Lalit Kalra

King's College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (140)901.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose—Cough protects the lungs from aspiration. We investigated whether respiratory muscle training may improve respiratory muscle and cough function, and potentially reduce pneumonia risk in acute stroke. Methods—We conducted a single-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 82 patients with stroke (mean age, 64±14 years; 49 men) within 2 weeks of stroke onset. Participants were masked to treatment allocation and randomized to 4 weeks of daily expiratory (n=27), inspiratory (n=26), or sham training (n=25), using threshold resistance devices. Primary outcome was the change in peak expiratory cough flow of maximal voluntary cough. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted using ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline prognostic covariates. Results—There were significant improvements in the mean maximal inspiratory (14 cmH2O; P<0.0001) and expiratory (15 cmH2O; P<0.0001) mouth pressure and peak expiratory cough flow of voluntary cough (74 L/min; P=0.0002) between baseline and 28 days in all groups. Peak expiratory cough flow of capsaicin-induced reflex cough was unchanged. There were no between-group differences that could be attributed to respiratory muscle training. There were also no differences in the 90-day incidence of pneumonia between the groups (P=0.65). Conclusions—Respiratory muscle function and cough flow improve with time after acute stroke. Additional inspiratory or expiratory respiratory muscle training does not augment or expedite this improvement. Clinical Trial Registration—URL: Unique identifier: ISRCTN40298220.
    Stroke 12/2014; published online before print. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the content and delivery of the adapted London Stroke Carers Training Course intervention evaluated in the Training Caregivers after Stroke (TRACS) trial.
    Clinical rehabilitation. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, ana-tomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 AE 17 years, range 28–87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally intro-duced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = À 0.630, t(À 3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = À 0.678, t(–3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long segment of the arcuate fasciculus [beta = 0.730, t(2.732), P = 0.020] were predictors of longitudinal aphasia severity. Adding the volume of the right long segment to the first-level model increased the overall predictive power of the model from 28% to 57% [F(1,11) = 7.46, P = 0.02]. These findings suggest that doi:10.1093/brain/awu113
    Brain 07/2014; 137(7):2027-2039. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of fitness to drive (FTD) is important after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) to ensure that neither patients nor public are at risk. This is particularly important in patients with TIAs or minor stroke as many are discharged directly from emergency departments by a range of health professionals. We assessed stroke-related FTD knowledge among physicians' and allied health professionals' (AHPs) treating patients with stroke at a hyperacute stroke centre. Knowledge of FTD restrictions following a stroke or TIA for domestic and commercial use was assessed in 195 physicians and 45 AHPs using a multiple-choice questionnaire between January and December 2009. The effect of discipline, seniority, previous instruction in FTD restrictions and experience in stroke medicine on FTD was assessed. The correct driving restriction following stroke with domestic and commercial license was known to 29% and 73% of physicians, respectively. For AHPs, these figures were 36% and 20%. For TIA with domestic and commercial license, this was 37% and 43% for physicians, and 44% and 11% for AHPs. 25% of physicians and 11% of AHPs believed that no driving restrictions applied after a TIA. The correct office for reporting FTD was known to 180 (92%) doctors and 31 (69%) AHPs (p=0.0001); 160 (82%) physicians and 27 (60%) AHPs correctly identified that reporting was the patients' responsibility (p=0.001). FTD knowledge correlated with post in stroke (OR 3.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 6.2, p=0.001)) but not with seniority or previous FTD education. Health professionals providing stroke care showed limited knowledge of FTD regulations after minor stroke or TIA. Imparting accurate information on driving restrictions is an important but neglected part of stroke management.
