Ioannis Stefanidis

University of Thessaly, Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece

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Publications (180)405.01 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem. Despite the success of the general measures against blood transmitted infections in hemodialysis (HD) units, the prevalence of HBV infection among the HD patients is still high. Thus vaccination against HBV is indicating in this population. However, compared with the general population the seroprotection achieved in HD patients remains relatively low, at about 70%. In this review patient, HD procedure and vaccine-associated factors that affect the efficacy of HBV vaccination are analyzed. Also alternative routes of HBV vaccine administration as well as new and more immunogenic vaccine formulations are discussed. However, besides scientific progress, vigilance of HD physicians and staff regarding the general measures against the transmission of blood borne infections and the vaccination against HBV is also required for reducing the prevalence of this viral infection.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 09/2014; 20(34):12018-12025.
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects almost one out of three end-stage renal disease patients. This review assesses the current treatment options of uremic RLS and its potential benefits of those treatments on quality of life parameters, cardiovascular mortality and survival. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria in which the international RLS study group criteria were used as the primary diagnostic tool. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches were found to reduce the severity of uremic RLS symptoms. Only four studies had reported changes on aspects related to quality of life while those changes were also associated with health benefits that resulted in reduced cardiovascular risk. The severity of uremic RLS symptoms can be ameliorated by using dopamine agonists and gabapentin, intravenous iron, exercise or supplementation with vitamins C and E, while some of those treatment benefits can be attenuated rapidly. There is a lack of strong evidence regarding the effects of the pharmacological approaches on quality of life and cardiovascular survival and mortality. In contrast exercise has been proven beneficial in both reducing the RLS symptoms’ severity score and improving the quality of life.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 08/2014; · 9.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative effectiveness and tolerability of treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not well understood because few randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have compared these treatments directly. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness and tolerability of treatments of T2DM.
    Clinical Therapeutics 08/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses adaptive immunity by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and altering glucose metabolism. Tumor suppressor p53 also alters these cellular processes towards the same direction. The effect of IDO on p53, and glucose metabolism was evaluated in alloreactive T-cells. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) performed in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophane (1-MT) and/or p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α (PFT). Cell proliferation, glucose consumption and lactate production were assessed. 1-MT increased cell proliferation, glucose influx and lactate production, whereas PFT enhanced cell proliferation, glucose influx, leaving lactate production unaffected. In MLR-derived T-cells protein analysis revealed that IDO activated general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase and induced p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 (p-p53), and p21. In addition, both IDO and p53 decreased glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and increased synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2). Also IDO reduced lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) and glutaminase 2 (GLS2), whereas p53 left them unaffected. Neither 1-MT nor PFT affected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Conclusively, in alloreactive T-cells, IDO increases p53 level, and both IDO and p53 inhibit cell proliferation, glucose consumption and glycolysis. Lactate production and glutaminolysis are also suppressed by IDO, but not by p53.
    International immunology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cytokine that increases vascular permeability to water and proteins and induces angiogenesis, has been implicated in the development of pleural effusions. Inflammatory and malignant pleural effusions are rich in VEGF content while mesothelial cells produce and excrete VEGF. In this report we aimed at investigating by means of electrophysiology the direct effects of VEGF on the parietal and visceral sheep pleura as well as the type of receptors that mediate this effect. Our findings show that VEGF has a direct effect on the pleural mesothelium rendering it more permeable and this effect is mediated through the stimulation of VEGF receptor 2. Our findings shed more light to the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of pleural effusions and provide functional evidence for a role of VEGFR2 on the pleural mesothelium that has never been studied before.
