Luke J Haseler

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

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Publications (57)146.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Re-programming of gene expression is fundamental for skeletal muscle adaptations in response to endurance exercise. This study investigated the time-course dependent changes in the muscular transcriptome following an endurance exercise trial consisting of 1 h of intense cycling immediately followed by 1 h of intense running. Skeletal muscle samples were taken at baseline, 3 h, 48 h, and 96 h post-exercise from eight healthy, endurance-trained, male individuals. RNA was extracted from muscle. Differential gene expression was evaluated using Illumina microarrays and validated with qPCR. Gene set enrichment analysis identified enriched molecular signatures chosen from the Molecular Signatures Database. Three h post-exercise, 102 gene sets were up-regulated [family wise error rate (FWER), P < 0.05]; including groups of genes related with leukocyte migration, immune and chaperone activation, and cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) 1-signaling. Forty-eight h post-exercise, among 19 enriched gene sets (FWER, P < 0.05), two gene sets related to actin cytoskeleton remodeling were up-regulated. Ninety-six h post-exercise, 83 gene sets were enriched (FWER, P < 0.05), 80 of which were up-regulated; including gene groups related to chemokine signaling, cell stress management, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These data provide comprehensive insights into the molecular pathways involved in acute stress, recovery, and adaptive muscular responses to endurance exercise. The novel 96 h post-exercise transcriptome indicates substantial transcriptional activity, potentially associated with the prolonged presence of leukocytes in the muscles. This suggests that muscular recovery, from a transcriptional perspective, is incomplete 96 h after endurance exercise involving muscle damage.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) based evidence suggests that in vivo peak mitochondrial respiration rate in young untrained adults is limited by the intrinsic mitochondrial capacity of ATP synthesis, it remains unknown whether a large, locally targeted, increase in convective O2 delivery would alter this interpretation. Consequently, we examined the effect of superimposing reactive hyperaemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last min of exercise, on oxygen delivery and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle of 9 young adults in comparison to free-flow conditions (FF). To this aim, we used an integrative experimental approach combining (31)P-MRS, Doppler ultrasound imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Limb blood flow [area under the curve (AUC), 1.4±0.8 L in FF and 2.5±0.3 L in RH, P<0.01] and convective O2 delivery (AUC, 0.30±0.16 L in FF and 0.54±0.05 L in RH, P<0.01) were significantly increased in RH in comparison to FF. RH was also associated with significantly higher capillary blood flow (P<0.05) and faster tissue re-oxygenation mean response times (70±15 s in FF and 24±15 s in RH, P<0.05). This resulted in a 43% increase in estimated peak mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (29±13 mM.min(-1) in FF and 41±14 mM.min(-1) in RH, P<0.05) whereas the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant in RH was not significantly different (P=0.22). This comprehensive assessment of local skeletal muscle O2 availability and utilization in untrained subjects reveals that mitochondrial function, assessed in vivo by (31)P-MRS, is limited by convective O2 delivery rather than an intrinsic mitochondrial limitation.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 06/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Short-term exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations before any changes in mitochondrial enzyme potential. However, there has not been a study that has directly assessed changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacity or metabolic control as a consequence of such training in vivo. Therefore, we used (31) P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31) P-MRS) to examine the effect of short-term plantar flexion exercise training on phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery kinetics and the control of respiration rate. METHOD: To this aim, we investigated 12 healthy men, experienced with this exercise modality (TRA), and 7 time-control subjects (TC). RESULTS: After 5 days of training, maximum work rate during incremental plantar flexion exercise was significantly improved (P < 0.01). During the recovery period, the maximal rate of oxidative ATP synthesis (PRE: 28 ± 13 mM.min(-1) ; POST: 26 ± 15 mM.min(-1) ) and the PCr recovery time constant (PRE: 31 ± 19 s; POST: 29 ± 16) were not significantly altered. In contrast, the Hill coefficient (nH ) describing the cooperativity between respiration rate and ADP was significantly increased in TRA (PRE:nH =2.7 ± 1.4; POST: nH =3.4 ± 1.9, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there were no systematic variations in any of these variables in TC. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that 5 days of training induces rapid adaptation in the allosteric control of respiration rate by ADP before any substantial improvement in muscle oxidative capacity occurs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Physiologica 04/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils serve as an intriguing model for the study of innate immune cellular activity induced by physiological stress. We measured changes in the transcriptome of circulating neutrophils following an experimental exercise trial (EXTRI) consisting of 1 hour (h) of intense cycling immediately followed by 1 h of intense running. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 3 h, 48 h, and 96 h post-EXTRI from eight healthy, endurance-trained, male subjects. RNA was extracted from isolated neutrophils. Differential gene expression was evaluated using Illumina microarrays, and validated with qPCR. Gene set enrichment analysis identified enriched molecular signatures chosen from the Molecular Signatures Database. Blood concentrations of muscle damage indices, neutrophils, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were increased (P<0.05) 3 h post-EXTRI. Up-regulated groups of functionally related genes 3 h post-EXTRI included gene sets associated with the recognition of tissue damage, the IL-1 receptor-, and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways (FWER p-value<0.05). The core enrichment for these pathways included TLRs, low-affinity immunoglobulin receptors, S100 calcium binding protein A12, and negative regulators of innate immunity, e.g. IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-1 receptor associated kinase-3. Plasma myoglobin changes correlated with neutrophil TLR4 gene expression (r=0.74; P<0.05). Neutrophils had returned to their non-activated state 48 h post-EXTRI, indicating that their initial pro-inflammatory response was transient and rapidly counter-regulated. This study provides novel insight into the signaling mechanisms underlying the neutrophil responses to endurance exercise, suggesting that their transcriptional activity was particularly induced by damage-associated molecule patterns, hypothetically originating from the leakage of muscle components into the circulation.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 04/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in elite endurance triathletes, and whether ACTN3 R577X is significantly associated with performance time. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Saliva samples, questionnaires, and performance times were collected for 196 elite endurance athletes who participated in the 2008 Kona Ironman championship triathlon. Athletes were of predominantly North American, European, and Australian origin. A one-way analysis of variance was conducted to compare performance times between genotype groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to model the effect of questionnaire variables and genotype on performance time. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared to results from different populations using the chi-square test. RESULTS: Performance time did not significantly differ between genotype groups, and age, sex, and continent of origin were significant predictors of finishing time (age and sex: p<5×10(-6); continent: p=0.003) though genotype was not. Genotype and allele frequencies obtained (RR 26.5%, RX 50.0%, XX 23.5%, R 51.5%, X 48.5%) were found to be not significantly different from Australian, Spanish, and Italian endurance athletes (p>0.05), but were significantly different from Kenyan, Ethiopian, and Finnish endurance athletes (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Genotype and allele frequencies agreed with those reported for endurance athletes of similar ethnic origin, supporting previous findings for an association between 577X allele and endurance. However, analysis of performance time suggests that ACTN3 does not alone influence endurance performance, or may have a complex effect on endurance performance due to a speed/endurance trade-off.
    Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired O(2) transport to skeletal muscle potentially contributes to the decline in aerobic capacity with aging. Thus, we examined whether (1) skeletal muscle oxidative capacity decreases with age and (2) O(2) availability or mitochondrial capacity limits the maximal rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis in vivo in sedentary elderly individuals. We used (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) to examine the PCr recovery kinetics in six young (26 ± 10 years) and six older (69 ± 3 years) sedentary subjects following 4 min of dynamic plantar flexion exercise under different fractions of inspired O(2) (FiO(2), normoxia 0.2; hyperoxia 1.0). End-exercise pH was not significantly different between old (7.04 ± 0.10) and young (7.05 ± 0.04) and was not affected by breathing hyperoxia (old 7.08 ± 0.08, P > 0.05 and young 7.05 ± 0.03). Likewise, end-exercise PCr was not significantly different between old (19 ± 4 mM) and young (24 ± 5 mM) and was not changed in hyperoxia. The PCr recovery time constant was significantly longer in the old (36 ± 9 s) compared to the young in normoxia (23 ± 8 s, P < 0.05) and was not significantly altered by breathing hyperoxia in both the old (35 ± 9 s) and young (29 ± 10 s) groups. Therefore, this study reveals that the muscle oxidative capacity of both sedentary young and old individuals is independent of O(2) availability and that the decline in oxidative capacity with age is most likely due to limited mitochondrial content and/or mitochondrial dysfunction and not O(2) availability.
