[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Using Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of black and reddish morphs of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus. High-throughput sequencing generated a total of 958,614 sequence reads covering 164.80 Mb of two mitogenomes with a coverage of 4800X. Thirty-seven mitochondrial genes and gene order of P. leopardus was quite similar to that of other teleostean fishes. Most genes were either abutted or overlapped, and all the protein-coding genes began with an ATG start codon except for COX1 and ATP6. The number of stop codon was different for the black and reddish P. leopardus. Comparisons between the mitochondrial sequences of the two morphs revealed a total of 74 variable sites and one indel. Nucleotide diversity across protein-coding gene varied from 0.0006 (16s rRNA) to 0.0070 (Cytochrome b). As expected, the highest level of nucleotide diversity (0.0291) was detected in the control region. Our results demonstrate the NGS technology based on Ion torrent platform can be used to assemble the mitogenome of fish species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, leptin has been demonstrated to perform important roles in many physiological activities and to influence development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. However, in fish, its function is still unclear. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, have been identified in the orange-spotted grouper. In the present study, the polymorphisms in the leptin-b gene of the orange-spotted grouper were detected, and the relation between these polymorphisms and 12 growth traits were analyzed. Six polymorphisms (including 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.149G>A) in exon 1, 2 SNPs (c.181A>G, c.193G>A) in intron 1, and 1 SNP (c.360C>T) in exon 2) were identified and genotyped from 200 different individuals. The results revealed that the SNP c.149G>A was significantly associated with growth traits, that the heterozygous mutation genotype GA having negative effects on growth traits. However, the other five SNPs (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.181A>G, c.193G>A, c.360C>T) did not show significant associations with all the growth traits. Compared with our findings in leptin-a gene, the results suggested that the leptin-a hormone has more important physiological effects in fish bodies than the leptin-b type. Moreover, leptin genes were supposed to be one class of major candidate genes of regulating growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(7):11996-12006. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kisspeptin stimulates the synthesis and release of gonadotropin via controlling the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone in vertebrates. It also mediates the positive or negative feedback regulation of sex steroids on the hypothalamus-gonadotropic axis. In contrast to mammals, two paralogous genes of kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2) have been identified in several teleosts, implying the multiplicity of their physiological functions. In the present study, we cloned the promoters of kiss1 and kiss2 genes in goldfish (Carassius auratus), and identified the presence of putative binding sites for estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, Sp1, AP1, C/EBP and Oct-1. We further demonstrated that the goldfish Kiss neurons co-express the estrogen receptors, with era1 and erb1 in the habenula Kiss1 neurons and era1, era2 and erb1 in the preoptic and hypothalamic Kiss2 neurons. Using transient transfection in HEK293T cells of the two goldfish kiss gene promoters cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter, estrogen (E2, 17β-estradiol) treatment was shown to enhance the promoter activities of the two goldfish kiss genes in the presence of ERα. Deletion analysis of kiss1 promoter indicated that the E2-induced promoter activity was located between position -633 and -317 where no half ERE motifs were found. Point mutation studies on the kiss2 promoter indicated that the E2-stimulated promoter activity was mediated by a half ERE site located at position -57. Results of the present study provide evidence that E2 is capable of exerting positive feedback regulation on the expression of kiss1 and kiss2 in goldfish via ERE-independent or ERE-dependent ERα pathway, respectively.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 05/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fish reproductive axis is regulated by many neuroendocrine factors. However, factors involved in the suppression of this axis are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we describe a novel neuropeptide derived from the spexin precursor acting as a negative factor to suppress the reproductive axis in teleost. The cDNA sequences of the spexin precursors have been cloned from both zebrafish and goldfish. A 14-aa mature peptide with the C-terminal amidated (spexin-14a: NWTPQAMLYLKGT Q-NH2) is conceivably generated by processing of the spexin precursors in both species. Spexin is mainly expressed in the brain and ovary of zebrafish and spexin-14a-ir cells are located in several brain regions of goldfish. Functionally, goldfish spexin-14a could significantly suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) release in cultured goldfish pituitary cells. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of spexin-14a into goldfish could effectively suppress serum LH level. The mRNA expression of spexin is lower in the breeding season and hypothalamic expression of spexin is regulated by gonadal hormones. These results constitute the first report on the novel role of spexin in the negative regulation of the reproductive axis in teleost.