Seung Il Kim

Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Genshū, Gangwon-do, South Korea

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Publications (148)463.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural infection and then recovery are considered to be the most effective means for hosts to build protective immunity. Thus, mimicking natural infection of pathogens, many live attenuated vaccines such as influenza virus, and yellow fever vaccine 17D were developed and have been successfully used to induce protective immunity. However, humans fail to generate long-term protective immunity to some pathogens after natural infection such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) even if they survive initial infections. Many vaccines are suboptimal since much mortality is still occurring, which is exampled by influenza and tuberculosis. It is critically important to increase our understanding on protein components of pathogens and vaccines as well as cellular and host responses to infections and vaccinations. Here, we highlight recent advances in gene transcripts and protein analysis results in the systems biology to enhance our understanding of viral pathogens, vaccines, and host cell responses.
    12/2015; 6(1). DOI:10.1186/s40543-015-0047-4
  • Janghee Lee · Seho Park · Sanghwa Kim · Jeeye Kim · Jegyu Ryu · Hyung Seok Park · Seung Il Kim · Byeong Woo Park
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    ABSTRACT: Newly developed extra-mammary multiple primary cancers (MPCs) are an issue of concern when considering the management of breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MPCs and to evaluate the implications of MPCs on the survival of breast cancer patients. A total of 8204 patients who underwent surgery at Severance Hospital between 1990 and 2012 were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathologic features and survival over follow-up periods of ≤5 and >5 years were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. During a mean follow-up of 67.3 months, 962 MPCs in 858 patients (10.5%) were detected. Synchronous and metachronous MPCs were identified in 23.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively. Thyroid cancer was the most prevalent, and the second most common was gynecologic cancer. At ≤5 years, patients with MPCs were older and demonstrated significantly worse survival despite a higher proportion of patients with lower-stage MPCs. Nevertheless, an increased risk of death in patients with MPCs did not reach statistical significance at >5 years. The causes of death in many of the patients with MPCs were not related to breast cancer. Stage-matched analysis revealed that the implications of MPCs on survival were more evident in the early stages of breast disease. Breast cancer patients with MPCs showed worse survival, especially when early-stage disease was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to follow screening programs in breast cancer survivors and to establish guidelines for improving prognosis and quality of life.
    Yonsei medical journal 09/2015; 56(5):1213-20. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.5.1213 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in breast cancer management might make the use of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) redundant in the treatment of pT1/T2N1 patients. We investigated the impact of PMRT on disease-free survival (DFS) in these patients who have a low risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after contemporary multidisciplinary management.Between 1998 and 2011, 1123 patients underwent upfront surgery for pathologically diagnosed pT1/T2N1 breast cancer, at a single institution. A retrospective review was performed on 692 patients who had a mastectomy with axillary lymph node (LN) clearance. Most patients received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy. PMRT was administered to 17.8% of the patients. The median follow-up time was 98 months.The entire cohort was divided into 2 groups, the early-era (1998-2003) and late-era (2004-2011) cohorts. Grouping was based on the use of modern therapies since 2004 including sentinel LN (SLN) biopsy, anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy, and aromatase inhibitors. Late-era patients had a significantly lower 5-year LRR compared with early-era patients (3.2% vs 10.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). In late-era patients, although PMRT did not significantly reduce the 5-year LRR rate (1% vs 3.8%, respectively), it did improve the 5-year DFS rate (96.1% vs 87.5%, respectively). After controlling for all clinicopathological variables, PMRT was independently associated with improved DFS. In subgroup analysis, depending on the presence of micro- or macrometastasis in the axillary nodes, the benefit of PMRT was most apparent in patients with macrometastasis (hazard ratio, 0.19). In the late-era cohort with no PMRT, the 3-year distant metastasis risk increased according to LN tumor burden (0%, 5.2%, and 9.8% in micrometastasis, SLN macrometastasis, and non-SLN macrometastasis, respectively).Advanced surgical and systemic therapies might not negate the benefit of PMRT in recently diagnosed pN1 patients who have a very low risk for LRR. Our data indicate that the overall recurrence risk combined with the LRR should be considered for an indication of PMRT, and raises the question of whether the receipt of PMRT would improve outcome in patients with micrometastasis.
