[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospha sugar derivatives of 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide and 2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide were synthesized from 2-phospholenes and evaluated by in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide method against leukemia cell lines, and then characterized by cell cycle analysis, Western blot analysis, and molecular docking simulation. Phospha sugar derivatives were revealed to be potential antitumor agents against leukemia cell lines such as U937 and K562. Cell cycle analysis indicated that phospha sugar derivatives induced apoptoses. Western blot analyses against U937 showed that phospha sugar derivatives regulate many mitotic regulators in cell cycle. Results of molecular docking simulation suggested that phospha sugar derivatives enter the pockets present in cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins.
Phosphorus Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements 06/2015; 190(5-6). DOI:10.1080/10426507.2014.993758 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pleural fluid is a frequent manifestation in pulmonary diseases, such as lung cancer and infectious diseases, including pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyses tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway, and is considered a crucial immunoregulatory molecule mediating immune tolerance. Recent studies have shown IDO activity to be a novel prognostic factor not only in cancer patients but also in those with infectious diseases, including pneumonia and pulmonary TB. However, no studies have measured and determined the clinical significance of IDO activity in pleural fluid.
We enrolled 92 patients, including 34 with tuberculous pleurisy (TBP), 36 with malignant pleuritis and 15 with parapneumonic effusions. IDO activity was evaluated using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry, and was estimated by calculating kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio.
Pleural fluid from patients with TBP had significantly higher kynurenine concentrations and significantly lower tryptophan concentrations, resulting in significantly higher IDO activity compared with pleural effusion or serum from non-tuberculous pleuritis (all P < 0.001). Pleural tissue from TBP showed enhanced IDO expression in epithelioid granuloma regions by immunohistochemistry.
These results suggest that IDO is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of TBP.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 11/2013; 17(11):1501-1506. DOI:10.5588/ijtld.13.0082 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of new branched phospha sugars, especially deoxybromophospha sugar derivatives or bromophospholanes of 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (DBMPP: 3) and 2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1- phenylphospholane 1-oxide (TBMPP: 4), against various types of leukemia cell lines as well as the results of the mechanistic studies for characterizing and developing the novel multiple type molecular targeted antitumor agents are reported in this paper. DBMPP and TBMPP were prepared from 1-phenyl-3-methyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide (1). The isomer mixture of phospha sugars prepared were evaluated as novel antitumor agents by MTT in vitro method. DBMPP and TBMPP were characterized by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis and were revealed to be potential antitumor agents against leukemia cell lines of K562 (one type of leukemia cell lines of CML) and U937 (one type of leukemia cell lines of AML) as well as against the various types of leukemia cell lines and also against solid tumor cell lines of stomach, skin, and lung cancers by MTT evaluation and observation by a handstand phase-contrast microscope. The results of the flow cytometry indicated that the mechanism of apoptosis induced by phospha sugar derivatives not only to tumor cells of leukemia cell lines of U937 but also to tumor cells of various kinds of leukemia cell lines selectively to decrease the tumor cell viability of various kinds of leukemia cell lines. The Western blot analyses for phospha sugar DBMPP against U937 leukemia cell lines showed that the phospha sugar affected on the expressions of the factors of cell cycles in the manners of suppressing the expression of the accelerator factors of cell cycles of tumor cells and enhancing the expression of suppressor factors of cell cycles of tumor cells by the medications of phospha sugars. TBMPP enhanced the expression of IER5 and then suppressed the expression of Cdc25B, which is the common factor to accelerate the cell cycles of various kinds of tumor cells. Therefore, suppression of the expression of Cdc25B by TBMPP implies that the branched deoxybromophospha sugar derivatives might be novel and potential multiple type molecular targeted antitumor agents against various kinds of tumor cell lines.