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 04/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (Gper, formerly known as GPR30) is found to be a trophic and protective factor in mediating action of estrogen in adult brain, while its role in developing brain remains to be elucidated. Here we present the expression pattern of Gper and its functions during embryogenesis in zebrafish. Both the mRNA and protein of Gper were detected throughout embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) revealed a wide distribution of gper mRNAs in various regions of the developing brain. gper knockdown by specific morpholinos resulted in growth retardation in embryos and morphological defects in the developing brain. In addition, induced apoptosis, decreased proliferation of the brain cells and maldevelopment of sensory and motor neurons were also found in the morphants. Our results provide novel insights into Gper function in the developing brain, revealing that Gper can maintain the survival of the brain cells, and formation and/or differentiation of the sensory and motor neurons.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen microsatellite loci for the threatened orange coral, Astroides calycularis have been designed. The polymorphism of these thirteen loci was tested in 24 polyps from different colonies. The results show that the allele numbers for each loci ranged from 2 to 14 (mean Na=5.1), with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.47 (He=0.45). These new loci could be useful for studies on conservation genetic research on populations of this species and help improve the resolution of individual identification. Primers were also tested in four different species of Tubastrea, the Dendrophillyd genus more phylogenetically close to Astroides, with successful amplifications for the majority of the loci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although putative motilin receptor sequences have been reported in teleost, there is no proof for the existence of the motilin gene in teleost. In this study, we have identified a motilin-like gene in the genome of several fish species and cloned its cDNA sequence from zebrafish. The zebrafish motilin-like precursor shares very low amino acid (aa) identities with the previously reported motilin precursors. Processing of the zebrafish motilin-like precursor may generate a 17-aa C-terminal amidated mature peptide, the motilin-like peptide (motilin-LP). A putative zebrafish motilin receptor (MLNR) was also identified in zebrafish. In cultured eukaryotic cells transfected with the zebrafish MLNR, zebrafish motilin-LP could enhance both CRE-driven and SRE-driven promoter activities. Tissue distribution studies indicated that the zebrafish motilin-like gene is mainly expressed in the intestine and liver while the zebrafish MLNR gene is highly expressed in brain regions, suggesting that motilin-LP behaves like other gut hormones to regulate brain functions. These data suggest that the presence of a unique motilin/MNLR system in teleost.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 03/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been shown to inhibit reproduction in several species. GnIH suppresses gonadotropin synthesis/release at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels; however, increasing evidence suggests that GnIH has a putative function in the gonad. In this study, we demonstrated that GnIH receptors localize to the ovary and testis in goldfish. In situ hybridization illustrated that goldfish GnIHRs were localized exclusively to the oocytes before cortical alveolus stage and the interstitial tissue to the testis. Implantation of goldfish GnIH peptides did not affect the serum estradiol level in female goldfish, but it did enhance the serum testosterone levels in males. Conversely, injecting goldfish GnIH peptides increased the expression of StAR and 3bHSD mRNA and decreased the expression of CYP19 mRNA significantly in the testis, but these genes remained unchanged in the ovary. In addition, goldfish GnIH peptides not only increased the expression of StAR, 3bHSD and decreased CYP19 mRNA but they also increased the expression of FSHR and LHR mRNA in testicular cells. However, they did not affect the expression of these genes in ovarian cells in vitro. Thus, we suggest that GnIH may contribute to the sexual dimorphism of steroidogenesis in goldfish.
Biology of Reproduction 03/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kisspeptin has recently been recognized as a critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. During the sexual development, kisspeptin neurons receive sex steroids feedback to trigger gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In teleosts, a positive correlation has been found between the thyroid status and the reproductive status. However, the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of kisspeptin system remains unknown. We cloned and characterized a gene encoding kisspeptin (kiss2) in a cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Expression of kiss2 mRNA in the brain was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) and hypothyroidism with methimazole (MMI) on kiss2 and the three GnRH types (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs were analyzed in laser-captured kisspeptin and GnRH neurons by RT-PCR. The kiss2 mRNA expressing cells were seen in the