[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial electron transport chain is a source of oxygen superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) that is dismutated to H(2)O(2). Although low levels of ROS are physiologically synthesized during respiration, their increase contributes to cell injury. Therefore, an efficient machinery for H(2)O(2) disposal is essential in mitochondria. In this study, the ability of brain mitochondria to acquire cardiolipin (CL), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS) in vitro through a fusion process was exploited to investigate lipid effects on ROS. MTT assay, oxygen consumption, and respiratory ratio indicated that the acquired phospholipids did not alter mitochondrial respiration and O(2)(-) production from succinate. However, in CL-enriched mitochondria, H(2)O(2) levels where 27% and 47% of control in the absence and in the presence of antimycin A, respectively, suggesting an increase in H(2)O(2) elimination. Concomitantly, cytochrome c (cyt c) was released outside mitochondria. Since free oxidized cyt c acquired peroxidase activity towards H(2)O(2) upon interaction with CL in vitro, a contribution of cyt c to H(2)O(2) disposal in mitochondria through CL conferred peroxidase activity is plausible. In this model, the accompanying CL peroxidation should weaken cyt c-CL interactions, favouring the detachment and release of the protein. Neither cyt c peroxidase activity was elicited by PS in vitro, nor cyt c release was observed in PS-enriched mitochondria, although H(2)O(2) levels were significantly decreased, suggesting a cyt c-independent role of PS in ROS metabolism in mitochondria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome c (cyt c), a component of the respiratory chain, promotes apoptosis when released into the cytosol. Cyt c anchorage within mitochondria depends on cardiolipin (CL). Detachment and release have been related to CL loss and peroxidation. We report that NaN(3)-dependent complex IV inhibition, accompanied by impairment of respiration, resulted in cyt c release. Contrarily, inhibition of respiration upstream cyt c with complex I and III inhibitors was not accompanied by the release of the protein, despite CL decrease and monolyso-CL increase. No CL changes and H(2)O(2) formation were observed by inhibiting complex IV. In cyt c-CL liposomes, breaching cyt c-CL hydrophilic interactions produced a higher release of the reduced, compared to the oxidized form, suggesting that the hydrophobic component of cyt c-CL binding is prevalent in the oxidized form. Free or liposome-reconstituted cyt c was able to form fatty acid-protein complexes (palmitate < linoleate < oleate) only in its reduced form. We hypothesize that reduced cyt c-fatty acid binding favors the dislocation of the protein from anchoring CL. A mechanism for cyt c release independent of CL peroxidation by H(2)O(2) is feasible. It could weaken the hydrophobic component of cyt c-CL interactions and might function following complex IV inhibition or in oxygen lack, both conditions producing accumulation of reduced cyt c and free fatty acids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator involved in neurotransmission and in LTP. It has been reported that the induction of LTP by high frequency stimulation increases the activity of the enzymes responsible for its synthesis by a still unknown mechanism ( 1). One of the two biosynthetic pathways is Ca2+-dependent and transforms a membrane ether phospholipid into PAF by a sequence of two reactions being the first one, catalyzed by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2), rate limiting. Overproduction of PAF, taking place in pathological conditions, contributes to brain damage. Various PLA2s are present in brain tissue and, particularly, sPLA2-IIA is very likely involved in the production of PAF as its expression increases in pathological conditions. Recently, we have found the release of sPLA2-IIA from rat brain cortex mitochondria and its association with nuclear membranes, which might be an intracellular target for the enzyme.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2003; 85(s2):11-11. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.85.s2.11_1.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LysoPAF acetyltransferase (lysoPAF-AT) and PAF-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase (PAF-PCT) are the two enzymes which catalyze the final reactions for the synthesis of PAF. Their activities, assayed in the homogenate of rat brain stem slices and under their optimal conditions, increased 5 min after high frequency stimulation of vestibular afferents, inducing LTP in the medial vestibular nuclei. The activity of phosphatidylcholine-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase, was not affected. Sixty minutes from the induction of LTP, PAF-PCT activity, but not that of lysoPAF-AT, was still significantly higher with respect to 5 min test stimulated control. We used AP-5 to verify whether this increase was strictly dependent upon LTP induction, which requires NMDA receptor activation. In AP-5 treated slices, lysoPAF-acetyltransferase and PAF-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase activities increased, but they were reduced after high frequency stimulation under AP-5. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the activities of PAF-synthesizing enzymes are activated soon after the induction of LTP and that this effect is linked to the activation of NMDA-receptors. We suggest that the enzyme activation by AP-5, preventing LTP, might be due to glutamate enhancement but, in neurons showing LTP and under normal conditions, the activation of potentiation mechanisms is critical for the enhancement of enzyme activities.