Phosphorus Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements 01/2013; 188(1-3). DOI:10.1080/10426507.2012.744016 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major health problem, and there are few biomarkers for predicting prognosis. Indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a potent immunoregulatory molecule, catalyzes the rate-limiting step of tryptophan (Trp) degradation
in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. An increase in IDO activity determined by the serum Trp/Kyn ratio has been shown to be associated
with poor prognosis in cancers and bacteremia. In TB, however, there are no studies measuring serum IDO activity to determine
its clinical significance. We evaluated serum IDO activity with 174 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients and 85 controls, using liquid
chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. IDO activity was estimated by calculating the serum Kyn-to-Trp
ratio. PTB patients had significantly higher Kyn concentrations and IDO activity and significantly lower Trp concentrations
(P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively) than the controls. Of 174 PTB patients, 39 (22.4%) died. The patients who died had significantly
higher concentrations of Kyn and significantly lower Trp concentrations, resulting in significantly higher IDO activity (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0001, respectively). In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, serum IDO activity had the highest area under
the curve (0.850), and this activity was an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. These results suggest
that serum IDO activity can be used as a novel prognostic marker in PTB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immediately-early response gene 5 (IER5) has been reported to be induced by γ-ray irradiation and to play a role in the induction of cell death caused by radiation. We previously identified IER5 as one of the 2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (TMPP)-induced transcriptional responses in AML cells, using microarrays that encompassed the entire human genome. However, the biochemical pathway and mechanisms of IER5 function in regulation of the cell cycle remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of IER5 in the cell cycle and in cell proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. We found that the over-expression of IER5 in AML cell lines and in AML-derived ALDH(hi) (High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity)/CD34(+) cells inhibited their proliferation compared to control cells, through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and a decrease in Cdc25B expression. Moreover, the over-expression of IER5 reduced colony formation of AML-derived ALDH(hi)/CD34(+) cells due to a decrease in Cdc25B expression. In addition, over-expression of Cdc25B restored TMPP inhibitory effects on colony formation in IER5-suppressed AML-derived ALDH(hi)/CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, the IER5 reduced Cdc25B mRNA expression through direct binding to Cdc25B promoter and mediated its transcriptional attenuation through NF-YB and p300 transcriptinal factors. In summary, we found that transcriptional repression mediated by IER5 regulates Cdc25B expression levels via the release of NF-YB and p300 in AML-derived ALDH(hi)/CD34(+) cells, resulting in inhibition of AML progenitor cell proliferation through modulation of cell cycle. Thus, the induction of IER5 expression represents an attractive target for AML therapy.
PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e28011. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028011 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by a reciprocal chromosomal translocation (9;22) that generates the Bcr-Abl fusion gene. BCR-ABL transforming activity is mediated by critical downstream signaling pathways that are aberrantly activated by tyrosine kinases. However, the mechanisms of BCR-ABL anti-apoptotic effects and the signaling pathways by which BCR-ABL influences apoptosis in BCR-ABL-expressing cells are poorly defined. In this study, we found that treatment with ABL kinase inhibitors or depletion of BCR-ABL induced the expression of RAB45 messenger RNA and protein and induced apoptosis via reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and p38 activation in CML cell lines and BCR-ABL(+) progenitor cells from CML patients. Overexpressed RAB45 induced the activation of caspases-3 and -9 and reduced the expression of Survivin, XIAP, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 in CML cells. Moreover, in colony-forming cells derived from CML-aldehyde dehydrogenase(hi)/CD34(+) cells, treatment with ABL kinase inhibitors induced RAB45 expression and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in inhibited colony formation of Bcr-Abl(+) progenitor cells. The overexpression of RAB45 significantly decreased colony numbers and induced apoptosis through the activation of caspases-3 and -9. Furthermore, the overexpression of RAB45 increased the phosphorylation levels of p38, resulting in the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation of CML progenitor cells. Our results identify a new signaling molecule involved in BCR-ABL modulation of apoptosis and suggest that RAB45 induction strategies may have therapeutic utility in patients with CML.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of tryptophan (Trp) degradation in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. By depleting Trp, IDO plays a critical role in inducing immune suppression and tolerance. The aim of present study was to investigate serum IDO activity, determined by Kyn-to-Trp ratio (Kyn/Trp ratio), in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to examine its clinical significance. METODS: This study subjects consisted of 129 consecutive patients with CAP and 64 healthy controls. The concentrations of Kyn and Trp were measured simultaneously by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
The CAP patients had significantly higher Kyn concentrations and significant lower Trp concentrations than the controls (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Accordingly, IDO activity was significantly higher (2.4-fold) in the patients than in the controls (p < 0.0001). IDO activity correlated well with PSI (Pneumonia Severity Index) and CURB65 (p = 0.0005 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, the IDO activity and Kyn concentration were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors and were found to predict mortality in multivariate analysis.
IDO activity was increased in CAP, and this activity was associated with the severity and outcome of this disease. These results suggest that IDO activity can predict prognosis of CAP.
