[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenylphenalenones, polycyclic aromatic natural products from some monocotyledonous plants, are known as phytoalexins in banana (Musa spp.). In this study, (1) H NMR-based metabolomics along with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to explore the chemical responses of the susceptible 'Williams' and the resistant 'Khai Thong Ruang' Musa varieties to the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the agent of the Black Leaf Sigatoka Disease. Principal component analysis discriminated strongly between infected and non-infected plant tissue, mainly due to specialized metabolism induced in response to the fungus. Phenylphenalenones are among the major induced compounds, and the resistance level of the plants was correlated with the progress of the disease. However, a virulent strain of M. fijiensis was able to overcome plant resistance by converting phenylphenalenones to sulfate conjugates. Here we report the first metabolic detoxification of fungitoxic phenylphenalenones to evade the chemical defense of Musa plants.
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Plant Cell and Environment 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/pce.12630 · 6.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro metabolism of flavokawain A, B and C (FKA, FKB, FKC), methoxylated chalcones from Piper methysticum, was examined using human liver microsomes. Phase I and phase II (glucuronidation) metabolism as well as combined phase I+II metabolism were studied. For identification and structure elucidation of microsomal metabolites, LC-HRESIMS and NMR techniques were applied. Major phase I metabolites were generated by demethylation in position C-4 or C-4' and hydroxylation predominantly in position C-4, yielding FKC as phase I metabolite of FKA and FKB, helichrysetin as metabolite of FKA and FKC, and cardamonin as metabolite of FKC. To an even greater extent, flavokawains were metabolized in presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucuronic acid by microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases. For all flavokawains, monoglucuronides (FKA-2'-O-glucuronide, FKB-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-4-O-glucuronide) were found as major phase II metabolites. The dominance of generated glucuronides suggests a role of conjugated chalcones as potential active compounds in vivo.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2015; 63(28). DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01858 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of 4-phenylphenalenones and structural analogues against the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis (causal agent of black sigatoka disease in bananas) under light-controlled conditions uncovered some key structural features for the design of photodynamic compounds.
SAR analysis revealed the importance of a chromophoric aryl-ketone and a "steroidomimetic" structural motif in the activity of the assayed compounds. The results pointed to the evaluation of 1,2-dihydro-3H-naphtho[2',1':3,4]cyclohepta[1,2-b]furan-3-one which displayed an activity in the range of propiconazole but with photodynamic behavior.
The present work demonstrates that 1,2-dihydro-3H-naphtho[2',1':3,4]cyclohepta[1,2-b]heterocyclic-3-one derivatives can be used as potential lead compounds for the development of fungicides which relies on a dual mode of action.
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Pest Management Science 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ps.4055 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The absolute configuration of salicortin, HCH-salicortin and tremulacin, isolated from leaves of Populus trichocarpa × deltoides Beaupré, was determined by comparing spectroscopic data of these compounds with those of idescarpin, isolated from leaves of Idesia polycarpa. All compounds were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. It was found that the hydroxy cyclohexenonoyl (HCH) moiety in all compounds is (S)-configured. In addition, it was shown that leaves of Idesia polycarpa contain high amounts of (-)-idescarpin (1.1%, based on dry weight).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethyl 3-(6,6-ethylenedioxy-2α,3α-isopropylidenedioxy-17-oxo-5α-androstan-14α-yl)propanoate, the key intermediate product in the synthesis of brassinosteroids modified in the D ring, was synthesized from 6,6-ethylenedioxy-2α,3α-isopropylidenedioxy-5α-androsta-14,16-dien-17-yl acetate via reaction sequence including Diels-Alder cycloaddition with phenyl vinyl sulfone, dihydroxylation, Malaprade diol cleavage, and selective Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flaxseed is an important source of lignans and ω-3 fatty acids, compounds which present interest in human health with many applications in food industry. It is therefore necessary to precisely know the metabolite content in flaxseed. A metabolomic approach using NMR was developed to achieve this goal. Due to particular characteristics of flaxseed (high level in oil, high amount in mucilage, and integration of the phenolics into a macromolecule), the extraction procedure had first to be optimized using an experimental design, based on the extraction time, in a water bath or an ultrasound bath, alkaline treatment, defatting, and centrifugation temperature. This methodology was then applied to several flaxseed varieties classified in function of their content in ω-3 fatty acid. The main differences in semi-polar metabolites between these varieties concern compounds of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Hydroxycinnamic acid glucoside and lignan content increase when ω-3 fatty acid content decrease whereas flavonoid content increase in the same way of ω-3 fatty acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abutilon theophrasti Medik., previously found to be rather insensitive to benzoxazinoid containing rye mulch and the allelochemical benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), can be associated with the zygomycete Actinomucor elegans, whereby the fungus colonizes the root relatively superficially and mainly in the maturation zone. The fungus mitigates necrosis of the cotyledons when seedlings are incubated with 2 mM BOA, in contrast to those that lack the fungus. In liquid cultures of the fungus, tryptophan was identified. The accumulation of tryptophan is increased in presence of BOA. This amino acid seems to be important in protecting Abutilon against BOA and its derivatives since it suppressed the accumulation of BOA derived, highly toxic 2-aminophen-oxazin-3-one (APO) in the medium and on the root surface during BOA incubations of Abutilon seedlings. Although A. elegans is insensitive to BOA and APO, the fungus is not able to protect the plant against harmful effects of APO, when seedlings are treated with the compound. Abutilon can detoxify BOA via BOA-6-OH glucosylation probably by a cell wall associated glucosyltransferase, but only low amounts of the product accumulate. Low tryptophan concentrations can contribute to a degradation of the toxic intermediate BOA-6-OH by Fenton reactions, whereby the amino acid is oxidized. One of the oxidation products was identified as 4(1H)-quinolinone, which is the core substructure of the quorum sensing molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone. The mutualistic association of Abutilon theophrasti with Actinomucor elegans is considered as opportunistic and facultative. Such plant-fungus associations depend rather likely on environmental conditions, such as the mode of fertilization.