    Postgraduate medical journal 05/2014; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After stroke, pneumonia is a relevant medical complication that can be precipitated by aspiration of saliva, liquids, or solid food. Swallowing difficulty and aspiration occur in a significant proportion of stroke survivors. Cough, an important mechanism protecting the lungs from inhaled materials, can be impaired in stroke survivors, and the likely cause for this impairment is central weakness of the respiratory musculature. Thus, respiratory muscle training in acute stroke may be useful in the recovery of respiratory muscle and cough function, and may thereby reduce the risk of pneumonia. The present study is a pilot study, aimed at investigating the validity and feasibility of this approach by exploring effect size, safety, and patient acceptability of the intervention.Methods/design: Adults with moderate to severe stroke impairment (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 5 to 25 at the time of admission) are recruited within 2 weeks of stroke onset. Participants must be able to perform voluntary respiratory maneuvers. Excluded are patients with increased intracranial pressure, uncontrolled hypertension, neuromuscular conditions other than stroke, medical history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recent cardiac events. Participants are randomized to receive inspiratory, expiratory, or sham respiratory training over a 4-week period, by using commercially available threshold resistance devices. Participants and caregivers, but not study investigators, are blind to treatment allocation. All participants receive medical care and stroke rehabilitation according to the usual standard of care. The following assessments are conducted at baseline, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks: Voluntary and reflex cough flow measurements, forced spirometry, respiratory muscle strength tests, incidence of pneumonia, assessments of safety parameters, and self-reported activity of daily living. The primary outcome is peak expiratory cough flow of voluntary cough, a parameter indicating the effectiveness of cough. Secondary outcomes are incidence of pneumonia, peak expiratory cough flow of reflex cough, and maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures. Various novel pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches for preventing stroke-associated pneumonia are currently being researched. This study investigates a novel strategy based on an exercise intervention for cough rehabilitation.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN40298220.
    Trials 04/2014; 15(1):123. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delays in treatment of in-hospital stroke (IHS) adversely affect patient outcomes. We hypothesised that early referral and specialist management of IHS patients will improve outcomes at 90 days. Baseline characteristics, assessment delays, thrombolysis eligibility, 90-day functional outcomes and all-cause mortality were compared between IHS patients referred for specialist stroke management within 3 hours of symptom onset (early referrals) and later referrals. Patients were identified from a prospective stroke registry between January 2009 and December 2010. Inclusion criteria were primary admission with a non-stroke diagnosis, onset of new neurological deficits after admission and early ischaemic changes on CT or MR imaging. Eighty four (4.6%) of 1836 stroke patients had IHS (mean age 74 year; 51% male, median NIHSS score 10). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between 53 (63%) early and 31 (37%) late referrals. Thrombolysis was performed in 29 (76%) of the 37/78 (47%) potentially eligible patients; 7 patients were excluded because specialist referral was delayed beyond 4.5 hours despite symptom recognition within 3 hours of onset. Early referral improved functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at 90 days 40% v 7%, p = 0.001) and was an independent predictor of mRS 0-2 at 90 days after adjusting for age, pre-morbid function, primary cause for hospital admission and stroke severity [OR 1.13 (95% C.I. = 1.10-1.27), p = 0.002]. Early referral and specialist management of IHS patients that includes thrombolysis is associated with better functional outcomes at 90 days.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104758. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the process of implementation of the modified London Stroke Carers Training Course (LSCTC) in the Training Caregivers After Stroke (TRACS) cluster randomised trial and contribute to the interpretation of the TRACS trial results. The LSCTC was a structured competency-based training programme designed to help develop the knowledge and skills (eg, patient handling or transfer skills) essential for the day-to-day management of disabled survivors of stroke. The LSCTC comprised 14 components, 6 were mandatory (and delivered to all) and 8 non-mandatory, to be delivered based on individual assessment of caregiver need. Process evaluation using non-participant observation, documentary analysis and semistructured interviews. Patients with stroke (n=38), caregivers (n=38), stroke unit staff (n=53). 10 of the 36 stroke units participating in the TRACS trial in four English regions (Yorkshire, North West, South East and South West, Peninsula). Preparatory cascade training on delivery of the LSCTC did not reach all staff and did not lead to multidisciplinary team (MDT) wide understanding of, engagement with or commitment to the LSCTC. Although senior therapists in most intervention units observed developed ownership of the LSCTC, MDT working led to separation rather than integration of delivery of LSCTC elements. Organisational features of stroke units and professionals' patient-focused practices limited the involvement of caregivers. Caregivers were often invited to observe therapy or care being provided by professionals but had few opportunities to make sense of, or to develop knowledge and stroke-specific skills provided by the LSCTC. Where provided, caregiver training came very late in the inpatient stay. Assessment and development of caregiver competence was not commonly observed. Contextual factors including service improvement pressures and staff perceptions of the necessity for and work required in caregiver training impacted negatively on implementation of the caregiver training intervention. Structured caregiver training programmes such as the LSCTC are unlikely to be practical in settings with short inpatient stays. Stroke units where early supported discharge is in place potentially offer a more effective vehicle for introducing competency based caregiver training. ISRCTN49208824.
    BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(4):e004473. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with any type of stroke managed in organized inpatient (stroke unit) care are more likely to survive, return home, and regain independence. However, it is uncertain whether these benefits apply equally to patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We conducted a secondary analysis of a systematic review of controlled clinical trials comparing stroke unit care with general ward care, including only trials published after 1990 that could separately report outcomes for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and tested for subgroup interactions by stroke type. We identified 13 trials (3570 patients) of modern stroke unit care that recruited patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke, of which 8 trials provided data on 2657 patients. Stroke unit care reduced death or dependency (risk ratio [RR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.471-0.92; P=0.0009; I(2) =60%) with no difference in benefits for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.00) than patients with ischemic stroke (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.97; Pinteraction=0.77). Stroke unit care reduced death (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97; P=0.02; I(2) =49%) to a greater extent for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.97) than patients with ischemic stroke (RR, 0.82; 95%, CI 0.61-1.09), but this difference was not statistically significant (Pinteraction=0.58). Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage seem to benefit at least as much as patients with ischemic stroke from organized inpatient (stroke unit) care.
    Stroke 09/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multimodal CT or MR imaging may be helpful in guiding reperfusion therapy for stroke. However, access to multimodal imaging may frequently be limited. We hypothesised that certain clinical and non-enhanced CT (NECT) findings at initial assessment can potentially predict mismatch on CT perfusion (CTP) in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. We undertook an analysis of prospectively collected clinical and imaging data of consecutive patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke who underwent CTP during their initial assessment. NECT was read for early ischaemic change as measured by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), and for hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS). CTP images were evaluated for mismatch. Independent clinical and imaging predictors of a CTP mismatch were identified using stepwise logistic regression. Of the 202 patients, 92 (46%) demonstrated a mismatch, 23 (11%) a matched deficit, and 87 (43%) no perfusion deficit. HMCAS on NECT (OR 13.65, 95% CI 6.04-30.81, p<0.001), female gender (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.19-4.72, p=0.015), atrial fibrillation (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.11, p=0.044), and absence of a history of hypertension (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.96, p=0.037) were independent predictors of a CTP mismatch. HMCAS had 58% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 84% positive predictive value and 72% negative predictive value. A HMCAS on the initial NECT is associated with a high probability of mismatch in acute ischaemic stroke, and may identify patients most likely to benefit from recanalisation treatments when access to multimodal CT or MR facilities is limited.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 08/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombolysis in patients >80 years remains controversial; we hypothesized that >80-year-old patients with wake-up ischemic stroke (WUIS) will benefit from thrombolysis despite risks because of poor outcomes with no treatment. The study included 68 thrombolysed patients with WUIS (33 [48%] >80 years), 54 nonthrombolysed patients with WUIS (21 [39%] >80 years), and 117 patients (>80 years old) thrombolysed within 4.5 hours of symptom onset (reference group). Mortality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were assessed at 90 days. Baseline characteristics of thrombolysed and nonthrombolysed >80 and ≤80-year-old patients with WUIS were comparable. Thrombolysis outcomes in >80-year-old patients with WUIS were better than in nonthrombolysed >80-year-old patients with WUIS (90-day mortality: 24% versus 47%, P=0.034; mRS 0-2: 30% versus 5%, P=0.023; mRS 0-1: 15% versus 5%, P=0.24) and comparable with thrombolysed ≤80-year-old patients with WUIS. Thrombolysis was associated with odds ratio 0.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.97) for mortality and odds ratio 28.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-448) for mRS 0 to 2 at 90 days in >80-year-old patients with WUIS after adjusting for stroke severity and risk factors. Thrombolysis may be associated with greater benefit in >80-year-old patients with WUIS but a selection bias favoring thrombolysis in those most likely to benefit may significantly reduce interpretability of these findings.
