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, but apoptosis induced by activation of GPR109A with its ligands in colon cancer cells does not involve inhibition of histone deacetylation. The primary changes in this apoptotic process include down-regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and cyclin D1 and up-regulation of death receptor pathway. In addition, GPR109A/butyrate suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB activation in normal and cancer colon cell lines as well as in normal mouse colon. These studies show that GPR109A mediates the tumor-suppressive effects of the bacterial fermentation product butyrate in colon.
Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(7):2826-32. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4466 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GPR109A has been identified as a G-protein-coupled receptor for niacin. beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) is a physiologic ligand for the receptor. beta-HB, the predominate ketone body in circulation, is an important energy source for neurons, including retinal neurons, under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. The identification of GPR109A as the receptor for beta-HB suggests additional, hitherto unknown, functions for this metabolite. The circulating levels of beta-HB increase in diabetes. Since retinopathy is a serious complication associated with diabetes, we investigated GPR109A expression in retina and in different retinal cell types to determine if the receptor may have a role in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.
RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescent techniques were used to analyze GPR109A expression in mouse retina and in three transformed retinal cell lines: ARPE-19 (RPE), RGC-5 (ganglion), and rMC-1 (Müller). Activation of GPR109A by niacin and beta-HB was demonstrated in ARPE-19 cells by cAMP assay.
Studies conducted using mouse retinal tissues demonstrated that GPR109A is expressed in retina with its expression restricted to RPE, where it differentially polarizes to the basolateral membrane. These results were confirmed with cell lines, which demonstrated GPR109A expression in ARPE-19, but not in rMC-1 and RGC-5 cells. Primary cultures of mouse RPE also showed robust expression of GPR109A. cAMP assay demonstrated that GPR109A expressed in RPE is functional.
These data represent the first report on GPR109A expression in retina. The exclusive expression of GPR109A in RPE basolateral membrane, which has access to beta-HB in blood, may have biologic importance in diabetic retinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether conjunctival epithelial cells express transport processes for opioid peptides.
We monitored the uptake of [(3)H]deltorphin II and [(3)H]DADLE, two hydrolysis-resistant synthetic opioid peptides, in the rabbit conjunctival epithelial cell line CJVE and elucidated the characteristics of the uptake process.
CJVE cells express robust uptake activity for deltorphin II and DADLE. Both opioid peptides compete with each other for transport. Several endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides, but not non-peptide opioid antagonists, are recognized by the transport process. Though various peptides inhibit the uptake of deltorphin II and DADLE in a similar manner, the uptake of deltorphin II is partly Na(+)-dependent whereas that of DADLE mostly Na(+)-independent. The transport process shows high affinity for many endogenous/synthetic opioid peptides. Functional features reveal that this transport process may be distinct from the opioid peptide transport system described in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 and also from the organic anion transporting polypeptides, which are known to transport opioid peptides.
CJVE cells express a novel, hitherto unknown transport process for endogenous/synthetic opioid peptides. This new transport process may offer an effective delivery route for opioid peptide drugs to the posterior segment of the eye.
Pharmaceutical Research 10/2008; 26(5):1226-35. DOI:10.1007/s11095-008-9709-x · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we cloned two Na(+)-coupled lactate transporters from mouse kidney, a high-affinity transporter (SMCT1 or slc5a8) and a low-affinity transporter (SMCT2 or slc5a12). Here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of human SMCT2 (SLC5A12) and compare the immunolocalization patterns of slc5a12 and slc5a8 in mouse kidney. The human SMCT2 cDNA codes for a protein consisting of 618 amino acids. When expressed in mammalian cells or Xenopus oocytes, human SMCT2 mediates Na(+) -coupled transport of lactate, pyruvate and nicotinate. The affinities of the transporter for these substrates are lower than those reported for human SMCT1. Several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit human SMCT2-mediated nicotinate transport, suggesting that NSAIDs interact with the transporter as they do with human SMCT1. Immunofluorescence microscopy of mouse kidney sections with an antibody specific for SMCT2 shows that the transporter is expressed predominantly in the cortex. Similar studies with an anti-SMCT1 antibody demonstrate that SMCT1 is also expressed mostly in the cortex. Dual-labeling of SMCT1 and SMCT2 with 4F2hc (CD98), a marker for basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells in the S1 and S2 segments of the nephron, shows that both SMCT1 and SMCT2 are expressed in the apical membrane of the tubular cells. These studies also show that while SMCT2 is broadly expressed along the entire length of the proximal tubule (S1/S2/S3 segments), the expression of SMCT1 is mostly limited to the S3 segment. These studies suggest that the low-affinity transporter SMCT2 initiates lactate absorption in the early parts of the proximal tubule followed by the participation of the high-affinity transporter SMCT1 in the latter parts of the proximal tubule.