The Journal of infection 07/2011; 63(3):215-22. DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2011.07.003 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel Sugar Dendritic Gd(III)-DTPA complexes for MRI Contrast Agents (CAs) were prepared and evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods. The sugar dendritic MRI contrast agents had a good blood vessel pool character and drew blood vessels and liver cancers remarkably clearer and longer time enough than the clinically being used Gd(III)-DTPA complex (Magnevist). Phospha sugar derivatives or phosphorus heterocyclic derivatives provided by functional groups such as epoxide, bromide, etc., were prepared and evaluated by the MTT in vitro method. These phospha sugar derivatives showed excellent anti-proliferative effects of leukemia cell lines, e.g., K562 and U937, as well as solid cancer cells in fashions of (i) higher activity, (ii) wider spectra, and (iii) higher selectivity and specificity than Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), which is one of the most frequently used chemotherapeutical molecular targeting anti-tumour agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospha sugars were prepared by a novel synthetic route starting from phosphorus heterocyclic compounds, 2-phospholenes. The anhydro- and deoxy-phospha sugar derivatives have been revealed to have potential anticancer activities against human leukemia of K562 and U937 cell lines. In this article, deoxybromophospha sugars with different numbers of bromo substituents were prepared, and their anticancer activities were evaluated by MTT method. The order of the activities depending on the number of bromo substituent was first revealed, and trideoxytribromotetrofuranose type phospha sugar [2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (4: TBMPPAO)] was the most active among these phospha sugars prepared. Diasteromers of dideoxydibromotetrofuranose-type phospha sugar [2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (2: DBMPPAO)] were separated into four components, and the structure as well as the character of each component was assigned by spectral and chromatographic data as well as by MTT method.The deoxybromophospha sugars have higher antileukemia activity than Gleevec against U937 cells.
Phosphorus Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements 04/2011; Sulfur(4-and Silicon and the Related Elements):936-944. DOI:10.1080/10426507.2010.530326 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Starting materials of phosphasugars, 1-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxides, were prepared from dienes and phenylphosphonous dichloride (dichlorophenylphosphine). Several substituted novel phosphasugars (3- or 4-halo-substituted)-1-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxides as well as 1-phenyl-2-phospholane 1-oxides were prepared from 2-phospholenes. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activities against the leukemia cell lines (U937 and K562) by in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 2,3,4-Tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide showed superior antitumor activity against U937 and K562 cell lines in a comparative evaluation with Glivec. The analysis by flow cytometry implied that 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide induced apoptosis to leukemia cell lines.
Pure and Applied Chemistry 01/2011; 84(1). DOI:10.1351/PAC-CON-11-10-09 · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of new phospha sugar analogues or phosphorus heterocycles and their biological activities as novel anticancer agents are reported in this article. A 1,2-dibromo-1,2-dideoxy phospha sugar derivative, 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (2), was prepared from 1-phenyl-3-methyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide (1), and the yield and ratio of diastereomers 2a to 2d were changed by a catalyst such as manganese(IV) oxide and manganese(II) bromide. The antitumor activities of the mixture of dibromides 2 and the separated diastereomeric components 2a to 2d of the dibromides were evaluated by MTT in vitro method against the human leukemia cell lines of K562 and U937. The results showed that all of the diastereomers 2a to 2d as well as the diastereomer mixture exert excellent anticancer activity, and moreover, among them, diastereomer 2d showed the highest antitumor activity.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements to view the free supplemental file.
Phosphorus Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements 11/2010; 185(11):2286-2291. DOI:10.1080/10426501003598622 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 4-Bromo-3,4-dimethyl-1-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide (3c) was first synthesized from 3,4-dimethyl-1-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide (2c) by a bromo-radical substitution reaction occurred at C-4 position by N-bromosuccinimide and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile. The novel phospha sugar analogue 3c exerted high anti-proliferative effect on U937 cells evaluated by MTT in vitro methods and was much more efficient than that of Gleevec, which is known as a molecule targeting chemotherapeutical agent. The substitution of 2-phospholenes at C-3 and C-4 position with methyl groups as well as 4-bromo substituent suggests a good anti-proliferative effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) is mainly catabolized by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which leads to the formation of kynurenine (Kyn). In this study, we reexamined whether an increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, as estimated by the Kyn/Trp ratio (μM/mM), is associated with atherosclerotic parameters in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Serum Trp and Kyn were measured in 243 HD patients by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. We measured carotid artery intima-medial thickness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial pressure index, and the cardio-ankle vascular index. Log-transformed Kyn/Trp ratio was significantly correlated with log-transformed time on HD (ρ=0.28, P<0.01), log-transformed highly sensitive C-reactive protein (ρ=0.20, P<0.01), and peripheral total lymphocyte count (ρ=-0.13, P<0.05). A significant association was found between log-transformed Kyn/Trp ratio and mean carotid artery intima-medial thickness (ρ=0.18, P<0.01). Mean carotid artery intima-medial thickness was significantly higher in the lowest quartile of Kyn/Trp ratio (<165) (0.62±0.12 mm) when compared with the highest quartile (≥304) (0.68±0.15 mm) (P<0.01). Ankle-brachial pressure index was lower in the second quartile (1.01±0.20), the third quartile (1.01±0.19), and the fourth quartile (1.03±0.15) compared with that in the first quartile (1.09±0.13) (P<0.05). It follows from these findings that the Kyn/Trp ratio increases with time on HD, and is associated with advanced atherosclerotic changes in chronic HD patients.