    Stroke 08/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wake-up ischemic stroke (WUIS) patients are not thrombolysed even if they meet other criteria for treatment. We hypothesized that patients with WUIS showing no or early ischemic changes on brain imaging will have thrombolysis outcomes comparable with those with known time of symptom onset. METHODS: Consecutive sampling of a prospective registry of patients with stroke between January 2009 and December 2010 identified 394 thrombolysed patients meeting predefined inclusion criteria, 326 presenting within 0 to 4.5 hours of symptom onset (Reference Group) and 68 WUIS patients. Inclusion criteria were last seen normal <12 hours or >4.5 hours (WUIS) or presented <4.5 hours (Reference Group), had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥5, and no or early ischemic changes on imaging at presentation. The primary outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 2 at 90 days measured by trained assessors blinded to patient grouping. Other outcome measures were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, modified Rankin Scale 0 to 1, and mortality at 90 days. RESULTS: The groups were comparable for mean age (72.8 versus 73.9 years; P=0.58) and baseline median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (median 13 versus 12; P=0.34). The proportions of patients with modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (38% versus 37%; P=0.89) and modified Rankin Scale 0 to 1 (24% versus 16%; P=0.18) at 90 days, any ICH (20% versus 22%; P=0.42) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (3.4% versus 2.9%; P=1.0) were comparable after adjusting for age, stroke severity, and imaging changes. Only 9/394 (2%) patients were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombolysis in selected patients with WUIS is feasible, and its outcomes are comparable with those thrombolysed with 0 to 4.5 hours.
    Stroke 05/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wake-up ischemic stroke (WUIS) patients are not eligible for thrombolysis; the a priori hypothesis was that thrombolysis of selected WUIS patients who meet clinical and imaging criteria for treatment is associated with better outcomes. METHODS: The sample consisted of consecutive WUIS patients who fulfilled predefined criteria: (1) were last seen normal >4.5 hours and <12 hours before presentation; (2) National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≥5; (3) No or early ischemic changes <1/3 middle cerebral artery territory on computed tomography imaging; (4) No absolute contraindications to thrombolysis. The primary outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 2 at 90 days. Other outcome measures were mortality and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. RESULTS: WUIS patients constituted 10.5% (193/1836) of all stroke admissions. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 122 (63%) patients, of whom 68 (56%) were thrombolysed. Thrombolysed and nonthrombolysed patients were comparable for baseline characteristics, but the median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score was higher in thrombolysed patients (9 versus 11.5; P=0.034). There was no difference in modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 (25 [37%] versus 14 [26%]; P=0.346), death (10 [15%] versus 14 [26%]; P=0.122), and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (2 versus 0; P=0.204) between thrombolysed and nonthrombolysed patients. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score thrombolysis was associated with odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3-20.3), P=0.017 for modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 at 90 days and odds ratio of 0.09 (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.44), P=0.003 for death. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombolysis in selected WUIS patients is feasible and may have potential of benefit.
    Stroke 01/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Most patients who have had a stroke are dependent on informal caregivers for activities of daily living. The TRACS trial investigated a training programme for caregivers (the London Stroke Carers Training Course, LSCTC) on physical and psychological outcomes, including cost-effectiveness, for patients and caregivers after a disabling stroke. Methods We undertook a pragmatic, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial with a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis. Stroke units were eligible if four of five criteria used to define a stroke unit were met, a substantial number of patients on the unit had a diagnosis of stroke, staff were able to deliver the LSCTC, and most patients were discharged to a permanent place of residence. Stroke units were randomly assigned to either LSCTC or usual care (control group), stratified by geographical region and quality of care, and using blocks of size 2. Patients with a diagnosis of stroke, likely to return home with residual disability and with a caregiver providing support were eligible. The primary outcome for patients was self-reported extended activities of daily living at 6 months, measured with the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) scale. The primary outcome for caregivers was self-reported burden at 6 months, measured with the caregivers burden scale (CBS). We combined patient and caregiver costs with primary outcomes and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) to assess cost-effectiveness. This trial is registered with, number ISRCTN 49208824. Findings We assessed 49 stroke units for eligibility, of which 36 were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. Between Feb 27, 2008, and Feb 9, 2010, 928 patient and caregiver dyads were registered, of which 450 were in the intervention group, and 478 in the control group. Patients' self-reported extended activities of daily living did not differ between groups at 6 months (adjusted mean NEADL score 27·4 in the intervention group versus 27·6 in the control group, difference –0·2 points [95% CI –3·0 to 2·5], p value=0·866, ICC=0·027). The caregiver burden scale did not differ between groups either (adjusted mean CBS 45·5 in the intervention group versus 45·0 in the control group, difference 0·5 points [95% CI –1·7 to 2·7], p value=0·660, ICC=0·013). Patient and caregiver costs were similar in both groups (length of the initial stroke admission and associated costs were £13 127 for the intervention group and £12 471 for the control group; adjusted mean difference £1243 [95% CI –1533 to 4019]; p value=0·380). Probabilities of cost-effectiveness based on QALYs were low. Interpretation In a large scale, robust evaluation, results from this study have shown no differences between the LSCTC and usual care on any of the assessed outcomes. The immediate period after stroke might not be the ideal time to deliver structured caregiver training. Funding Medical Research Council.