Journal of Chemical Ecology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10886-014-0529-7 · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Ferula foetida Regel (Apiaceae) is an Iranian medicinal plant with various biological activities including antispasmodic and anthelmintic. Objective: The sulfur compounds from the roots of F. foetida were isolated and characterized to test their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Materials and methods: The methanolic extract of the roots of F. foetida was fractionated using silica column chromatography. The components of each fraction were further purified using RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by 1- and 2-D NMR spectroscopy as well as HREIMS. Their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities were evaluated using Alamar Blue assay and broth microdilution method, respectively. Results: Four new thiophene derivatives, namely foetithiophenes C-F (3-6), together with four known compounds, foetithiophenes A (1) and B (2), coniferaldehyde, and sinapic aldehyde, were isolated from the roots of F. foetida. Antimicrobial activities were observed in particular against the Gram-positive bacteria. The best antimicrobial activity was observed for compound 6 against B. cereus with a MIC value 50 µg/mL. The tested compounds did not show cytotoxic properties against MCF-7 and K562 cells. Conclusion: Four new thiophene derivatives including foetithiophenes C-F (3-6) were characterized from the roots of F. foetida. Foetithiophene F (6) exhibited the most potent activity against the Gram-positive bacteria B. cereus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we provide evidence that 3α-acetyloxy-tir-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (αATA(8,24)) inhibits the Akt/mTOR signaling. αATA(8,24) and other tirucallic acids were isolated from the acetylated extract of the oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata to chemical homogeneity. Compared to related tirucallic acids, αATA(8,24) was the most potent inhibitor of the proliferation of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, in prostate cancer xenografted onto chick chorioallantoic membranes. αATA(8,24) induced loss of cell membrane asymmetry, caspase 3 activation, and DNA fragmentation in vitro and in vivo. These effects were selective for cancer cells, because αATA(8,24) exerted overt toxic effects neither on peripheral blood mononuclear cells nor on the chick embryo. At the molecular level, αATA(8,24) inhibited the Akt1 kinase activity. Prior to all biochemical signs of cellular dysfunction, αATA(8,24) induced, inhibition of the Akt downstream target, mTOR as indicated by dephosphorylation of S6K1. This event was followed by decreased expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin B1, as well as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK2, and phospho retinoblastoma protein, which led to inhibition of the cell cycle progression. In agreement with the mTOR inhibition, αATA(8,24) and rapamycin increased the volume of acidic vesicular organelles. In contrast to rapamycin, αATA(8,24) destabilized lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes, and induced ROS production in cancer cells. The ability of αATA(8,24) to inhibit Akt/mTOR signaling and to induce simultaneously oxidative stress could be exploited for the development of novel antitumor therapeutics with a lower profile of toxic side effects.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2014; 352(1). DOI:10.1124/jpet.114.217323 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the chemical identity and role of urinary pheromones in fish is scarce, yet it is necessary in order to understand the integration of multiple senses in adaptive responses and the evolution of chemical communication . In nature, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) males form hierarchies, and females mate preferentially with dominant territorial males, which they visit in aggregations or leks . Dominant males have thicker urinary bladder muscular walls than subordinates or females and store large volumes of urine, which they release at increased frequency in the presence of subordinate males or preovulatory, but not postspawned, females [3-5]. Females exposed to dominant-male urine augment their release of the oocyte maturation-inducing steroid 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (17,20β-P) . Here we isolate and identify a male Mozambique tilapia urinary sex pheromone as two epimeric (20α- and 20β-) pregnanetriol 3-glucuronates. We show that both males and females have high olfactory sensitivity to the two steroids, which cross-adapt upon stimulation. Females exposed to both steroids show a rapid, 10-fold increase in production of 17,20β-P. Thus, the identified urinary steroids prime the female endocrine system to accelerate oocyte maturation and possibly promote spawning synchrony. Tilapia are globally important as a food source but are also invasive species, with devastating impact on local freshwater ecosystems [7, 8]. Identifying the chemical cues that mediate reproduction may lead to the development of tools for population control [9-11].