Hemodialysis International 10/2010; 14(4):418-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1542-4758.2010.00464.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have synthesized three deoxybromophospha sugar analogues, 4-bromo-3-methyl-l-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide (MBMPP (2)), 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-l-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (DBMPP (3)), and 2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (TBMPP (4)), by the reaction of 3-methyl-l-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide (lb) and/or 2 with bromine, and investigated their potentials as anti-leukemic agents against human leukemia cell lines of K562 and U937. Cells' growth inhibition was determined by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) in vitro assay. All agents showed inhibitory effects on leukemia cell proliferation, indicating that inhibition appeared to be dependent on number of bromine substituent in the heterocyclic structure. Further, the phospha sugar derivatives did not show any inhibitory effects on normal cell proliferation. These agents may facilitate the development of new strategies in molecular targeting anti-leukemic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new type of dendritic molecules, Gd–DTPA derivatives, which work as a functionalized ligand coordinating gadolinium(III) ion at the center of their frameworks with different terminal moieties on the molecular surfaces, was readily synthesized with high yield. The structures were established by 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectral studies. In vitro studies showed them to have enhanced r1 value in albumin medium and good potentiality as MRI contrast agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive and high resolution imaging technique and becomes a powerful diagnostic tool in the clinic. With the applications of MRI becoming more and more dependent on contrast agents, it is particularly important to develop efficient contrast agents. This article describes how to design an efficient dendritic Gd-DTPA complex for MRI contrast agents.
Current Medical Imaging Reviews 02/2010; 6(1):42-45. DOI:10.2174/157340510790693965 · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new type of dendritic molecules Gd-DTPA-XDA-D1-Glc(OH), which work as a functionalized ligand coordinating gadolinium(III) ion at the center of their frameworks with two glucose moieties on the molecular surfaces, were readily synthesized with high yield. The structures were established by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, and mass spectral studies. Its bio-distribution patterns were evaluated on rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel phospha sugar analogue, 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (DBMPP), was prepared from 1-phenyl-3-methyl-2- phospholene 1-oxide and evaluated by in vitro MTT method forleukemia cells and microscopic observations forsolid tumor cells, e.g., stomach cancer cells. The evaluation revealed clearly that the synthesized phospha sugar analogue DBMPP has competent potentials and excellent anti-cancer activities that killed selectively and specifically the leukemia cells of cell lines of K562 and U937 but did not give any damages on healthy leukocyte. Moreover it was revealed that DBMPP killed solid cancer cells such as stomach cancer cells and melanoma of cell lines of MKN45 and G361. Therefore, DBMPP should exert anti-proliferative effects for different kinds of tumor cells based on the in vitro evaluations. The cell cycle analyses by flow cytometry for K562 and U937 cells clearly demonstrated that the mechanism of the anti-proliferative effect on the human tumor cells is apoptosis induced by DBMPP.
Journal of Environmental Biology 11/2009; 30(6):945-50. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we synthesized two phospha sugar derivatives, 2,3,4-tribromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (TMPP) and 2,3-dibromo-3-methyl-1-phenylphospholane 1-oxide (DMPP) by reacting 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-phospholene 1-oxide with bromine, and investigated their potential as antileukemic agents in cell lines. Both agents showed inhibitory effects on leukemia cell proliferation, with mean IC(50) values of 6.25 micromol/L for TMPP and 23.7 micromol/L for DMPP, indicating that inhibition appeared to be dependent on the number of bromine atoms in the structure. Further, TMPP at 10 micromol/L and DMPP at 20 micromol/L induced G2/M cell cycle block in leukemia cells, and TMPP at 20 micromol/L induced apoptosis in these cells. TMPP treatment effected a reduction in both cell cycle progression signals (FoxM1, KIS, Cdc25B, Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, and Aurora-B) and tumor cell survival (p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1)), as well as induced the activation of caspase-3 and -9. Further, treatment with TMPP significantly reduced the viability of AML specimens derived from AML patients, but only slightly reduced the viability of normal ALDH(hi) progenitor cells. We also observed that FoxM1 mRNA was overexpressed in AML cells, and treatment with TMPP reduced FoxM1 mRNA expression in AML cells. Here, we report on the synthesis of TMPP and DMPP and demonstrate that these agents hinder proliferation of leukemia cells by FoxM1 suppression, which leads to G2/M cell cycle block and subsequent caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in acute leukemia cells. These agents may facilitate the development of new strategies in targeted antileukemic therapy.
Investigational New Drugs 06/2009; 28(4):381-91. DOI:10.1007/s10637-009-9255-3 · 2.92 Impact Factor