    Medicine 08/2015; 94(33):e1259. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000001259 · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the emerging literature supporting the beneficial role of vitamin D on various health outcomes including carcinogenesis, current evidence on the association between vitamin D and breast cancer is still largely inconsistent. Furthermore, this relationship is particularly under explored among Asian population. We conducted a large case-control study with Korean women. We obtained and compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) between breast cancer patients (N = 3634) and general population (N = 17,133). Moreover, we further examined the association between serum 25(OH)D and breast cancer risk stratified by menopausal status and hormone receptor (HR) status of the tumor. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) for breast cancer comparing women with deficient level of serum 25(OH)D to women with sufficient level of serum 25(OH)D was 1.27 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.39]. This association did not significantly vary by menopausal status [pre-menopause: 1.26 (95 % CI 1.09-1.45) vs. post-menopause: 1.25 (95 % CI 1.10-1.41)]. When stratified by HR status, the inverse association remained significant in both positive and negative statuses. However, this association was more pronounced in HR-negative breast cancer, particularly with triple-negative breast cancer patients (1.45, 95 % CI 1.15-1.82). Given the growing burden of breast cancer in Asia and dearth of studies examining the association between vitamin D and breast cancer risk in Asian women thus far, this study provides a meaningful evidence for potential preventive effect of vitamin D on breast cancer for this particular population.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10549-015-3433-0 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of an oncologist's exercise recommendation with and without an exercise motivation package on the amount of exercise participation and quality of life (QOL) in survivors of breast and colorectal cancer. A total of 162 survivors of early-stage breast and colorectal cancer who completed primary and adjuvant treatments were recruited for the current study. Participants were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups: 1) control (59 patients); 2) those receiving an oncologist's exercise recommendation (53 patients); and 3) those receiving an oncologist's exercise recommendation with an exercise motivation package (50 patients). At baseline and after 4 weeks, the level of exercise participation and QOL were assessed. Of the 162 participants, 130 (80.2%) completed the trial. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated that participants who received an oncologist's exercise recommendation with an exercise motivation package significantly increased their level of exercise participation in terms of minutes (47.57 added minutes per week; 95% confidence interval, 9.62-85.52 minutes [P =.022] vs control) and in Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-hours per week (4.14 additional MET-hours per week; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-6.58 MET-hours [P =.004] vs control) compared with the control group. Participants who received only their oncologist's exercise recommendation did not increase their exercise participation level. Further analysis demonstrated that role functioning was significantly improved among participants who received an oncologist's exercise recommendation with an exercise motivation package. Providing an exercise motivation package in addition to the oncologist's exercise recommendation to increase the level of exercise among survivors of breast and colorectal cancer should be considered. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/cncr.29400 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes "programmed" or "regulated" necrosis. Here we show that programmed necrosis is activated in response to many chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to chemotherapy-induced cell death. However, we show that RIP3 expression is often silenced in cancer cells due to genomic methylation near its transcriptional start site, thus RIP3-dependent activation of MLKL and downstream programmed necrosis during chemotherapeutic death is largely repressed. Nevertheless, treatment with hypomethylating agents restores RIP3 expression, and thereby promotes sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in a RIP3-dependent manner. RIP3 expression is reduced in tumors compared to normal tissue in 85% of breast cancer patients, suggesting that RIP3 deficiency is positively selected during tumor growth/development. Since hypomethylating agents are reasonably well-tolerated in patients, we propose that RIP3-deficient cancer patients may benefit from receiving hypomethylating agents to induce RIP3 expression prior to treatment with conventional chemotherapeutics.Cell Research advance online publication 8 May 2015; doi:10.1038/cr.2015.56.