nucleus of the lateral recess in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal administration of T3 (5 μg/g body weight) to sexually mature male tilapia significantly increased kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels at 24 h post injection (P < 0.001), while the treatment with an anti-thyroid, MMI (100 ppm for 6 days) significantly reduced kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05). gnrh2, gnrh3, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels were insensitive to the thyroid hormone manipulations. Furthermore, RT-PCR showed expression of thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in laser-captured GnRH neurons but not in kiss2 neurons. This study shows that GnRH1 may be directly regulated through thyroid hormone, while the regulation of Kiss2 by T3 is more likely to be indirect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) plays an important role in regulating of reproduction in teleosts. To clarify the mode of action of GnIH on the synthesis of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotrophin (GtH), three GnIHR cDNAs were cloned from the goldfish brain. In situ hybridization results showed that GnIHRs were localized to the hypothalamus and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, GnIHRs were found in the NPP, NPO and NLT, whereas sGnRH neurons were reported to be located, and potentially regulated by GnIH. In the pituitary, only two GnIHRs were observed and they were localized to the PI instead of the adenohypophysis where GtH-expressing cells are localized, suggesting indirect regulation of GtH by GnIH. In vivo, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of synthetic goldfish GnIH-II peptide and GnIH-III peptide significantly decreased sGnRH and FSHβ mRNA levels. Only GnIH- II decreased LHβ mRNA levels significantly. In vitro, both GnIH- II and GnIH- III showed no effect on GtH synthesis, but an inhibition of GnRH-stimulated LHβ and FSHβ synthesis was observed when GnIH- III was applied to primary pituitary cells in culture. Thus, GnIH could contribute to the regulation of gonadotropin in the brain and pituitary in teleosts.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 11/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of cysteamine (CS) on growth hormone (GH) mRNA, two types of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNAs and growth rate in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were investigated. CS could cause a modification in the structure of somatostatin, which is the most important neuroendocrine inhibitor of basal and stimulated growth hormone synthesis and release, and renders it nonimmunoreactive probably through interaction with the disulfide bonds. In the present study, cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) enhanced the level of pituitary GH mRNA in a dose-dependent manner through attenuating or deleting the inhibiting action of somatostatin on GH mRNA expression. CSH at relatively low doses (from 1 to 3 mg/g diet) enhanced the levels of two types of GHR mRNAs in dose-dependent manner, whereas the stimulation induced by CSH declined from the peak at higher dose of CSH (4 mg/g diet). It might be attributed to the variation in GH-induced up-regulation of GHRs at different doses of GH. Feeding of CSH could induce remarkable enhancement of growth rate in orange-spotted grouper. In addition, the stimulatory effect of CSH could be potentiated by the additive effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRH-A). Compared with individual treatments, combined feeding of CSH and LHRH-A caused more efficient elevation of growth rate after 8 weeks of feeding. CSH and LHRH-A individually and in combination remarkably increased the levels of GH and GHR mRNAs compared with the control. The combined administration of CSH and LHRH-A in diet was most effective to enhance the level of GH and GHR1 mRNA. The morphological characteristics of the experimental fish were evaluated. Compared with control, the ratios of muscle RNA/DNA, condition factors (CF) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were significantly enhanced in the treated groups, while the highest values were observed in the combined treatment. All the results suggested that CSH (1-3 mg/g diet) is an effective, economical and feasible feed additive in orange-spotted grouper culture.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 10/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin plays key roles in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its function in teleosts is still unclear. In the present study, two leptin genes (gLepA and gLepB) and one leptin receptor gene (gLepR) were cloned and characterized in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of gLepA and gLepB were 671bp and 684bp in length, encoding for proteins of 161 amino acid (aa) and 158 aa, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structures modeling of gLepA and gLepB showed strong conservation of tertiary structure with that of other vertebrates. The total length of gLepR cDNA was 4242bp, encoding a protein of 1169 aa which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate LEPR. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gLepA was highly expressed in cerebellum, liver and ovary, while gLepB mRNA abundantly in the brain regions, as well as in the ovary with some extend. The gLepR was mainly expressed in kidney, head kidney and most of brain regions. Analysis of expression profiles of gLep and gLepR genes during the embryonic stages showed that high expression of gLepR was observed in the brain vesicle stage, while neither gLepA nor gLepB mRNA was detected during different embryonic stages. Finally, fasting and refeeding experiments were carried out to investigate the possible function of leptin genes in food intake and energy metabolism, and the results showed that a significant increase of gLepA expression in the liver was induced by food deprivation in both short-term (7days) and long-term (3weeks) fasting and gLepA mRNA upregulation was eliminated after refeeding, while gLepB wasn't detected in the liver of grouper during fasting. No significant differences in hypothalamic leptin and leptin receptor expression were found during short-term fasting and refeeding. Hepatic expression of gLepA mRNA increased significantly 9h after a single meal. These results suggested gLepA, other than gLepB, functioned in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in this Perciform fish.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 09/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the first full-length cDNA encoding Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the brain of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). The open reading frame of Japanese eel NPY gene is 294bp in length, encoding a precursor protein of 97 amino acids, which contains a 36-amino-acid mature peptide. Sequence analysis showed that the Japanese eel NPY peptide is similar to that of other species. Real-time PCR revealed that NPY in Japanese eel is mainly expressed in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus and the optic tectum thalamus. The effect of a negative energy balance on NPY gene expression was examined subsequently. The mRNA level of NPY in the hypothalamus and the optic tectum thalamus showed a pronounced increase after 4days of food deprivation. The biological activities of Japanese eel NPY were further investigated in vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of the NPY peptide into Japanese eel could potently elevate the expression of the mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) in hypothalamus and the follicle-stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ), the luteinizing hormone beta (LHβ) and growth hormone (GH) in pituitary. In static incubation studies, the stimulatory effects of NPY on mGnRH expression in hypothalamic fragments and on FSHβ, LHβ and GH expression in pituitary cells were also observed. However, in vivo and in vitro studies showed that NPY exhibits an inhibitory action on the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone beta (TSHβ) in pituitary. The results indicate that NPY is involved in the regulation of multiple physiological processes in Japanese eel.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 08/2012; 179(1):99-106. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgens play a crucial role in sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates. The action of androgens is mediated via androgen receptors (ARs). The present study reports the cloning of the cDNA sequence of the ar in the orange-spotted grouper, with high expression in testis and relatively low in subdivision of brain areas. The cDNA sequence of ar was 2358 bp, encoding a protein of 759 amino acids (aa). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ar cDNA sequence was closely related to that of threespot wrasse (Halichoeres trimaculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) arβ. As deduced from the phylogenetic tree and the high amino acid identity with the ARβ subtype of other teleosts, grouper ar seems to be more closely related to the beta than the alpha subtype cloned to date. In the first week after 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, the transcript levels of ar in the hypothalamus declined significantly, and consistently stayed at low level expression to the second week, but increased back to the control levels in the third and fourth week. In the gonad, the mRNA expression of ar was not changed in the first week compared with the control, but increased significantly in the second week, consistently reached the highest level in the third week, dropped slightly but still higher than that of the control in the fourth week. The expression pattern of ar in hypothalamus and gonad during MT-induced sex reversal suggests the involvement of ar in regulating this process in the orange-spotted grouper. The present study provides the data of the changes in the mRNA levels of ar during MT-induced sex reversal in detail to help understand the complicated signals under sex reversal.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 05/2012; 163(1):43-50. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tachykinins are a family of peptides that are conserved from invertebrates to mammals. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of tachykinin (TAC) and tachykinin receptor (TACR) genes in vertebrates, especially in the teleost group. In the present study, five TACs and six TACRs genes were identified in the zebrafish genome. Genomic synteny analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicate that the increased numbers of TAC and TACR genes in vertebrates are the result of both genome duplications and local individual gene duplication. The full-length cDNA sequences encoding multiple TAC3s (TAC3a and TAC3b) and TACR3s (TACR3a1, TACR3a2 and TACR3b) were subsequently cloned from zebrafish brain samples. Sequence analysis suggested that four putative neurokinin B (NKB)-like peptides (NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13 and NKBb-11) might be generated by the processing of two zebrafish TAC3 precursors. Tissue distribution studies in zebrafish revealed that TAC3 and TACR3 are mainly expressed in the brain regions. The biological activities of four zebrafish NKB peptides and three TACR3s were further examined using transcription reporter assays in cultured eukaryotic cells. All the synthetic NKB peptides were able to evoke the downstream signaling events of TACR3s with the exception of NKBb-11. These results indicated that the multiple TAC/TACR genes identified in vertebrates evolved from gene duplication events and that the TAC3/TACR3 systems also operate in the teleost group.