Neurochemical Research 12/2002; 27(11):1465-71. DOI:10.1023/A:1021644304552 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator of long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity and memory formation as well as of the development of brain damage. In brain, PAF is synthesized by two distinct pathways but their relative contribution to its productions, in various physiological and pathological conditions, is not established. We have further investigated on the properties of the two enzymes that catalyze the last step of the de novo or remodeling pathways in rat brain microsomes, PAF-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase (PAF-PCT) and lysoPAF acetyltransferase (lysoPAF-AT), respectively. The latter enzyme is fully active at microM Ca2+ concentration, inhibited by MgATP and activated by phosphorylation. Because the reversibility of the reaction catalyzed by PAF-PCT, its direction depends on the ratio [CDP-choline]/[CMP], which is related to the energy charge of the cell. These and other properties indicate that the de novo pathway should mainly contribute to PAF synthesis for maintaining its basal levels under physiological conditions. The remodeling pathway should be more involved in the production of PAF during ischemia. During reperfusion, the overproduction of PAF should be the result of the concomitant activation of both pathways.
Neurochemical Research 06/2000; 25(5):705-13. DOI:10.1023/A:1007523422825 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the interaction between platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in mediating long-term potentiation within the medial vestibular nuclei. We analysed the N1 field potential wave evoked in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by primary vestibular afferent stimulation. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, prevented long-term potentiation induced by a platelet-activating factor analogue [1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-(methylcarbamyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine], as well as the full development of potentiation, induced by high-frequency stimulation under the blocking agent for synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors (ginkolide B), at drug washout. However, potentiation directly induced by the group I glutamate metabotropic receptor agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, was reduced by ginkolide B. These findings suggest that platelet-activating factor, whether exogenous or released following potentiation induction, exerts its effect through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mediating the increase of glutamate release. In addition, we found that this mechanism, which led to full potentiation through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation, was inactivated soon after application of potentiation-inducing stimulus. In fact, the long-lasting block of the platelet-activating factor and metabotropic glutamate receptors prevented the full potentiation development and the induced potentiation progressively declined to null. Moreover, ginkolide B, given when high-frequency-dependent potentiation was established, only reduced it within 5 min after potentiation induction. We conclude that to fully develop vestibular long-term potentiation requires presynaptic events. Platelet-activating factor, released after the activation of postsynaptic mechanisms which induce potentiation, is necessary for coupling postsynaptic and presynaptic phenomena, through the activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and its action lasts only for a short period. If this coupling does not occur, a full and long-lasting potentiation cannot develop.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rat brain stem slices, we investigated the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) in long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the ventral part of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferent. The synaptosomal PAF receptor antagonist, BN-52021 was administered before and after HFS. BN-52021 did not modify the vestibular potentials under basal conditions, but it reduced the magnitude of potentiation induced by HFS, which completely developed after the drug wash-out. The same effect was obtained by using CV-62091, a more potent PAF antagonist at microsomal binding sites, but with concentrations higher than those of BN-52021. By contrast both BN-52021 and CV-6209 had no effect on the potentiation once induced. This demonstrates that PAF is involved in the induction but not in the maintenance of vestibular long-term effect through activation of synaptosomal PAF receptors. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the PAF analogue, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O- (methylcarbamyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (MC-PAF) and the inactive PAF metabolite, 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (Lyso-PAF) on vestibular responses. Our results show that MC-PAF, but not Lyso-PAF induced potentiation. This potentiation was prevented by D,L-2-amino 5-phosphonopentanoic acid, suggesting an involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Furthermore, under BN-52021 and CV-6209, the MC-PAF potentiation was reduced or abolished. The dose-effect curve of MC-PAF showed a shift to the right greater under BN-52021 than under CV-6209, confirming the main dependence of MC-PAF potentiation on the activation of synaptosomal PAF receptors. Our results suggest that PAF can be released in the MVN after the activation of postsynaptic mechanisms triggering LTP, and it may act as a retrograde messenger which activates the presynaptic mechanisms facilitating synaptic plasticity.