    Age 07/2012; · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise triggers hormesis, conditioning hearts against damaging consequences of subsequent ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). We test whether "low-stress" voluntary activity modifies I/R tolerance and molecular determinants of cardiac survival. Male C57BL/6 mice were provided 7-day access to locked (7SED) or rotating (7EX) running-wheels before analysis of cardiac prosurvival (Akt, ERK 1/2) and prodeath (GSK3β) kinases, transcriptomic adaptations, and functional tolerance of isolated hearts to 25-min ischemia/45-min reperfusion. Over 7 days, 7EX mice increased running from 2.1 ± 0.2 to 5.3 ± 0.3 km/day (mean speed 38 ± 2 m/min), with activity improving myocardial I/R tolerance: 7SED hearts recovered 43 ± 3% of ventricular force with diastolic contracture of 33 ± 3 mmHg, whereas 7EX hearts recovered 63 ± 5% of force with diastolic dysfunction reduced to 23 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.05). Cytosolic expression (total protein) of Akt and GSK3β was unaltered, while ERK 1/2 increased 30% in 7EX vs. 7SED hearts. Phosphorylation of Akt and ERK 1/2 was unaltered, whereas GSK3β phosphorylation increased ∼90%. Microarray interrogation identified significant changes (≥1.3-fold expression change, ≤5% FDR) in 142 known genes, the majority (92%) repressed. Significantly modified paths/networks related to inflammatory/immune function (particularly interferon-dependent), together with cell movement, growth, and death. Of only 14 induced transcripts, 3 encoded interrelated sarcomeric proteins titin, α-actinin, and myomesin-2, while transcripts for protective actin-stabilizing ND1-L and activator of mitochondrial biogenesis ALAS1 were also induced. There was no transcriptional evidence of oxidative heat-shock or other canonical "stress" responses. These data demonstrate that relatively brief voluntary activity substantially improves cardiac ischemic tolerance, an effect independent of shifts in Akt, but associated with increased total ERK 1/2 and phospho-inhibition of GSK3β. Transcriptomic data implicate inflammatory/immune and sarcomeric modulation in activity-dependent protection.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 02/2012; 302(9):R1091-100. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart rate variability (HRV) and haemorheology adaptations to 12 wk of varied-dose treadmill walking were investigated in women aged 65-74 yr with type 2 diabetes. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups where exercise frequency and session duration were manipulated (Group 1: 2 × 60 min·wk(-1) or Group 2: 4 × 30 min·wk(-1)), but intensity and accumulated weekly duration of exercise were consistent between groups (100% gas-exchange threshold; 120 min·wk(-1)). Twelve weeks of exercise training significantly improved peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, and gas-exchange threshold (p < 0.05), independent of exercise group. Exercise training did not significantly change glycaemic control or body mass. Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and RBC deformability significantly decreased (p < 0.05) for both groups. No change in HRV was observed for Group 1, whereas several key indicators of HRV were significantly improved in Group 2 (p < 0.05). The present study was the first to report decreased RBC aggregation following an exercise-only intervention and that exercise training improved RBC aggregation without a concomitant improvement in glycaemic control. The accumulated weekly exercise duration may be the most important training component for the prescription of exercise in older women with type 2 diabetes.