    Cell Research 05/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1038/cr.2015.56 · 11.98 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P2-13-09-P2-13-09. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P2-13-09 · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):OT2-4-02-OT2-4-02. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-OT2-4-02 · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P1-01-12-P1-01-12. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P1-01-12 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine 1) characteristics and attitudes of oncologists toward exercise and toward recommending exercise to their patients, 2) association among oncologists' own physical activity levels, exercise recommendations, and their attitudes toward recommending exercise. A total of 167 oncologists participated in this survey study (41 surgeons, 78 medical oncologists, 25 radiation oncologists, and 21 others). Most oncologists included in the study treat more than one type of cancer, including colorectal, gastric, breast, lung, and liver cancer. To analyze the data, the one-way ANOVA, and t-test were used. All data were indicated for mean, SD, and proportions. Most oncologists agreed that exercise is beneficial (72.8%) and important (69.6%), but only 39.2% of them agreed that exercise is safe, and only 7.2% believed that cancer patients manage to exercise during cancer treatment. Forty-six percentage of the surveyed oncologists recommended exercise to their patients during the past month. The average amount of participation in physical activity by oncologists who participated in the study was 139.5 ± 120.3 min per week, and 11.4% of the study participants met the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines. Oncologists' own physical activity levels were associated with their attitudes toward recommending exercise. Belief in the benefits of exercise in the performance of daily tasks, improvement of mental health, and the attenuation of physical decline from treatment were the three most prevalent reasons why oncologists recommend exercise to their patients. Barriers to recommending exercise to patients included lack of time, unclear exercise recommendations, and the safety of patients. Oncologists have favorable attitudes toward exercise and toward recommending exercise to their patients during treatment. However, they also experience barriers to recommending exercise, including lack of time, unclear exercise guidelines for cancer patients, and concerns regarding the safety of exercise.
    BMC Cancer 04/2015; 15(1):249. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1250-9 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer, and its molecular pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and implication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) copy number change in IBC patients. We retrospectively collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues and medical records of IBC patients from several institutes in Korea. ALK gene copy number change and rearrangement were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, and ALK expression status was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Thirty-six IBC patients including those with HER2 (+) breast cancer (16/36, 44.4%) and triple-negative breast cancer (13/36, 36.1%) were enrolled in this study. ALK copy number gain (CNG) was observed in 47.2% (17/36) of patients, including one patient who harbored ALK gene amplification. ALK CNG (+) patients showed significantly worse overall survival compared to ALK CNG (-) patients in univariate analysis (24.9 months vs. 38.1 months, p = 0.033). Recurrence free survival (RFS) after curative mastectomy was also significantly shorter in ALK CNG (+) patients than in ALK CNG (-) patients (n = 22, 12.7 months vs. 43.3 months, p = 0.016). Multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for HER2 and ER statuses showed significantly poorer RFS for ALK CNG (+) patients (HR 5.63, 95% CI 1.11-28.44, p = 0.037). This study shows a significant presence of ALK CNG in IBC patients, and ALK CNG was associated with significantly poorer RFS.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120320. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120320 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter nosocomialis is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes a variety of opportunistic infections; however, pathogenesis of this microorganism has not yet been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from A. nosocomialis and to determine their cytotoxic effects and their ability to induce inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo by using human epithelial HEp-2 cells and a mouse model, respectively. A. nosocomialis ATCC 17903(T) secreted spherical OMVs when cultured in vitro. Proteomic analysis revealed that 147 different proteins were associated with A. nosocomialis OMVs and virulence-associated proteins, such as outer membrane protein A (OmpA), CsuA, CsuC, CsuD, PilW, hemolysin, and serine protease, were identified. A. nosocomialis OMVs were cytotoxic to HEp-2 cells. These vesicles also induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes in the HEp-2 cells. Early inflammatory responses, such as congestion and focal neutrophilic infiltration, were observed in the lungs of mice injected with A. nosocomialis OMVs. In conclusion, A. nosocomialis OMVs are important secretory nanocomplexes that induce cytotoxicity of epithelial cells and host inflammatory responses, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of A. nosocomialis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 03/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2015.03.012 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate treatment options for local control of metastasis in the brain, we compared