    The Lancet 01/2013; 382(9910):2069–2076. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    Stroke 09/2012; 43(11):3124-31. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook two systematic reviews to determine the levels of respiratory muscle weakness and effects of respiratory muscle training in stroke patients. Two systematic reviews were conducted in June 2011 using a number of electronic databases. Review 1 compared respiratory muscle strength in stroke and healthy controls. Review 2 was expanded to include randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of respiratory muscle training on stroke and other neurological conditions. The primary outcomes of interest were maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure, respectively). Meta-analysis of four studies revealed that the maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure were significantly lower (P < 0·00001) in stroke patients compared with healthy individuals (weighted mean difference -41·39 and -54·62 cmH(2) O, respectively). Nine randomized controlled trials indicate a significantly (P = 0·0009) greater effect of respiratory muscle training on maximum inspiratory pressure in neurological patients compared with control subjects (weighted mean difference 6·94 cmH(2) O) while no effect on maximum expiratory pressure. Respiratory muscle strength appears to be impaired after stroke, possibly contributing to increased incidence of chest infection. Respiratory muscle training can improve inspiratory but not expiratory muscle strength in neurological conditions, although the paucity of studies in the area and considerable variability between them is a limiting factor. Respiratory muscle training may improve respiratory muscle function in neurological conditions, but its clinical benefit remains unknown.
    International Journal of Stroke 05/2012; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke patients are usually admitted to hospital for their acute care and rehabilitation. Services to help acute stroke patients avoid admission to hospital ('hospital-at-home') have now been developed. To establish the costs and effects of such services compared with conventional services. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register in March 1999 and supplemented this through discussion with colleagues and trialists. Controlled clinical trials recruiting stroke patients who have not been admitted to hospital and compare (1) services which provided support with an aim of helping prevent admission to hospital with (20 conventional services (which could include hospital admission). Two independent review authors determined the eligibility and methodological quality of trials. Trialists were then contacted to obtain standardised descriptive and outcome data. Four trials are included in the review, of which three currently have outcome data available (921 patients; 857 from one controlled trial, 64 from two randomised trials). There were no statistically significant differences between the patient and carer outcomes of the intervention and control groups either within individual trials or in pooled analyses. There was a trend toward greater hospital bed use and increased costs in the intervention groups. There is currently no evidence from clinical trials to support a radical shift in the care of acute stroke patients from hospital-based care.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 1:CD000444. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of stroke patients are discharged home dependent on informal caregivers, usually family members, to provide assistance with activities of daily living, including bathing, dressing, and toileting. Many caregivers feel unprepared for this role, and this may have a detrimental effect on both the patient and caregiver. To evaluate whether a structured, competency-based training programme for caregivers improves physical and psychological outcomes for patients and their caregivers after disabling stroke, and to determine if such a training programme is cost-effective. A cluster randomized controlled trial. The trial aims to recruit 25 patient and caregiver dyads from each of the 36 participating stroke rehabilitation units. Stroke units have been randomized to either the intervention or control group with randomization stratified by geographical region and quality of care. The intervention is the London Stroke Carer Training Course developed and evaluated in a previous single-centre study. The London Stroke Carer Training Course comprises a number of caregiver training sessions and competency assessment delivered while the patient is in the hospital and one follow-up session after discharge. The multidisciplinary teams in the units randomized to the intervention group have been trained to incorporate delivery of the London Stroke Carer Training Course into ward practice, while those randomized to the control group have continued to provide usual care according to national guidelines. The primary outcomes are extended activities of daily living for the patient and caregiver burden measured at six-months after recruitment. Secondary outcomes include mood and cost-effectiveness, with final follow-up at 12 months.