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2012; 51(2):87-99. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the metabolic implications of a higher ATP cost of contraction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we used (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) to examine muscle energetics and pH in response to graded exercise. Specifically, in six patients and six well-matched healthy controls, we determined the intracellular threshold for pH (T(pH)) and inorganic phosphate-to-phosphocreatine ratio (T(Pi/PCr)) during progressive dynamic plantar flexion exercise with work rate expressed as both absolute and relative intensity. Patients with COPD displayed a lower peak power output (WRmax) compared with controls (controls 25 ± 4 W, COPD 15 ± 5 W, P = 0.01) while end-exercise pH (controls 6.79 ± 0.15, COPD 6.76 ± 0.21, P = 0.87) and PCr consumption (controls 82 ± 10%, COPD 70 ± 18%, P = 0.26) were similar between groups. Both T(pH) and T(Pi/PCr) occurred at a significantly lower absolute work rate in patients with COPD compared with controls (controls: 14.7 ± 2.4 W for T(pH) and 15.3 ± 2.4 W for T(Pi/PCr); COPD: 9.7 ± 4.5 W for T(pH) and 10.0 ± 4.6 W for T(Pi/PCr), P < 0.05), but these thresholds occurred at the same percentage of WRmax (controls: 63 ± 11% WRmax for T(pH) and 67 ± 18% WRmax for T(Pi/PCr); COPD: 59 ± 9% WRmax for T(pH) and 61 ± 12% WRmax for T(Pi/PCr), P > 0.05). Indexes of mitochondrial function, the PCr recovery time constant (controls 42 ± 7 s, COPD 45 ± 11 s, P = 0.66) and the PCr resynthesis rate (controls 105 ± 21%/min, COPD 91 ± 31%/min, P = 0.43) were similar between groups. In combination, these results reveal that when energy demand is normalized to WRmax, as a consequence of higher ATP cost of contraction, patients with COPD display the same metabolic pattern as healthy subjects, suggesting that skeletal muscle energy production is well preserved in these patients.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/2011; 112(6):1041-8. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present randomized controlled trial compared arthrocentesis of the effusive knee followed by corticosteroid injection performed by the conventional anatomic landmark palpation-guided technique to the same procedure performed with ultrasound (US) needle guidance. Sixty-four palpably effusive knees were randomized to (i) palpation-guided arthrocentesis with a conventional 20-mL syringe (22 knees), (ii) US-guided arthrocentesis with a 25-mL reciprocating procedure device (RPD) mechanical aspirating syringe (22 knees), or (iii) US-guided arthrocentesis with a 60-mL automatic aspirating syringe (20 knees). The one-needle two-syringe technique was used. Outcome measures included patient pain by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain (0-10 cm), the proportion of diagnostic samples, synovial fluid volume yield, complications, and therapeutic outcome at 2 weeks. Sonographic guidance resulted in 48% less procedural pan (VAS; palpation-guided: 5.8 ± 3.0 cm, US-guided: 3.0 ± 2.8 cm, p < 0.001), 183% increased aspirated synovial fluid volumes (palpation-guided: 12 ± 10 mL, US-guided: 34 ± 25 mL, p < 0.0001), and improved outcomes at 2 weeks (VAS; palpation-guided: 2.8 ± 2.4 cm, US-guided: 1.5 ± 1.9 cm, p = 0.034). Outcomes of sonographic guidance with the mechanical syringe and automatic syringe were comparable in all outcome measures. US-guided arthrocentesis and injection of the knee are superior to anatomic landmark palpation-guided arthrocentesis, resulting in significantly less procedural pain, improved arthrocentesis success, greater synovial fluid yield, more complete joint decompression, and improved clinical outcomes.
    Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 11/2011; 41(1):66-72. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrodissection and high-pressure injection are important for the treatment of dense connective tissue lesions including rheumatoid nodules, Dupuytren's contracture, and trigger finger. The present study determined the optimal syringes for high-pressure injection of dense connective tissue lesions. Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, 20, and 60 mL) of a mechanical syringe (reciprocating procedure device) with a luer-lock fitting were studied. Twenty operators generated maximum pressure with each mechanical syringe size, and pressure was measured in pounds per square inch (psi). Subsequently, 223 dense connective tissue lesions were injected with different sizes of syringes (1, 3, or 10 mL). Outcomes included (i) successful intralesional injection and (ii) clinical response at 2 weeks. Smaller syringes generated significantly more injection pressure than did larger syringes: 1 mL (363 ± 197 psi), 3 mL (177 ± 96 psi), 5 mL (73 ± 40 psi), 10 mL (53 ± 29 psi), 20 mL (32 ± 18 psi), and 60 mL (19 ± 12 psi). Similarly, smaller syringes were superior to larger syringes for intralesional injection success: 10 mL: 34% (15/44) vs. 1 mL: 100% (70/70) (p < 0.001) and 3 mL: 91% (99/109) (p < 0.001). Smaller syringes (≤ 3 mL) are superior to larger syringes (≥ 5 mL) for successful hydrodissection and high-pressure intralesional injection of dense connective tissue lesions.
    Scandinavian journal of rheumatology 04/2011; 40(5):379-82. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired metabolism in peripheral skeletal muscles potentially contributes to exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) to examine the energy cost and skeletal muscle energetics in six patients with COPD during dynamic plantar flexion exercise compared with six well-matched healthy control subjects. Patients with COPD displayed a higher energy cost of muscle contraction compared with the controls (control: 6.1 ± 3.1% of rest·min(-1)·W(-1), COPD: 13.6 ± 8.3% of rest·min(-1)·W(-1), P = 0.01). Although, the initial phosphocreatine resynthesis rate was also significantly attenuated in patients with COPD compared with controls (control: 74 ± 17% of rest/min, COPD: 52 ± 13% of rest/min, P = 0.04), when scaled to power output, oxidative ATP synthesis was similar between groups (6.5 ± 2.3% of rest·min(-1)·W(-1) in control and 7.8 ± 3.9% of rest·min(-1)·W(-1) in COPD, P = 0.52). Therefore, our results reveal, for the first time that in a small subset of patients with COPD a higher ATP cost of muscle contraction may substantially contribute to the lower mechanical efficiency previously reported in this population. In addition, it appears that some patients with COPD have preserved mitochondrial function and normal energy supply in lower limb skeletal muscle.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 02/2011; 300(5):R1142-7. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purine nucleoside adenosine is an important regulator within the cardiovascular system, and throughout the body. Released in response to perturbations in energy state, among other stimuli, local adenosine interacts with 4 adenosine receptor sub-types on constituent cardiac and vascular cells: A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)ARs. These G-protein coupled receptors mediate varied responses, from modulation of coronary flow, heart rate and contraction, to cardioprotection, inflammatory regulation, and control of cell growth and tissue remodeling. Research also unveils an increasingly complex interplay between members of the adenosine receptor family, and with other receptor groups. Given generally favorable effects of adenosine receptor activity (e.g. improving the balance between myocardial energy utilization and supply, limiting injury and adverse remodeling, suppressing inflammation), the adenosine receptor system is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation. Cardiovascular adenosine receptor-based therapies are already in place, and trials of new treatments underway. Although the complex interplay between adenosine receptors and other receptors, and their wide distribution and functions, pose challenges to implementation of site/target specific cardiovascular therapy, the potential of adenosinergic pharmacotherapy can be more fully realized with greater understanding of the roles of adenosine receptors under physiological and pathological conditions. This review addresses some of the major known and proposed actions of adenosine and adenosine receptors in the heart and vessels, focusing on the ability of the adenosine receptor system to regulate cell function, retaliate against injurious stressors, and mediate longer-term adaptive responses.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2010; 1808(5):1413-28. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm2), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P<0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P<0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P<0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P<0.002). To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 11/2010; 34(3):590-600. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of operational lung volumes and mean inspiratory flow on the amplitude of the slow component of O₂uptake (V(O)₂(SC) ) during constant-load cycling performed below and above the respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) in young (24±1yr), healthy individuals (n=10). Subjects demonstrated a significantly greater rise in expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and mean inspiratory flow over the V(O)₂(SC) period during exercise performed above compared with below the RCT (P<0.05). Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) was, on average, smaller for trials performed above relative to below the RCT (P<0.05). The difference in the magnitudes of change in ERV and mean inspiratory flow, but not IRV, were positively correlated with the increase in V(O)₂(SC) amplitude between work rates (R(2)=0.86, P<0.01). These findings suggest that dynamic hyperinflation and mean inspiratory flow (by increasing inspiratory resistive work) contribute to the development of the V(O)₂(SC') , particularly when exercise is performed above the RCT.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 09/2010; 173(2):125-31. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2010; 42:544-545.