focal brain treatment (FBT) with or without whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) vs. WBRT alone, for breast cancer patients with tumor relapse in the brain. We also evaluated treatment outcomes according to the subtypes. We conducted a retrospective review of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis after primary surgery. All patients received at least one local treatment for brain metastasis. Surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery was categorized as FBT. Patients were divided into two groups: the FBT group received FBT±WBRT, whereas the non-FBT group received WBRT alone. Subtypes were defined as follows: hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, HR-positive/HER2-positive, HR-negative/HER2-positive, and triple-negative (TN). We examined the overall survival after brain metastasis (OSBM), brain metastasis-specific survival (BMSS), and brain metastasis-specific progression-free survival (BMPFS). A total of 116 patients were identified. After a median follow-up of 50.9 months, the median OSBM was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-14.1 months). The FBT group showed significantly superior OSBM and BMSS. However, FBT was not an independent prognostic factor for OSBM and BMSS on multivariate analyses. In contrast, multivariate analyses showed that patients who underwent surgery had improved BMPFS, indicating local control of metastasis in the brain. FBT resulted in better BMPFS in patients with HR-negative/HER2-positive cancer or the TN subtype. We found that patients who underwent surgery experienced improved local control of brain metastasis, regardless of its extent. Furthermore, FBT showed positive results and could be considered for better local control of brain metastasis in patients with aggressive subtypes such as HER2-positive and TN.
    Journal of Breast Cancer 03/2015; 18(1):29-35. DOI:10.4048/jbc.2015.18.1.29 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30 strain, isolated from a crude oil-contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea, which is able to degrade the crude oil and its derivatives. The draft genome sequence of 4,647,008 bp provides a resource for the identification of crude oil-degrading mechanisms in strain MWB30.
    Genome Announcements 02/2015; 3(1):e00013-15. DOI:10.1128/genomeA.00013-15
  • Won‐Kee Hong · Yongjei Lee · Sunkuk Kim · Seung‐il Kim · Yeo‐jin Yun
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    ABSTRACT: The strain compatibility documented in Chapter I of the American Institute of Steel Construction 360-10 (AISC, 2010) was modified to provide accurate analytical solution for hybrid composite precast beams. In the proposed method, locations of neutral axis of the section are investigated to formulate all possible equilibrium equations of stress fields of composite sections. The only neutral axis satisfying all stress fields is then found for composite sections for entire loading history including yield and maximum load limit state and between those limit states. Finally, the nominal moment capacity of hybrid composite precast beam is calculated based on the correct neutral axis. Experimental study was conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The test results for hybrid composite precast beams agreed very well with the analysis results. The capacity difference between them is less than 4.8%. This study also compares the proposed design method with the conventional strength addition method, showing that the conventional method underestimated structures leading to over-design. It was found that the new approach predicted the behaviors of hybrid composite precast beams more accurately than the conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/tal.1214 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sphingopyxis sp. strain MWB1, which is capable of degrading crude oil, diesel, and kerosene, was isolated from crude oil–contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 3,118,428 bp with a G+C content of 62.85 mol%.
    Genome Announcements 12/2014; 2(6). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.01256-14
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    ABSTRACT: Burkholderia sp. K24 is an aniline-degrading soil bacterium that utilizes aniline and its analogues as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain that consists of 8,344,181 bp, with a G+C content of 61.7%.
    Genome Announcements 11/2014; 2(6). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.01250-14
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    ABSTRACT: Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced by various pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In this study, we isolated OMVs from a representative soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has biodegradative activity towards various aromatic compounds. Proteomic analysis identified the outer membrane proteins OprC, OprD, OprE, OprF, OprH, OprG, and OprW as major components of OMV of P. putida KT2440. The production of OMVs was dependent to the nutrient availability in the culture media, and up- or down-regulation of specific outer membrane proteins were observed according to culture conditions. In particular, porins (e.g., benzoate-specific porin, BenF-like porin) and enzymes (e.g., catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, benzoate dioxygenase) for benzoate degradation were uniquely found in OMVs prepared from P. putida KT2440 cultured in media containing benzoate as the energy source. OMVs of P. putida KT2440 showed low pathological activity towards cultured cells originated from human lung cells, suggesting their potential as adjuvants or OMV vaccine carriers. Our results suggest that the protein composition of OMVs of P. putida KT2440 reflects the characteristics of the total proteome of P. putida KT2440.