Journal of Neurophysiology 07/1998; 79(6):3266-71. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) is a potent lipid mediator involved in physiological and pathological events in the nervous tissue where it can be synthesized by two distinct pathways. The last reaction of the de novo pathway utilizes CDPcholine and alkylacetylglycerol and is catalyzed by a specific phosphocholinetransferase (PAF-PCT) whereas the remodelling pathway ends with the reaction catalyzed by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF AcT) utilizing lyso-PAF, a product of phospholipase A2 activity, and acetyl-CoA. The levels of PAF in the nervous tissue are also regulated by PAF acetylhydrolase that inactivates this mediator. We have studied the activities of these enzymes during cell proliferation and differentiation in two experimental models: 1) neuronal and glial primary cell cultures from chick embryo and 2) LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by retinoic acid (RA). In undifferentiated neuronal cells from 8-days chick embryos the activity of PAF-PCT was much higher than that of lyso-PAF AcT but it decreased during the period of cellular proliferation up to the arrest of mitosis (day 1-3). During this period no significant changes of lyso-PAF AcT activity was observed. Both enzyme activities increased during the period of neuronal maturation and the formation of cellular contacts and synaptic-like junctions. The activity of PAF acetylhydrolase was unchanged during the development of the neuronal cultures. PAF-PCT activity did not change during the development of chick embryo glial cultures but lyso-PAF AcT activity increased up to the 12th day. RA treatment of LA-N-1 cell culture in proliferation decreased PAF-PCT activity and had no significant effect on lyso-PAF AcT and PAF acetylhydrolase indicating that the synthesis of PAF by the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the de novo pathway is inhibited when the LA-N-1 cells are induced to differentiate. These data suggest that: 1) in chick embryo primary cultures, both pathways are potentially able to contribute to PAF synthesis during development of neuronal cells particularly when they form synaptic-like junctions whereas, during development of glial cells, only the remodelling pathway might be particularly active on synthesizing PAF; 2) in LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells PAF-synthesizing enzymes coexist and, when cells start to differentiate the contribution of the de novo pathway to PAF biosynthesis might be reduced.
Neurochemical Research 11/1997; 22(10):1299-307. DOI:10.1023/A:1021997300288 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two distinct pathways for the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) have been demonstrated in the nervous tissue. This potent lipid mediator is involved in physiological and pathological processes. The relative contribution of the two pathways to its synthesis during various conditions needs to be defined, thus the activities of the enzymes directly responsible for PAF synthesis, PAF-synthesizing phosphocholinetransferase (PAF-PCT) and lyso-PAF acetlytransferase (lyso-PAF AcT), have been assayed in rat brain areas. The former catalyses the last reaction of the de novo pathway and the latter that of the remodelling one. PAF-PCT activity was always more elevated than that of lyso PAF AcT. No differences were observed among different brain areas when enzyme activities were assayed in their homogenates. In microsomes, the highest PAF-PCT activity was found in cerebellum whereas lyso-PAF AcT activity was greater in cerebellum and in hippocampus than in the other brain areas. The activity of PAF-synthesizing enzymes was also studied in the gerbil during ischemia and reperfusion. After 6 min from bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries, a significant increase of lyso-PAF AcT activity was observed in the hippocampus. This enzyme activity remained relatively high up to 3 days after reperfusion whereas, in other brain areas it reached basal levels much earlier. Since it has been shown that the PAF levels increase in the brain of animals during ischemia, these results suggest that the remodelling pathway may provide an important contribution to its synthesis particularly in the hippocampus, where a selective neuronal death is observed. In this area during reperfusion, a further contribution to PAF synthesis might be also provided by the de novo pathway.
Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling 10/1996; 14(1-3):89-98. DOI:10.1016/0929-7855(96)01513-1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) represents the key enzyme in the remodelling pathway of platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis in human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. 2. PLA2 activation is also the rate-limiting step for the release of the arachidonic acid utilized for the synthesis of leukotrienes in stimulated leucocytes; however, it is unknown whether the PLA2s involved in the two biosynthetic pathways are identical. 3. Cloricromene (8-monochloro-3-beta-diethylaminoethyl-4-methyl-7-ethoxy- carbonylmethoxy coumarin) is an antithrombotic coumarin derivative which inhibits platelet and leucocyte function and suppresses arachidonic acid liberation by interfering with PLA2 activation. 4. The aim of the present study was to assess whether chloricromene inhibits PAF synthesis by stimulated human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). 5. Cloricromene (50-500 microM) inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the release of PAF, as measured by h.p.l.c. bioassay, from A23187-stimulated PMNs. Significant inhibition (45%) of PAF-release was obtained with 50 microM cloricromene and the IC50 was 85 microM. Mepacrine (500 microM), a non-specific PLA2 inhibitor, strikingly reduced PAF release. 6. The incorporation of [3H]-acetate into [3H]-PAF induced by serum-treated zymosan in human PMNs was also inhibited concentration-dependently by cloricromene, with an IC50 of 105 microM. Mepacrine also suppressed [3H]-acetate incorporation into [3H]-PAF. 7. Cloricromene did not affect the activities of the enzymes involved in PAF-synthesis acetyltransferase or phosphocholine transferase. 8. Our data demonstrate that cloricromene, an inhibitor of PLA2-activation in human leucocytes, reduces the synthesis of PAF by stimulated PMNs. This finding has a twofold implication: the PLA2s (or the mechanisms that regulate their activation) involved in PAF synthesis and arachidonate release in human leucocytes are either identical or else indistinguishable by their sensitivity to cloricromene; the inhibition of PAF release by activated leucocytes may contribute to the antithrombotic and anti-ischaemic activities exerted by cloricromene.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/1996; 118(6):1351-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1996.tb15544.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several reports have indicated that platelet-activating factor (PAF) may play a role in the physiopathology of nervous tissue. We previously have demonstrated the presence, in the microsomal fractions of rat brain, of a phosphocholinetransferase which is able to synthesize PAF by the de novo pathway. The presence of dithiothreitol in the medium increases the rate of PAF biosynthesis, whereas it inhibits the synthesis of long-chain alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerophosphocholines (GPC), including dioctanoyl-GPC. This and other properties, such as pH dependence and thermal stability, indicate that rat brain may have two distinct enzymes for the synthesis of PAF and other choline phospholipids. The affinity of these enzymes for CDPcholine is similar to that reported for other tissues, the Km being 42 microns and 55 microns with alkylacetylglycerol and dioctanoylglycerol as lipid substrates, respectively. The Vmax values were 3.0 and 2.2 nmol/mg prot/min for PAF and dioctanoyl-GPC, respectively. In addition, it was shown that the microsomal fraction of rat brain contains an acetyltransferase which can convert lysoPAF to PAF. Since it has been reported previously that brain tissue possesses phospholipase A2 activity that can hydrolyze alkylacyl-GPC to lysoPAF, we conclude that brain tissue has all enzymic activities for the synthesis of PAF by the "remodeling pathway". The role of the two routes of PAF biosynthesis in nervous tissue remains to be established.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is present in nervous tissue and its function is still unknown. We have demonstrated that rat brain is able to synthesize PAF from 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol and CDP-choline by a "DTT-insensitive" phosphocholine transferase. This represents the last step of the de novo pathway which apparently is the only one existing in the brain for PAF biosynthesis. The enzyme has a microsomal localization, requires Mg++ and is inhibited by Ca++ as reported for phosphocholine transferase utilizing long-chain diradylglycerols as substrates. However, other properties of PAF-synthesizing enzyme (sensitivity to DTT and dependence on pH) are different from those of phosphocholine transferase responsible for the synthesis of diacyl and long-chain alkylacyl glycerophosphocholines. These observations indicate that a specific enzyme for PAF biosynthesis might exist in rat brain.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/1989; 161(1):107-12. DOI:10.1016/0006-291X(89)91567-2 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1-alkyl-2-acyl, 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl, and 1,2-diacyl-snglycerol moieties of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids were converted to the dinitrobenzoyl derivatives. These compounds were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and quantitated by their absorbance at 235 nm. Peak areas were proportional to the amount injected. Separations were optimal for the derivatives from 5 to 30 nmol of the glycerophospholipids. The compositions of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids from rat brain and of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids from human platelets agreed well with previous results obtained with much longer procedures.
