[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ets-1 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in various physiological and pathological processes, such as development, angiogenesis, apoptosis and tumour invasion. In the present study, we have demonstrated that Ets-1 p51, but not the spliced variant Ets-1 p42, is processed in a caspase-dependent manner in Jurkat T-leukaemia cells undergoing apoptosis, resulting in three C-terminal fragments Cp20, Cp17 and Cp14 and a N-terminal fragment, Np36. In vitro cleavage of Ets-1 p51 by caspase 3 produces fragments consistent with those observed in cells undergoing apoptosis. These fragments are generated by cleavage at three sites located in the exon VII-encoded region of Ets-1 p51. This region is absent from the Ets-1 p42 isoform, which therefore cannot be cleaved by caspases. In Ets-1 p51, cleavage generates C-terminal fragments containing the DNA-binding domain, but lacking the transactivation domain. The Cp17 fragment, the major cleavage product generated during apoptosis, is devoid of transcriptional activity and inhibits Ets-1 p51-mediated transactivation of target genes by competing with Ets-1 p51 for binding to Ets-binding sites present in the target promoters. In the present study, we have demonstrated that caspase cleavage of Ets-1 within the exon VII-encoded region leads to specific down-regulation of the Ets-1 p51 isoform during apoptosis. Furthermore, our results establish that caspase cleavage generates a stable C-terminal fragment that acts as a natural dominant-negative form of the full-length Ets-1 p51 protein.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Stromelysin-1 gene promoter contains a palindrome of two Ets-binding sites (EBS) that bind the p51 and p42 isoforms of the human Ets-1-transcription factor. A previous study established that full gene transactivation is associated with a ternary complex consisting of two p51 bound to the two EBS on the promoter. p42, only able to bind one of the two EBS, induces only very weak activity. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which the Stromelysin-1 promoter discriminates between p51 and p42. The differential stoichiometry of the two Ets-1 isoforms arises from the Stromelysin-1 EBS palindrome. The ternary complex requires the presence of two inhibitory domains flanking the DNA-binding domain and the ability to form an intramolecular autoinhibition module. Most importantly, the p51-ternary and the p42-binary complexes induce DNA curvatures with opposite orientations. These results establish that differential DNA bending, via p51 and p42 differential binding, is correlated with the Stromelysin-1 promoter activation process.
Nucleic Acids Research 06/2009; 37(13):4341-52. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Ets-1 is implicated in various physiological processes and invasive pathologies. We identified a novel variant of ets-1, ets-1Delta(III-VI), resulting from the alternative splicing of exons III to VI. This variant encodes a 27 kDa isoform, named Ets-1 p27. Ets-1 p27 lacks the threonine-38 residue, the Pointed domain and the transactivation domain, all of which are required for the transactivation of Ets-1 target genes. Both inhibitory domains surrounding the DNA-binding domain are conserved, suggesting that Ets-1 p27, like the full-length Ets-1 p51 isoform, is autoinhibited for DNA binding. We showed that Ets-1 p27 binds DNA in the same way as Ets-1 p51 does and that it acts both at a transcriptional and a subcellular localization level, thereby constituting a dual-acting dominant negative of Ets-1 p51. Ets-1 p27 blocks Ets-1 p51-mediated transactivation of target genes and induces the translocation of Ets-1 p51 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, Ets-1 p27 overexpression represses the tumor properties of MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cells in correlation with the known implication of Ets-1 in various cellular mechanisms. Thus the dual-acting dominant-negative function of Ets-1 p27 gives to the Ets-1 p27/Ets-1 p51 ratio a determining effect on cell fate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to its autoinhibition for DNA binding, the Ets-1 transcription factor must interact with partners to enhance its affinity for DNA. In a study on the stromelysin-1 promoter, we showed that Ets-1 binds cooperatively to two Ets-binding sites (EBS) organized in palindrome, thereby circumventing the need for a binding partner to counteract autoinhibition. This leads to the formation of an Ets-1-DNA-Ets-1 ternary complex necessary for promoter activation. Here we show that Ets-1 also binds cooperatively to the EBS palindrome of the human p53 promoter, despite the presence of a degenerate EBS to which Ets-1 cannot otherwise bind. Transcriptional transactivation through this palindrome fully correlates to Ets-1 binding. Thus, the cooperative binding model that we initially proposed for the stromelysin-1 promoter may be a general mechanism of Ets-1 binding to palindromic EBS separated by 4bp and a way to counteract binding site degeneracy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2008; 378(2):213-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of the gene expression of Stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3), a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is critical for tissue homeostasis. The Stromelysin-1 promoter is known to be transactivated by Ets proteins through palindromic head-to-head Ets binding sites (EBS), an unusual configuration among metalloproteinase promoters. Patterns of increased co-expression of Stromelysin-1 and Ets-1 genes have been observed in pathological processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis and tumor invasion. In this context, we show in a synovial fibroblastic model cell line (HIG-82), which is able to co-express Stromelysin-1 and Ets-1, that the EBS palindrome is essential for the expression of Stromelysin-1. More precisely, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, DNA affinity purification and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that endogenous Ets-1, but not Ets-2, is present on this palindrome. The use of a dominant-negative form of Ets-1 and the decrease of Ets-1 amount either by fumagillin, an antiangiogenic compound, or by short interfering RNA show that the activation rate of the promoter and the expression of Stromelysin-1 correlate with the level of endogenous Ets-1. Thus, it is the first demonstration, using this cellular model, that endogenously expressed Ets-1 is actually a main activator of the Stromelysin-1 promoter through its effective binding to the EBS palindrome.