    International Journal of Stroke 11/2011; 7(1):94-9. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the growing importance of stroke in developing countries, little is known of stroke burden in survivors. The authors investigated the prevalence of self-reported stroke, stroke-related disability, dependence and care-giver strain in Latin America (LA), China and India. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted on individuals aged 65+ (n=15 022) living in specified catchment areas. Self-reported stroke diagnosis, disability, care needs and care giver burden were assessed using a standardised protocol. For those reporting stroke, the correlates of disability, dependence and care-giver burden were estimated at each site using Poisson or linear regression, and combined meta-analytically. The prevalence of self-reported stroke ranged between 6% and 9% across most LA sites and urban China, but was much lower in urban India (1.9%), and in rural sites in India (1.1%), China (1.6%) and Peru (2.7%). The proportion of stroke survivors needing care varied between 20% and 39% in LA sites but was higher in rural China (44%), urban China (54%) and rural India (73%). Comorbid dementia and depression were the main correlates of disability and dependence. The prevalence of stroke in urban LA and Chinese sites is nearly as high as in industrialised countries. High levels of disability and dependence in the other mainly rural and less-developed sites suggest underascertainment of less severe cases as one likely explanation for the lower prevalence in those settings. As the health transition proceeds, a further increase in numbers of older stroke survivors is to be anticipated. In addition to prevention, stroke rehabilitation and long-term care needs should be addressed.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 03/2011; 82(10):1074-82. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It may be possible to thrombolyse ischaemic stroke (IS) patients up to 6 h by using penumbral imaging. We investigated whether a perfusion CT (CTP) mismatch can help to select patients for thrombolysis up to 6 h. A cohort of 254 thrombolysed IS patients was studied. 174 (69%) were thrombolysed at 0-3 h by using non-contrast CT (NCCT), and 80 (31%) at 3-6 h (35 at 3-4.5 h and 45 at 4.5-6 h) by using CTP mismatch criteria. Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH), the mortality and the modified Rankin Score (mRS) were assessed at 3 months. Independent determinants of outcome in patients thrombolysed between 3 and 6 h were identified. The baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. There were no differences in SICH (3% v 4%, p = 0.71), any ICH (7% v 9%, p = 0.61), or mortality (16% v 9%, p = 0.15) or mRS 0-2 at 3 months (55% v 54%, p = 0.96) between patients thrombolysed at 0-3 h (NCCT only) or at 3-6 h (CTP mismatch). There were no significant differences in outcome between patients thrombolysed at 3-4.5 h or 4.5-6 h. The NIHSS score was the only independent determinant of a mRS of 0-2 at 3 months (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97, p = 0.007) in patients treated using CTP mismatch criteria beyond 3 h. The use of a CTP mismatch model may help to guide thrombolysis decisions up to 6 h after IS onset.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25796. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
901.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • King's College London
      • • Department of Clinical Neuroscience
      • • Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      • • Cardiovascular Division
      • • School of Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Bradford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Leeds
      • Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS)
      Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • The University of Western Ontario
      London, Ontario, Canada
    • MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • The Bracton Centre, Oxleas NHS Trust
      Дартфорде, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2008
    • University College London
      • Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Warwick
      Coventry, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Danube University Krems
      • Department for Clinical Neurosciences and Preventive Medicine
      Krems an der Donau, Lower Austria, Austria
  • 2004–2005
    • St. Joseph's Health Care London
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000–2005
    • King College
      Guymon, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2002
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    • The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1993–1999
    • The Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry
      Plymouth, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • Kent Hospital
      Warwick, Rhode Island, United States