    Journal of Proteome Research 09/2014; 13(10). DOI:10.1021/pr500411d · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We presented the photoacoustic imaging (PAI) tool and to evaluate whether microcalcifications in breast tissue can be detected on photoacoustic (PA) images. Methods We collected 21 cores containing microcalcifications (n = 11, microcalcification group) and none (n = 10, control group) in stereotactic or ultrasound (US) guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsies. Photoacoustic (PA) images were acquired through ex vivo experiments by transmitting laser pulses with two different wavelengths (700 nm and 800 nm). The presence of microcalcifications in PA images were blindly assessed by two radiologists and compared with specimen mammography. A ratio of the signal amplitude occurring at 700 nm to that occurring at 800 nm was calculated for each PA focus and was called the PAI ratio. Results Based on the change of PA signal amplitude between 700 nm and 800 nm, 10 out of 11 specimens containing microcalcifications and 8 out of 10 specimens without calcifications were correctly identified on blind review; the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive and negative predictive values of our blind review were 90.91%, 80.0%, 85.71%, 83.33% and 88.89%. The PAI ratio in the microcalcification group was significantly higher than that in the control group (the median PAI ratio, 2.46 versus 1.11, respectively, P = .001). On subgroup analysis in the microcalcification group, neither malignant diagnosis nor the number or size of calcification-foci was proven to contribute to PAI ratios. Conclusion Breast microcalcifications generated distinguishable PA signals unlike breast tissue without calcifications. So, PAI, a non-ionizing and non-invasive hybrid imaging technique, can be an alternative in overcoming the limitations of conventional US imaging.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105878. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105878 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response pathway, which contributes to apoptosis and insulin resistance. We investigated the roles of cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) in the regulation of hepatic ER stress, insulin resistance, and the development of diabetes in mice. METHODS: We used mass spectrometry to compare levels of CYP450 proteins in livers from C57BL/6J and C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice; findings were confirmed by immunoblot and real-time PCR analyses. To create a model of diet-induced diabetes, C57BL/6J mice were placed on high-fat diets. Mice were given intraperitoneal injections of an inhibitor (HET0016) or an inducer (clofibrate) of CYP4A, or tail injections of small hairpin RNAs against CYP4A messenger RNA; liver tissues were collected and analyzed for ER stress, insulin resistance, and apoptosis. The effect of HET0016 and CYP4A knockdown also were analyzed in HepG2 cells. RESULTS: Levels of the CYP4A isoforms were highly up-regulated in livers of db/db mice compared with C57BL/6J mice. Inhibition of CYP4A in db/db and mice on high-fat diets reduced features of diabetes such as insulin hypersecretion, hepatic steatosis, and increased glucose tolerance. CYP4A inhibition reduced levels of ER stress, insulin resistance, and apoptosis in the livers of diabetic mice; it also restored hepatic functions. Inversely, induction of CYP4A accelerated ER stress, insulin resistance, and apoptosis in livers of db/db mice. CONCLUSIONS: CYP4A proteins are up-regulated in livers of mice with genetically induced and diet-induced diabetes. Inhibition of CYP4A in mice reduces hepatic ER stress, apoptosis, insulin resistance, and steatosis. Strategies to reduce levels or activity of CYP4A proteins in liver might be developed for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Gastroenterology 06/2014; 147(4). DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2014.06.039 · 13.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
463.32 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Wonju Severance Christian Hospital
      Genshū, Gangwon-do, South Korea
  • 2011–2015
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2015
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Architectural Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seoul National University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2015
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2015
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      • Division of Magnetic Resonance Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Biomaterials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2013
    • Dong-A University
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      • • Department of Biology and Biomedical Science
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2004–2006
    • Inha University
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea