[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of experiments show the potency of a newly described microbicidal system, involving iron, H2O2, and halide, in killing a fungus (Blastomyces dermatitidis). B dermatitidis has previously been shown susceptible to the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system. The present studies show killing of either of two strains in 1 hour if Fe++ at 5 X 10(-5)M, H2O2 at 5 X 10(-5)M and Kl at 5 X 10(-4)M are all present (P less than 0.001). EDTA, a Fe++ chelator, abrogates killing. The mechanism presumably utilizes hydroxyl radical, since an inhibitor, ethanol, also neutralizes the system. The bactericidal and fungicidal system is of great potential importance in vivo.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 11/1984; 36(4):545-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cefotaxime, a cephalosporin drug, has been shown to be active in vitro against nocardiae, a finding confirmed in this study. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in mice to define regimens which provided peak serum levels comparable to that achieved in man with currently used doses. These regimens were shown to be effective with only short courses of therapy of rapidly progressive and highly lethal N. asteroides infection, produced by pulmonary challenge of mice. This suggests the possible utility of this drug in human nocardiosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis which differ in their virulence for mice were exposed in their yeast form to various components of the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system. Susceptibility to H2O2 alone correlated with virulence, with the most virulent strain (ATCC 26199) least susceptible (50% lethal dose, greater than 50 mM) and an avirulent strain (ATCC 26197) most susceptible (50% lethal dose less than 3.3 mM). A strain of intermediate virulence (ATCC 26198) was of intermediate susceptibility (50% lethal dose, 11.5 mM). The addition of a nontoxic concentration of KI (5 X 10(-4) M) did not increase H2O2 toxicity. However, the addition of either myeloperoxidase or horseradish peroxidase and KI markedly decreased the amount of H2O2 required to kill the organisms, with 100 +/- 0% of all strains killed at 5 X 10(-5) M H2O2 and 97 +/- 4, 100 +/- 0, and 94 +/- 8% of ATCC 26199, ATCC 26198, and ATCC 26197 killed, respectively, at 5 X 10(-6) M H2O2. Kinetic studies with H2O2 alone revealed a delayed onset of killing, but virtually 100% of organisms were killed by 120 min of exposure in all strains. By comparison, the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system was 100% lethal for all strains at 1 min. The relatively high concentrations of H2O2 required to kill the yeast phase of B. dermatitidis suggest that H2O2 alone does not account for host resistance to the organism. However, the rapidly lethal effect of the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system at physiologically relevant concentrations suggests that this may be one mechanism of host defense to B. dermatitidis.
Infection and Immunity 10/1983; 41(3):908-12. · 4.07 Impact Factor