Journal of liquid chromatography 09/1987; 10(12-12):2799-2808. DOI:10.1080/01483918708066827
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reversibility of phosphoethanolamine transferase (EC 22.214.171.124) in rat brain is demonstrated in this paper. Microsomal ethanolamine glycerophospholipids were prelabeled with an intracerebral injection of [3H]ethanolamine 4 h before killing young rats. Labeled CDPethanolamine was produced by incubation of the microsomes with CMP, although to a lesser extent than for the previously observed release of CDPcholine. Ethanolamine and choline glycerophospholipids were labeled with [2-3H]glycerol by incubation with primary cultures of rat brain. Microsomes from rat brains, with diisopropyl phosphofluoridate for inhibition of lipases, were incubated with the labeled glycerophospholipids separately, and labeled diacylglycerols were produced. The kinetic parameters of phosphoethanolamine transferase and phosphocholine transferase (EC 126.96.36.199) were compared by incubating rat brain microsomes with [3H]CMP. Inclusion of AMP in the reaction mixture was necessary in order to inhibit the hydrolysis of CMP by an enzyme with the properties of 5'-nucleotidase (EC 188.8.131.52). For phosphoethanolamine transferase and phosphocholine transferase respectively, the Km values for CMP were 40 and 125 microM and the V values were 2.3 and 21.6 nmol/h per mg protein. The reversibility of both enzymes permits the interconversion of the diacylglycerol moieties of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. During brain ischemia, a principal pathway for degradation of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids may be by reversal of phosphoethanolamine transferase followed by hydrolysis of diacylglycerols by the lipase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With CMP, phosphatidylcholine can be converted to diacylglycerols and CDPcholine by reversal of the cholinephosphotransferase that is normally used for synthesis. Incubation of homogenates of rat brains at pH 8 with 20 mM MgCl2 increased the free fatty acid (FFA) levels 30 to 117%. The FFA levels increased 62 to 212% when 4 mM CMP was included. Diacylglycerols were also produced. Hydrolysis of the diacylglycerols to FFA was markedly inhibited by inclusion of 3 mM diisopropylphosphofluoridate in the incubation mixture. The composition of the fatty acids released by CMP resembles that of phosphatidylcholine except for some polyunsaturated fatty acids. These may have been released from the ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. Most of the CMP-stimulated release of FFA was blocked by inclusion of 1 mM CDPcholine in the incubation mixture. Rat brains were labeled by intracerebral injection of [3H]oleic acid. The labeled oleic acid was released primarily from phosphatidylcholine. Thus, measurements of both mass and radioactivity confirm that the reversal of cholinephosphotransferase followed by diacylglycerol lipase can be an important pathway for the liberation of FFA from phosphatidylcholine.
Neurochemical Research 09/1983; 8(8):971-81. DOI:10.1007/BF00965194 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is catalyzed by cholinephosphotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) which is known to be reversible in liver. The reversibility of cholinephosphotransferase in rat brain in demonstrated in this paper. Labeled microsomes were prepared from young rats which had been given an intracerebral injection of labeled choline or oleate 2 h before killing. During incubation of choline-labeled microsomes with CMP, label was lost from ;choline glycerophospholipids and labeled CDPcholine was produced. The Km for CMP was 0.35 mM and V was 3.3 nmol/min per mg protein. Neither AMP nor UMP could substitute for CMP. Oleate-labeled microsomes were pretreated with e mM diisopropylfluorophosphate (lipase inhibitor). During incubation with CMP, label was lost from choline, and ethanolamine glycerophospholipid and labeled diacylglycerols were produced. When the lipase was not inhibited, labeled oleate was produced. We propose that a principal pathway for degradation of phosphatidylcholine, particularly during brain ischemia, is by reversal of cholinephosphotransferase, followed by hydrolysis of diacylglycerols by the lipase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcium-stimulated incorporation of ethanolamine, L-serine and choline into rabbit synaptosomal phospholipids in vitro has been investigated. The synaptosomal membranes were prelabelled in vitro in their choline-, ethanolamine- or serine-phosphoglycerides by base-exchange and then chasing experiments were performed by displacing the lipid-bound base by ethanolamine, choline or L-serine labelled with a different isotope. The results indicate that membrane phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine are substrates for the exchange with all the three mentioned bases. A very small phospholipid pool (0.5-2% of the total available pool) is active in the calcium-dependent exchange between membrane phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine and free bases, whereas the pool of exchanging phosphatidylserine is sensibly larger (2-9%). In another series of experiments the effect of the base-exchange reaction upon the production of cyclic-AMP at the level of rat brain synaptic membranes has been examined. An exchange with ethanolamine produces a significant decrease of the NaF-stimulated production of the cyclic nucleotide, whereas it increases the noradrenaline-induced production. With some exceptions, the exchange with L-serine produces opposite effects. The possible physiological importance of phospholipid pool at the synaptosomal level is discussed.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/1978; 101:287-99. · 1.96 Impact Factor