[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is considered relatively safe but semi-invasive. The hypopharyngeal and esophageal injury is infrequent complication of TEE but could be serious, even life-threatening. We present a case of a 74-year-old man who experienced a deep neck infection secondary to hypopharyngeal injury following TEE. The diagnosis was made because of the subcutaneous emphysema developed 3 hours after TEE. In spite of antibiotics therapy with prolonged fasting, a right parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal abscess was developed 5 days later. With ultrasound-guided drainage of abscess and continuous antibiotic treatment, infection was controlled. The patent underwent mitral valve repair after 14 days of antibiotic therapy. The patient recovered uneventfully. For cardiologists performing TEE, it is required to know complications and their risk factors to minimize hypopharyngeal and esophageal injury.
Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 10/2015; 23(3):181. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2015.23.3.181
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional data suggest that the degree of coronary atherosclerosis is associated with aerobic fitness. However, there are limited longitudinal data addressing whether aerobic fitness is a predictor of coronary atherosclerosis progression. This study investigated whether peak oxygen consumption is related to a longitudinal increase in coronary calcium scores. Study subjects were voluntary participants in a health screening program who underwent a cardiopulmonary function test and repeated coronary calcium scoring. Individuals with clinical cardiovascular disease were excluded. The final sample included 4843 subjects with 14,856 records. The treadmill exercise test was performed using a modified Bruce protocol and Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were measured using multi-detector CT. The mean age of the participants was 52 ± 6 years and 4.7 % were female. In a multi-level mixed effect regression model, increased CAC scores over time were significantly less likely in individuals with a higher VO2peak after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, HbA1c, smoking status and LDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.001). Aerobic fitness has a protective effect on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic middle-aged population.
Heart and Vessels 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00380-015-0745-2 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new CT-based diagnostic method of protrusio acetabuli (PA) was introduced. However, prevalence of PA by this method and correlation between PA and other manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is unknown in Korean MFS patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PA diagnosed by a CT-based method in Korean patients with MFS, the association of PA with other manifestations of MFS, and the contribution of PA to MFS diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 146 MFS patients with the presence of a causative FBN1 mutation and 146 age- and sex-matched controls from a single tertiary care center. All MFS patients underwent a complete assessment of criteria based on the revised Ghent nosology. PA was assessed quantitatively using a CT-based circle-wall distance (CWD) method. PA was diagnosed in 77.4% of patients in the MFS group and in 11.0% of the control group. CWD was significantly different between the two groups (1.50 mm vs. -0.64 mm, P<0.001). The presence of PA did not correlate with the presence of ectopia lentis, aortic root diameter, or history of aortic dissection. The presence of PA did not have a significant impact on the final diagnosis of MFS. Even though the presence of PA does not related to the cardinal clinical features of MFS or influence MFS diagnosis, its presence may be helpful for the suspicion of MFS when aortic dissection or aneurysm is found on CT angiography of the aorta because of the high frequency of PA in MFS patients.
Journal of Korean medical science 09/2015; 30(9):1260-5. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.9.1260 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of frequent tuberculosis in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA), a possible relationship between TA and tuberculosis has been proposed. However, there are no studies to date that have examined clinical manifestations in patients diagnosed with TA with or without tuberculosis. Two hundred sixty-seven patients were diagnosed with TA according to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria between September 1994 and April 2014. Patients with TA were classified into groups with or without tuberculosis. Among the 267 patients with TA studied, 47 patients (17.7 %) who had a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis (34 patients), concurrent diagnosis of tuberculosis with TA (10 patients), or diagnosis of tuberculosis during the follow-up period for TA (3 patients) were included in the group with tuberculosis. The group with tuberculosis comprised of 33 patients (70.2 %) with pulmonary tuberculosis, 12 patients (25.5 %) with tuberculous lymphadenitis, and 2 patients (4.3 %) with tuberculosis of the skin and colon, respectively. Comorbid disease and patients' signs and symptoms were not significantly different between TA patients with and without tuberculosis. Additionally, the site of disease involvement in angiographic findings and distribution of angiographic type were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, tuberculosis including tuberculous lymphadenitis was frequently observed in patients with TA. Clinical features and angiographic findings in TA were not different according to the presence or absence of concomitant tuberculosis.