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 05/2012; 361(1-2):202-12. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential for accelerating testicular development and final maturation of adult male yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fluvidraco, Richardson) in captivity was evaluated by using gonadotropin‐releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) multiple injection, and its possible regulatory mechanism was explored by measurements of luteinizing hormone (LH) and steroid levels. The results showed that GnRHa multiple injection increased gonad‐somatic index (GSI), the sperm count and the milt‐testis index (MTI) and promoted the larvae production by elevated rates of fertilization and hatching, and lowered the rate of deformed larvae. Meanwhile GnRHa treatment decreased the percentages of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, increased the relative sperm density (RSD) and percentages of spermatids and spermatozoa (STZ), suggesting GnRHa treatment could accelerate meiotic division and enhance the formation of spermatids andSTZ. Moreover, pituitary and serum LH, as well as serum T levels were increased after GnRHa multiple injection. Taken together, the present study demonstrated GnRHa multiple injection successfully accelerated the testicular development and maturation of male yellow catfish, which was mediated by the increase in serum LH and T levels that further mediated biological and histological changes of testis. Therefore, GnRHa multiple injection could be a valuable method to induce precocious testicular maturation of adult yellow catfish with gonadal developmental arrest in captivity.
Aquaculture Research 01/2012; 43(3). · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have cloned a full-length cDNA for testicular 20β-HSD in yellow catfish. The validated 20β-HSD cDNA full-length sequence, 1141 bp in length, contained a 108 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 202 bp 3'-UTR with an AATAAAA frame, and an 831 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encoded a propeptide of 277 amino acid residues. The enzyme shows the highest structural homology with that of zebrafish, and rainbow trout. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 20β-HSD has widespread tissue distribution, with expression being abundant in tissues with high metabolic rates like gonads, liver, intestine, stomach and gill. In vivo experiments showed that expression level was highest at testicular mature stage indicating that 20β-HSD could play an important role in testicular developmental maturation in yellow catfish. During testicular mature stage, 20β-HSD related metabolism was regulated by GnRH and LH. Moreover, structural analysis showed that the predicted 20β-HSD contained 7 functional motifs of SDR superfamily of enzymes, including the putative coenzyme binding domain (Rossmann fold), GlyXXXGlyIleuGly, and the region responsible for nucleophilic attack of the substrate pocket, TyrXXXLys. These motifs are strictly conserved in yellow catfish 20β-HSD. Comprehensive functional analysis revealed that this enzyme has multiple functions, such as xenobiotic metabolism, and steroid conversion. Catfish 20β-HSD contains multiple potential post-translational modification sites. Its subcellular location, theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight were also investigated. Furthermore, we constructed its phylogenetic tree and secondary structure. All results provided basic information for further studies of its structure, functions and properties.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 07/2011; 159(3):171-82. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen plays key roles in vertebrate reproductive system via estrogen receptors (ERs) as mediating pathways. In the present study, three full-length ERs cDNA sequences were isolated from a protogynous teleost, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and were 2235bp for gERα, 1967bp for gERβ1 and 2158bp for gERβ2, respectively. Phylogenetic and amino acid alignment analyses showed that each gER was clustered in the corresponding taxonomic groups of the perciformes and exhibited high evolutional conservation in functional domains. RT-PCR revealed that gERs expressed at different levels in all the obtained tissues. gERα highly expressed in mature ovaries, gERβ1 mainly expressed in immature ovaries and gERβ2 varied greatly during ovarian development. During female to male sex reversal induced by 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, gERα decreased gradually, gERβ1 increased gradually, and gERβ2 decreased firstly and recovered subsequently in male stage. The present study speculated the potential roles of gERs during female maturation and female to male sex reversal induced by MT in the protogynous grouper E. coioides.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 07/2011; 172(3):371-81. · 2.82 Impact Factor