    Cytokine 06/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Non-dipping circadian blood pressure (BP) is a common finding in preeclampsia, accompanied by adverse outcomes. Melatonin plays pivotal role in biological circadian rhythms. This study investigated the relationship between melatonin secretion and circadian BP rhythm in preeclampsia. Cases were women with preeclampsia treated between January 2006 and June 2007 in the University Hospital of Larissa. Volunteers with normal pregnancy, matched for chronological and gestational age, served as controls. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring was applied. Serum melatonin and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were determined in day and night time samples by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Measurements were repeated 2 months after delivery. Thirty-one women with preeclampsia and 20 controls were included. Twenty-one of the 31 women with preeclampsia were non-dippers. Compared to normal pregnancy, in preeclampsia there were significantly lower night time melatonin (48.4 ± 24.7 vs. 85.4 ± 26.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001) levels. Adjustment for circadian BP rhythm status ascribed this finding exclusively to non-dippers (p < 0.01). Two months after delivery, in 11 of the 21 non-dippers both circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm reappeared. In contrast, in cases with retained non-dipping status (n = 10) melatonin secretion rhythm remained impaired: daytime versus night time melatonin (33.5 ± 13.0 vs. 28.0 ± 13.8 pg/mL, p = 0.386). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were, overall, similar to serum melatonin. Circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm follow parallel course in preeclampsia, both during pregnancy and, at least 2 months after delivery. Our findings may be not sufficient to implicate a putative therapeutic effect of melatonin, however, they clearly emphasize that its involvement in the pathogenesis of a non-dipping BP in preeclampsia needs intensive further investigation.
    Renal Failure 06/2014; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variants of the interleukin-1β gene (IL1B) are implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present candidate-gene association study was conducted to investigate the association between the IL1B C-511T variant and the risk of DN in a Caucasian population. The study population consisted of 173 cases (patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [DM] and DN) and 186 controls (patients with DM free of DN). Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR product was a 304-bp long DNA fragment of the IL1B gene promoter region, extending from position -702 to -398 and including the polymorphic AvaI site (at position -511). The magnitude of the overall association was tested using the generalized odds ratio (ORG) metric, a genetic model-free approach. The ORs (adjusted for effect modifiers) of the additive and co-dominant models were also estimated. The mode of inheritance was assessed using the degree of dominance index (h). There was a significant difference in the genotype distribution between the group of cases with DN compared with diseased controls free of DN (p=0.014). Analysis produced a significant ORG (ORG=1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.20-2.52), indicating that the risk of DN is significantly associated with the mutational load. The risk of developing DN is significantly enhanced in IL1B T allele carriers (dominant model, p=0.005) and in homozygotes (additive model, p=0.018) respectively. However, the recessive model for T allele (p=0.097) and the co-dominant model (p=0.085) produced non-significant results. Considering that the additive model was significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.20-5.36) and the co-dominant is non-significant (OR=1.53, 95% CI=0.97-2.40), the mode of inheritance is complete "additiveness," with the degree of dominance being h=0. The findings provided evidence that the IL1B C-511T variant might be associated with development of DN.
    DNA and cell biology 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbed iron homeostasis contributes to resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Although increased hepcidin, which downregulates the iron exporter ferroportin, had been incriminated, such an association has not been confirmed. Albeit not universally accepted, it has been supported that in case of copper deficiency, decreased activity of multicopper oxidases induces endocytosis and degradation of ferroportin. Ferroportin in monocytes, serum copper, ceruloplasmin and markers of iron status were measured, and associations with rHuEpo resistance index (ERI) were evaluated. After a 4-week washout period from iron treatment, 34 HD patients and 20 healthy volunteers enrolled in the study. Ferroportin was assessed by means of Western blotting, copper colorimetrically, whereas ceruloplasmin with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) were also measured. Ferroportin in monocytes of HD patients was decreased. Serum copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and TSAT were decreased. No correlation between copper or ceruloplasmin and ferroportin was detected. ERI was negatively correlated with ferroportin and all the markers of iron adequacy, but not with copper or ceruloplasmin. Although copper deficiency and decreased ferroportin are common in HD patients, copper might not play role in ferroportin level in monocytes and in iron metabolism in this population.
    International Urology and Nephrology 05/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 77-year-old man, 11 years under chronic hemodialysis treatment for chronic renal failure of unknown origin, presented with anterior chest pain, dyspnea with paradoxical breathing, and sternal instability after a simple fall from a standing height. Patient underwent three-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting 31 months ago. Computed tomography with three-dimensional volume rendering showed sternal nonunion with a great gap between the two halves of the sternum and at least one fracture in the left half of the sternum. A successful surgical repair followed. Patient suffered from severe secondary hyperparathyroidism for many years. Despite treatment with sevelamer, paricalcitol and cinacalcet, intact parathyroid hormone was 1682 pg/mL. During the last 5 years, serum intact parathyroid hormone remained steadily above 1000 pg/mL. Patient refused parathyroidectomy in the past. We assume that long-lasting severe hyperparathyroidism contributed to this rare and life-threatening complication of median sternotomy in our patient, due to the detrimental effect of hyperparathyroidism on bone metabolism and its association with increased incidence of bone fractures and defect in bone fracture healing.