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired heart rate variability (HRV)and haemorheology are independently associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between parameters of HRV,and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and deformability, in older women with type 2 diabetes. Twenty women (age 69 ± 2 yr) with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes and twenty controls (age 69 ± 3 yr) participated in the study. Beat-to-beat cardiac (RR) intervals over 5 min were analysed for HRV parameters in the time and frequency domains. Blood was sampled for RBC deformability, as well as RBC aggregation in two suspending mediums: haematocrit adjusted plasma and 3% dextran 70. RBC aggregation was increased and HRV was impaired for those with type 2 diabetes when compared with control. RBC aggregation was negatively related to low frequency power of HRV, and was positively related to high frequency power of HRV, for subjects with type 2 diabetes. RBC deformability was positively related to HRV only for those with type 2 diabetes. Impaired haemorheology is associated with reduced HRV in older women with type 2 diabetes, suggesting changes in the microcirculation may result in impaired modulation of cardiac cycles.
    Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2010; 46(1):57-68. · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Heart Lung and Circulation - HEART LUNG CIRC. 01/2010; 19.
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of respiratory muscle O2 uptake ((.)V(O2RM)) to the development of the slow component of O2 uptake kinetics ((.)V(O2SC)) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of respiratory muscle unloading (via breathing, a He-O2 mixture) on the amplitude of (.)V(O2SC) during exercise performed below (B-RCT) and above the respiratory compensation threshold (A-RCT). We hypothesized that breathing He-O2 would reduce the amplitude of the (.)V(O2SC) by a greater amount during exercise performed A-RCT than B-RCT. Eight healthy male recreational cyclists performed constant load cycling in four sets of conditions: (1) B-RCT breathing normal air; (2) B-RCT breathing He-O2; (3) A-RCT breathing normal air; and (4) A-RCT breathing He-O2. Breathing He-O2 did not significantly attenuate the (.)V(O2SC) during exercise performed B-RCT (-3+/-14%, P >0.05). However, breathing He-O2 significantly reduced the (.)V(O2SC) during exercise A-RCT(-45+/-6%, P <0.05). The attenuated (.)V(O2SC) while breathing He-O2 is likely to reflect a decreased (.)V(O2RM). Minute ventilation was not +/-different between normal air and He-O2 breathing trials either B-RCT or A-RCT. However, operating lung volume was significantly lower when breathing He-O2 during exercise performed A-RCT (-12+/-3%, P <0.05). These findings suggest that (.)V(O2RM) comprises a greater proportion of the (.)V(O2SC) when exercise is performed A-RCT compared with B-RCT. Therefore, the impact of breathing He-O2 was more pronounced during exercise A-RCT. Furthermore, changes in operating lung volume and the work of breathing appear to play an important role in the development of the (.)V(O2SC).
    Experimental physiology 08/2009; 95(1):172-83. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No Yes
    01/2009;

Publication Stats

884 Citations
146.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • University of Utah
      • • Division of Geriatrics
      • • School of Medicine
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Griffith University
      • • Centre for Heart Foundation Research
      • • School of Rehabilitation Sciences
      Southport, Queensland, Australia
  • 1998–2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1997
    • Huntington Medical Research Institutes
      Pasadena, California, United States