Heart and Vessels 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00380-015-0731-8 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the diagnostic accuracy of absolute and relative territorial myocardial blood flow (MBF) derived from stress dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis.
Dynamic CT MPI and coronary CT angiography (CTA) datasets from a multicenter registry of 137 patients (mean age, 60.9 ± 8.4 years; 88 men) with suspected or known coronary artery disease were retrospectively analyzed. For each coronary territory, absolute MBF and the MBF relative to remote myocardium (MBF ratio) were calculated. Coronary CTA datasets were visually assessed for significant stenosis (≥ 50% luminal narrowing) in consensus by two observers.
Significant stenosis was detected in 137 of 411 (33.3%) vessels. Mean absolute MBF and MBF ratio were statistically significantly lower in territories supplied by arteries with stenosis (80.7 ± 33.7 vs 140.0 ± 38.4 mL/100 mL/min and 0.52 vs 0.89, respectively; both p < 0.0001). ROC analysis showed better discrimination by MBF ratio than by absolute MBF (AUC, 0.925 vs 0.882; p = 0.0022) and increased sensitivity (90.7% vs 82.4%; p < 0.04) and specificity (93.1% vs 80.5%; p < 0.03) for MBF ratio and absolute MBF cutoff values of 0.71 or less and 103 mL/100 mL/min or less, respectively.
In stress dynamic CT MPI, relative MBF provides superior diagnostic accuracy compared with absolute territorial MBF values for coronary CTA-detected significant coronary artery stenosis.
American Journal of Roentgenology 07/2015; 205(1):W67-W72. DOI:10.2214/AJR.14.14087 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction on left atrial (LA) phasic volume and function using dual-source CT (DSCT) and to find a viable alternative prognostic parameter of CT for LV diastolic dysfunction through quantitative evaluation of LA phasic volume and function in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction.
Seventy-seven patients were examined using DSCT and Doppler echocardiography on the same day. Reservoir, conduit, and contractile function of LA were evaluated by measuring LA volume (LAV) during different cardiac phases and all parameters were normalized to body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups (normal, impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive LV diastolic filling) according to echocardiographic findings. The LA phasic volume and function in different stages of LV diastolic function was compared using one-way ANOVA analysis. The correlations between indexed volume of LA (LAVi) and diastolic function in different stages of LV were evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis.
LA ejection fraction (LAEF), LA contraction, reservoir, and conduit function in patients in impaired relaxation group were not different from those in the normal group, but they were lower in patients in the pseudonormal and restrictive LV diastolic dysfunction groups (P < 0.05). For LA conduit function, there were no significant differences between the patients in the pseudonormal group and restrictive filling group (P = 0.195). There was a strong correlation between the indexed maximal left atrial volume (LAVmax, r = 0.85, P < 0.001), minimal left atrial volume (LAVmin, r = 0.91, P < 0.001), left atrial volume at the onset of P wave (LAVp, r = 0.84, P < 0.001), and different stages of LV diastolic function. The LAVi increased as the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction increased.
LA remodeling takes place in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. At the same time, LA phasic volume and function parameters evaluated by DSCT indicated the severity of the LV diastolic dysfunction. Quantitative analysis of LA phasic volume and function parameters using DSCT could be a viable alternative prognostic parameter of LV diastolic function.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127289. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127289 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because Takayasu arteritis (TA) predominantly affects females, few data regarding gender differences have been reported. The aim of the present study is to describe clinical features and angiographic findings of patients with TA according to gender.
According to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria, 294 patients were diagnosed with TA between September 1994 and April 2014 at a single tertiary hospital. We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic data at the time of diagnosis.
Among the 294 patients studied, 257 (87.4%) were female (male:female ratio=1:6.9). Female patients had a higher tendency to exhibit blood pressure differences between arms (p=0.595) and a weak pulse at the brachial artery (p=0.063). In male patients, we observed higher serum creatinine levels (p=0.038) and hypertension more frequently (p=0.061) than in females. Females exhibited more common lesions in the thoracic aorta and its branches, while males had more frequent lesions in the abdominal aorta and its branches. An analysis of angiographic classification according to the International TA Conference in Tokyo 1994 classification revealed that male patients had a higher incidence of type IV and females showed a higher incidence of types I, IIa, and IIb.