    Hemodialysis International 04/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a case of a patient with a functional kidney transplant who was admitted to our department with clinically evident central vein stenosis (CVS) 7 years after the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein. The catheter was used as a hemodialysis access for a 2-month period. In the interval before his last admission, the patient suffered two episodes of deep vein thrombosis. Investigation revealed heterozygosity for factor V Leiden, the most common inherited thrombophilia encountered in 5% of Caucasians, and anticoagulation treatment was started. Magnetic resonance angiography showed stenosis just after the convergence of the right subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein to the innominate vein. Transluminal angioplasty restored venous patency and right upper arm edema resolved. Coexistence of CVS, accompanied by hemodynamic changes and endothelial dysfunction, with thrombophilia fulfill all the elements of the Virchow's triad. Therefore, the patient was at great risk for central vein thrombosis, from which he was possibly protected by the early administration of anticoagulant treatment. This case indicates that CVS can be asymptomatic for several years after CVC removal and also raises the question if thrombophilia workup and investigation for CVS may be beneficial in every patient with CVC placement in order to avoid any harmful outcomes.
    Hemodialysis International 12/2013; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by an uncontrolled need to move extremities accompanied by unpleasant sensations, which frequently leads to sleep disturbances. In hemodialysis (HD) patients, the previously reported RLS prevalence varied enormously, between 6% and 60%. In our study, we investigated the RLS prevalence in HD patients for the first time in Greece. A continuous sample of HD patients was studied between January and September of 2010 in six dialysis units in Greece. RLS diagnosis was based on the essential clinical criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for RLS in HD patients was calculated in comparison to data from a recent survey of the general population in Greece. In our study of 579 HD patients in Greece (236 women; mean age, 65±13years), the prevalence of RLS was elevated in comparison to the general population (26.6% vs 3.9%), with an SIR of 5.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-6.3). In the fully adjusted model, the risk for RLS in HD patients was reduced in older age (odds ratio [OR], 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99]) and increased in women (OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.05-2.43]) in cases with elevated levels of β2 microglobulin (OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01-1.32]) and intact parathormone (iPTH) (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.08-1.56]). A high RLS prevalence was recorded in a large HD population in Greece, clearly suggesting the need for enhanced awareness of RLS in nephrology. The RLS risk was increased in women and in younger HD patients as well as in those with elevated β2 microglobulin and iPTH levels.
    Sleep Medicine 10/2013; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) (or Willis-Ekbom disease) is a neurological disorder with high prevalence among the end-stage renal disease population. This is one of the most predominant types of secondary RLS, and it is called uremic RLS. Despite the fact that uremic RLS has been less studied compared to idiopathic RLS, recent studies now shed light in many aspects of the syndrome including clinical characteristics, impact, epidemiology, and treatment options. The current review discusses the above topics with special emphasis given on the management of uremic RLS, including the management of symptoms that often appear during a hemodialysis session. Uremic RLS symptoms may be ameliorated by using pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Evidence so far shows that both approaches may be effective in terms of reducing the RLS symptom's severity; nevertheless, more research is needed on the efficiency of treatments for uremic RLS.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.394.
    Kidney International 10/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restless Legs Syndrome is very common in hemodialysis patients however there are no comparative studies assessing the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological treatment to a classical treatment on parameters related to syndromes' severity and quality of life. In this randomized, partially double blind, placebo controlled trial, thirty two hemodialysis patients with restless legs syndrome were randomly assigned into three groups: 1) the exercise training group (N = 16), 2) the dopamine agonists group (ropinirole 0.25 mg/d) (N = 8) and 3) the placebo group (N = 8). The intervention programs lasted 6 months. Restless Legs Syndrome severity was assessed using the international severity scale, physical performance by a battery of tests, muscle size and composition by computed tomography, body composition by Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry, while depression score, sleep quality, daily sleepiness and quality of life were assessed through questionnaires. Exercise training and dopamine agonists were effective in reducing syndrome's symptoms by 46% (P = 0.009) and 54% (P = 0.001) respectively. Within group changes revealed that both approaches significantly improved quality of life (P < 0.05), however, only the dopamine agonists significantly improved sleep quality (P = 0.009). Within group changes showed a tendency for lean body mass improvements with dopamine agonists, this reached statistical significance only with the exercise training (P = 0.014), which also reduced fat infiltration in muscles (P = 0.044) and improved physical performance (P > 0.05) in various tests. Between group changes detect significant improvements with both exercise and dopamine agonists in depression score (P = 0.003), while only the dopamine agonist treatment was able to significantly improve sleep quality, compared to exercise and placebo (P = 0.016). A 6-month exercise training regime was as effective as a 6-month low dosage dopamine agonist treatment in reducing restless legs syndrome symptoms and improving depression score in uremic patients. Further research is needed in order to show whether a combination treatment could be more beneficial for the amelioration of RLS.Trial registration: NCT00942253.