Current Biology 08/2014; 24(18):2130-2135. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2014.07.049 · 9.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abutilon theophrasti is one of the most problematic weeds worldwide. Rye mulches, rich in benzoxazinoids, could not suppress Abutilon (Herbiseeds) due to its avoidance of high BOA/BOA detoxification product accumulation and phytotoxic 2-aminophenoxazinone production. Since Abutilon theophrasti seed coats harbour a variety of fungi and bacteria, a participation of those organisms in BOA degradation was assumed. The avoidance of high detoxification product/BOA accumulation in the roots was correlated with the presence of the Zygomycete Actinomucor elegans, which is known to colonize Abutilon seed coats. The microorganism(s) produced plant growth promoting compounds, whereby tryptophan excretion was stimulated by BOA. In Fenton reactions with BOA, tryptophan accelerates the destruction of the allelochemical via hydroxylated BOA molecules, when used in defined ratios. Destruction of BOA via hydroxylated molecules presents a new pathway for BOA degradation without accumulation of 2-aminophenoxazinone. During this process tryptophan is also degraded. Applications of high concentrations of tryptophan led, however, to a higher, channelled synthesis of BOA-6-O-glucoside in the roots, probably to slow down oxygen consuming Fenton reactions. From all possible hydroxylated BOA molecules, BOA-6-OH is the best substrate for Oglucosylation. Incubations in presence of the mono-oxygenase effector 2-bromo-4´-nitroacetophenone revealed that those enzymes are mainly responsible for BOA-6-OH synthesis and only a minor part results from Fenton reactions. The study elucidates the important role of plant-microorganism associations in the survival of allelopathic attacks.
7th World Congress on Allelopathy: “Complex Interactions in a Changing Climate”, International Allelopathy Society., Vigo, Spain; 07/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing resistance level of insect pest species is a major concern to agriculture worldwide. The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most important pest species due to being highly polyphagous, geographically widespread, and resistant towards many chemical classes of insecticides. We previously described the mechanism of fenvalerate resistance in Australian populations conferred by the chimeric cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP337B3, which arose by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B1 and CYP337B2. Here, we show that this mechanism is also present in the cypermethrin-resistant FSD strain from Pakistan. The Pakistani and the Australian CYP337B3 alleles differ by 18 synonymous and three nonsynonymous SNPs and additionally in the length and sequence of the intron. Nevertheless, the activity of both CYP337B3 proteins is comparable. We demonstrate that CYP337B3 is capable of metabolizing cypermethrin (trans- and especially cis-isomers) to the main metabolite 4'-hydroxycypermethrin, which exhibits no intrinsic toxicity towards susceptible larvae. In a bioassay, CYP337B3 confers a 7-fold resistance towards cypermethrin in FSD larvae compared to susceptible larvae from the Australian TWB strain lacking CYP337B3. Linkage analysis shows that presence of CYP337B3 accounts for most of the cypermethrin resistance in the FSD strain; up-regulation of other P450s in FSD plays no detectable role in resistance. The presence or absence of CYP337B3 can be easily detected by a simple PCR screen, providing a powerful tool to rapidly distinguish resistant from susceptible individuals in the field and to determine the geographical distribution of this resistance gene. Our results suggest that CYP337B3 evolved twice independently by unequal crossing-over between CYP337B2 and two different CYP337B1 alleles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nudicaulins are unique alkaloids responsible for the yellow color of the petals of some papaveraceaous plants. To elucidate the unknown biosynthetic origin of the skeleton, a (13) CO2 -pulse/chase experiment was performed with growing Papaver nudicaule plants. (13) C NMR analysis revealed more than 20 multiple (13) C-enriched isotopologues in nudicaulins from the petals of (13) CO2 -labeled plants. The complex labeling pattern was compared with the isotopologue composition of a kaempferol derivative that was isolated from petals of the same (13) CO2 -labeled plants. The deconvolution of the labeling profiles indicated that the nudicaulin scaffold is assembled from products or intermediates of indole metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway, and the polyketide biosynthesis. Naringenin-type compounds and tryptophan/tryptamine are potential substrates for the condensation reaction finally generating the aglycone skeleton of nudicaulins.