Female patients with TA have more frequent involvement of the thoracic aorta and its branches, whereas involvement of the abdominal aorta and its branches is more common in males. Considering these gender-specific differences, adjustment of diagnostic criteria for TA according to gender may be necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite technical simplicity and the low cost of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BA-PWV), its use has been hampered by a lack of data supporting its usefulness and reliability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of BA-PWV to measure aortic stiffness in comparison to using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
A total of 124 participants without cardiovascular risk factors volunteered for this study. BA-PWV was measured using a vascular testing device. On the same day, using CMR, cross-sectional areas for distensibility and average blood flow were measured at four aortic levels: the ascending, upper thoracic descending, lower thoracic descending, and abdominal aorta.
Compared to PWV measured by CMR, BA-PWV values were significantly higher and the differences therein were similar in all age groups (all p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between BA-PWV and PWV by CMR (r=0.697, p<0.001). Both BA-PWV and PWV by CMR were significantly and positively associated with age (r=0.652 and 0.724, p<0.001). The reciprocal of aortic distensibility also demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation with BA-PWV (r=0.583 to 0.673, all p<0.001).
BA-PWV was well correlated with central aortic PWV and distensibility, as measured by CMR, regardless of age and sex.
Yonsei medical journal 05/2015; 56(3):617-24. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.3.617 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is uncertain that atorvastatin pretreatment can reduce myocardial damage in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin pretreatment on infarct size measured by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) in STEMI patients. Patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI within 12 hr after symptom onset were randomized to an atorvastatin group (n=30, 80 mg before PCI and for 5 days after PCI) or a control group (n=37, 10 mg daily after PCI). The primary end point was infarct size evaluated as the volume of delayed hyperenhancement by CE-MRI within 14 days after the index event. The median infarct size was 19% (IQR 11.1%-31.4%) in the atorvastatin group vs. 16.3% (7.2%-27.2%) in the control group (P=0.27). The myocardial salvage index (37.1% [26.9%-58.7%] vs. 46.9% [39.9-52.4], P=0.46) and area of microvascular obstruction (1.1% [0%-2.0%] vs. 0.7% [0%-1.8%], P=0.37) did not differ significantly between the groups. Frequency of the hemorrhagic and transmural infarctions was not significantly different in the 2 groups. Pretreatment with a high-dose atorvastatin followed by further treatment for 5 days in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI failed to reduce the extent of myocardial damage or improve myocardial salvage.
Journal of Korean medical science 04/2015; 30(4):435-41. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.4.435 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling is associated with cardiac mortality and morbidity, little is known about the impact of gender on the ventricular response in aortic stenosis (AS) patients. This study aimed to analyze the differential effect of gender on ventricular remodeling in moderate to severe AS patients.
Methods and results:
A total of 118 consecutive patients (67±9 years; 63 males) with moderate or severe AS (severe 81.4%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) within a 1-month period in this two-center prospective registry. The pattern of LV remodeling was assessed using the LV mass index (LVMI) and LV remodeling index (LVRI; LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume) by CMR. Although there were no differences in AS severity parameters nor baseline characteristics between genders, males showed a significantly higher LVMI (102.6±29.1 g/m2 vs. 86.1±29.2 g/m2, p=0.003) and LVRI (1.1±0.2 vs. 1.0±0.3, p=0.018), regardless of AS severity. The LVMI was significantly associated with aortic valve area (AVA) index and valvuloarterial impedance in females, whereas it was not in males, resulting in significant interaction between genders (PInteraction=0.007/0.014 for AVA index/valvuloarterial impedance, respectively). Similarly, the LVRI also showed a significantly different association between male and female subjects with the change in AS severity parameters (PInteraction=0.033/<0.001/0.029 for AVA index/transaortic mean pressure gradient/valvuloarterial impedance, respectively).
Males are associated with greater degree of LVH and higher LVRI compared to females at moderate to severe AS. However, females showed a more exaggerated LV remodeling response, with increased severity of AS and hemodynamic loads, than males.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0121684. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121684 · 3.23 Impact Factor