    BMC Nephrology 09/2013; 14(1):194. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses adaptive immunity. T-cell proliferation and differentiation to effector cells require increased glucose consumption, aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. The effect of IDO on the above metabolic pathways was evaluated in alloreactive T-cells. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the presence or not of the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophane (1-MT), was used. In MLRs, 1-MT decreased tryptophan consumption, increased cell proliferation, glucose influx and lactate production, whereas it decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. In T-cells, from the two pathways that could sense tryptophan depletion, i.e. general control nonrepressed 2 (GCN2) kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, 1-MT reduced only the activity of the GCN2 kinase. Additionally 1-MT treatment of MLRs altered the expression and/or the phosphorylation state of glucose transporter-1 and of key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and glutaminolysis in alloreactive T-cells in a way that favors glucose influx, aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Thus in alloreactive T-cells, IDO through activation of the GCN2 kinase, decreases glucose influx and alters key enzymes involved in metabolism, decreasing aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Acting in such a way, IDO could be considered as a constraining factor for alloreactive T-cell proliferation and differentiation to effector T-cell subtypes.
    Human immunology 08/2013; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) fulfills pleiotropic functions relating to gene transcription, mRNA processing, and translation. It remains elusive how YB-1 shuttling into the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments is regulated and whether limited proteolysis by the 20S proteasome releases fragments with distinct function(s) and subcellular distribution(s). To address these questions, mapping of domains responsible for subcellular targeting was performed. Three nuclear localization signals (NLS) were identified. NLS-1 (aa 149-156) and NLS-2 (aa 185-194) correspond to residues with unknown function(s), whereas NLS-3 (aa 276-292) matches with a designated multimerization domain. Nuclear export signal(s) were not identified. Endoproteolytic processing by the 20S proteasome before glycine 220 releases a carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF), which localized to the nucleus, indicating that NLS-3 is operative. Genotoxic stress induced proteolytic cleavage and nuclear translocation of the CTF. Co-expression of the CTF and full-length YB-1 resulted in an abrogated transcriptional activation of the MMP-2 promoter, indicating an autoregulatory inhibitory loop, whereas it fulfilled similar trans-repressive effects on the collagen type I promoter. Compartmentalization of YB-1 protein derivatives is controlled by distinct NLS, one of which targets a proteolytic cleavage product to the nucleus. We propose a model for an autoregulatory negative feedback loop that halts unlimited transcriptional activation.
    Cell Communication and Signaling 08/2013; 11(1):63. · 4.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Studies detected an association between visfatin and markers of iron metabolism in patients with insulin resistance. In this study, such a relation was evaluated in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Also relations between visfatin and hepcidin, demands for recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo), inflammation, and situations characterized by insulin resistance were evaluated. Methods: After a four-week washout period from iron treatment, 33 HD patients and 20 healthy volunteers enrolled in the study. Serum visfatin, hepcidin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) were also measured. Results: Visfatin was markedly increased in HD patients. Visfatin levels did not differ between diabetics and non-diabetics. No relation was detected between visfatin and body mass index or IL-6 in HD patients. From the markers of iron metabolism, the hepcidin included, visfatin was related only to TSAT. A strong positive relation was revealed between visfatin and hemoglobin, whereas visfatin was inversely related to rHuEpo dose. Resistance to rHuEpo index was inversely and independently of TSAT related to visfatin. Conclusion: Visfatin is increased in HD patients and it is associated with decreased demands for rHuEpo.
    Renal Failure 08/2013; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uraemic restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects a significant proportion of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) therapy. Exercise training has been shown to improve RLS symptoms in uraemic RLS patients; however, the mechanism of exercise-induced changes in RLS severity is still unknown. The aim of the current randomized controlled exercise trial was to investigate whether the reduction of RLS severity, often seen after training, is due to expected systemic exercise adaptations or it is mainly due to the relief that leg movements confer during exercise training on a cycle ergometer. This is the first randomized controlled exercise study in uraemic RLS patients. Twenty-four RLS HD patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the progressive exercise training group (n = 12) and the control exercise with no resistance group (n = 12). The exercise session in both groups included intradialytic cycling for 45 min at 50 rpm. However, only in the progressive exercise training group was resistance applied, at 60-65% of maximum exercise capacity, which was reassessed every 4 weeks to account for the patients' improvement. The severity of RLS symptoms was evaluated using the IRLSSG severity scale, functional capacity by a battery of tests, while sleep quality, depression levels and daily sleepiness status were assessed via validated questionnaires, before and after the intervention period. All patients completed the exercise programme with no adverse effects. RLS symptom severity declined by 58% (P = 0.003) in the progressive exercise training group, while a no statistically significant decline was observed in the control group (17% change, P = 0.124). Exercise training was also effective in terms of improving functional capacity (P = 0.04), sleep quality (P = 0.038) and depression score (P = 0.000) in HD patients, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. After 6 months of the intervention, RLS severity (P = 0.017), depression score (P = 0.002) and daily sleepiness status (P = 0.05) appeared to be significantly better in the progressive exercise group compared with the control group. A 6-month intradialytic progressive exercise training programme appears to be a safe and effective approach in reducing RLS symptom severity in HD patients. It seems that exercise-induced adaptations to the whole body are mostly responsible for the reduction in RLS severity score, since the exercise with no applied resistance protocol failed to improve the RLS severity status of the patients. NCT00942253.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbed iron homeostasis contributes to resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Increased hepcidin, which downregulates the iron exporter ferroportin, has been incriminated. However, other factors also control ferroportin expression in mononuclear phagocyte system. Ferroportin in monocytes, as well as serum hepcidin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and common markers of iron status were measured and correlations with rHuEpo resistance index (ERI) were evaluated. After a 4-week washout period from iron treatment, 34 HD patients and 20 healthy volunteers enrolled in the study. Ferroportin was assessed by means of western blotting, whereas hepcidin and IL-6 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) were also measured. Ferroportin in monocytes of HD patients was decreased. Serum hepcidin and IL-6 were increased, whereas serum iron and TSAT were decreased. ERI was negatively correlated with ferroportin and all the markers of iron adequacy, but not with hepcidin. Decreased ferroportin in monocytes of HD patients accompanies increased hepcidin, inflammation, decreased iron availability and is correlated with resistance to rHuEpo treatment.
    International Urology and Nephrology 07/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression, a mental disorder with a high personal, societal, and economic impact, affects at least 20-30% of patients receiving hemodialysis therapy. It is associated with a high mortality rate, low adherence to medication, and a low perceived quality of life. Exercise training is a promising nonpharmacological intervention that can be safely applied to these patients. Beyond the well-publicized physiological benefits of exercise training, a number of studies have focused on the effects of exercise training on mental factors and quality of life parameters including its less appreciated effects on depression symptoms. This evidence-based review article reviews and discusses the effects of exercise training on depression in end-stage renal disease patients.
    Seminars in Dialysis 07/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Arthritis & Rheumatology 07/2013; 65(7). · 7.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
405.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • University of Thessaly
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Nephrology
      Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece
  • 2013
    • University of Nicosia
      • Department of Life & Health Sciences
      Lefkoşa, Lefkosia, Cyprus
  • 2005–2011
    • General University Hospital of Larissa
      Lárissa, Thessaly, Greece
  • 2005–2010
    • Γενικό Νοσοκομείο Σερρών
      Seres, Central Macedonia, Greece
  • 2009
    • Θεαγένειο Αντικαρκινικό Νοσοκομείο
      Saloníki, Central Macedonia, Greece
  • 1994–2008
    • University Hospital RWTH Aachen
      • Department of Neurology
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007
    • Democritus University of Thrace
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      Xánthi, Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki, Greece
  • 2006
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2002
    • RWTH Aachen University
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1997
    • Technische Universität Dortmund
      Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany