[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an often severe, potentially life-threatening childhood inflammatory disease, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. To determine whether genetic variation within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 influences sJIA susceptibility, we performed an association study of 982 children with sJIA and 8,010 healthy control subjects from nine countries. Using meta-analysis of directly observed and imputed SNP genotypes and imputed classic HLA types, we identified the MHC locus as a bona fide susceptibility locus with effects on sJIA risk that transcended geographically defined strata. The strongest sJIA-associated SNP, rs151043342 [P = 2.8 × 10(-17), odds ratio (OR) 2.6 (2.1, 3.3)], was part of a cluster of 482 sJIA-associated SNPs that spanned a 400-kb region and included the class II HLA region. Conditional analysis controlling for the effect of rs151043342 found that rs12722051 independently influenced sJIA risk [P = 1.0 × 10(-5), OR 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)]. Meta-analysis of imputed classic HLA-type associations in six study populations of Western European ancestry revealed that HLA-DRB1*11 and its defining amino acid residue, glutamate 58, were strongly associated with sJIA [P = 2.7 × 10(-16), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.8)], as was the HLA-DRB1*11-HLA-DQA1*05-HLA-DQB1*03 haplotype [6.4 × 10(-17), OR 2.3 (1.9, 2.9)]. By examining the MHC locus in the largest collection of sJIA patients assembled to date, this study solidifies the relationship between the class II HLA region and sJIA, implicating adaptive immune molecules in the pathogenesis of sJIA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2015; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1520779112 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exerts many anti-atherogenic properties including its role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) plays a key role in RCT by selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters. We aimed to explore the genetic contribution of SCARB1 to affecting lipid levels in African Blacks from Nigeria.
We resequenced 13 exons and exon-intron boundaries of SCARB1 in 95 individuals with extreme HDL-C levels using Sanger method. Then, we genotyped 147 selected variants (78 sequence variants, 69 HapMap tagSNPs, and 2 previously reported relevant variants) in the entire sample of 788 African Blacks using either the iPLEX Gold or TaqMan methods. A total of 137 successfully genotyped variants were further evaluated for association with major lipid traits.
The initial gene-based analysis demonstrated evidence of association with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). The follow-up single-site analysis revealed nominal evidence of novel associations of nine common variants with HDL-C and/or ApoA-I (P < 0.05). The strongest association was between rs11057851 and HDL-C (P = 0.0043), which remained significant after controlling for multiple testing using false discovery rate. Rare variant association testing revealed a group of 23 rare variants (frequencies ≤1 %) associated with HDL-C (P = 0.0478). Haplotype analysis identified four SCARB1 regions associated with HDL-C (global P < 0.05).
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comprehensive association study of SCARB1 variations with lipid traits in an African Black population. Our results showed the consistent association of SCARB1 variants with HDL-C across various association analyses, supporting the role of SCARB1 in lipoprotein-lipid regulatory mechanism.
BMC Medical Genetics 11/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12881-015-0250-6 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
The burden of Type 2 diabetes is alarmingly high in South Asia, a region that has many genetically diverse ethnic populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted largely in European populations have identified a number of loci predisposing to Type 2 diabetes risk, however, the relevance of such genetic loci in many South Asian sub-ethnicities remains elusive. The aim of this study was to replicate 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified through GWAS in Punjabis living in Pakistan.
We examined the association of 49 SNPs in 853 Type 2 diabetes cases and 1945 controls using additive logistic regression models after adjusting for age and gender.
Of the 49 SNPs investigated, eight showed a nominal association (P < 0.05) that also remained significant after controlling for the false discovery rate. The most significant association was found for rs7903146 at the TCF7L2 locus. For a per unit increase in the risk score comprising of all the 49 SNPs, the odds ratio in association with Type 2 diabetes risk was 1.16 (95% CI 1.13-1.19, P < 2.0E-16).
These results suggest that some Type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci are shared between Europeans and Punjabis living in Pakistan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Diabetic Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1111/dme.13012 · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance:
Mutations in known causal Alzheimer disease (AD) genes account for only 1% to 3% of patients and almost all are dominantly inherited. Recessive inheritance of complex phenotypes can be linked to long (>1-megabase [Mb]) runs of homozygosity (ROHs) detectable by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays.
To evaluate the association between ROHs and AD in an African American population known to have a risk for AD up to 3 times higher than white individuals.
Design, setting, and participants:
Case-control study of a large African American data set previously genotyped on different genome-wide SNP arrays conducted from December 2013 to January 2015. Global and locus-based ROH measurements were analyzed using raw or imputed genotype data. We studied the raw genotypes from 2 case-control subsets grouped based on SNP array: Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium data set (871 cases and 1620 control individuals) and Chicago Health and Aging Project-Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set (279 cases and 1367 control individuals). We then examined the entire data set using imputed genotypes from 1917 cases and 3858 control individuals.
Main outcomes and measures:
The ROHs larger than 1 Mb, 2 Mb, or 3 Mb were investigated separately for global burden evaluation, consensus regions, and gene-based analyses.
The African American cohort had a low degree of inbreeding (F ~ 0.006). In the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium data set, we detected a significantly higher proportion of cases with ROHs greater than 2 Mb (P = .004) or greater than 3 Mb (P = .02), as well as a significant 114-kilobase consensus region on chr4q31.3 (empirical P value 2 = .04; ROHs >2 Mb). In the Chicago Health and Aging Project-Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set, we identified a significant 202-kilobase consensus region on Chr15q24.1 (empirical P value 2 = .02; ROHs >1 Mb) and a cluster of 13 significant genes on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .03; ROHs >3 Mb). A total of 43 of 49 nominally significant genes common for both data sets also mapped to Chr3p21.31. Analyses of imputed SNP data from the entire data set confirmed the association of AD with global ROH measurements (12.38 ROHs >1 Mb in cases vs 12.11 in controls; 2.986 Mb average size of ROHs >2 Mb in cases vs 2.889 Mb in controls; and 22% of cases with ROHs >3 Mb vs 19% of controls) and a gene-cluster on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .006-.04; ROHs >3 Mb). Also, we detected a significant association between AD and CLDN17 (empirical P value 2 = .01; ROHs >1 Mb), encoding a protein from the Claudin family, members of which were previously suggested as AD biomarkers.
Conclusions and relevance:
To our knowledge, we discovered the first evidence of increased burden of ROHs among patients with AD from an outbred African American population, which could reflect either the cumulative effect of multiple ROHs to AD or the contribution of specific loci harboring recessive mutations and risk haplotypes in a subset of patients. Sequencing is required to uncover AD variants in these individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychotic symptoms are frequent in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients. Although the risk for psychosis in LOAD is genetically mediated, no genes have been identified. To identify loci potentially containing genetic variants associated with risk of psychosis in LOAD, a total of 263 families from the National Institute of Aging-LOAD cohort were classified into psychotic (LOAD+P, n = 215) and nonpsychotic (LOAD-P, n = 48) families based on the presence/absence of psychosis during the course of LOAD. The LOAD+P families yielded strong evidence of linkage on chromosome 19q13 (two-point [2-pt] logarithm of odds [LOD] = 3.8, rs2285513 and multipoint LOD = 2.7, rs541169). Joint linkage and association in 19q13 region detected strong association with rs2945988 (p = 8.7 × 10(-7)). Linkage results for the LOAD-P families yielded nonsignificant 19q13 LOD scores. Several 19q13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms generalized the association of LOAD+P in a Caribbean Hispanic (CH) cohort, and the strongest signal was rs10410711 (pmeta = 5.1 × 10(-5)). A variant located 24 kb upstream of rs10410711 and rs10421862 was strongly associated with LOAD+P (pmeta = 1.0 × 10(-5)) in a meta-analysis of the CH cohort and an additional non-Hispanic Caucasian dataset. Identified variants rs2945988 and rs10421862 affect brain gene expression levels. Our results suggest that genetic variants in genes on 19q13, some of which are involved in brain development and neurodegeneration, may influence the susceptibility to psychosis in LOAD patients.
Neurobiology of aging 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.08.006 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are collections of blood breakdown products that are a common incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging of elderly individuals. Cerebral microbleeds are associated with cognitive deficits, but the mechanism is unclear. Studies show that individuals with CMBs related to symptomatic cerebral amyloid angiopathy have abnormal vascular reactivity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), but, to our knowledge, abnormalities in cerebral blood flow have not been reported for healthy individuals with incidental CMBs.
To evaluate the association of incidental CMBs with resting-state CBF, cerebral metabolism, cerebrovascular disease, β-amyloid (Aβ), and cognition.
A cross-sectional study of 55 cognitively normal individuals with a mean (SD) age of 86.8 (2.7) years was conducted from May 1, 2010, to May 1, 2013, in an academic medical center in Pittsburgh; data analysis was performed between June 10, 2013, and April 9, 2015.
3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was performed with susceptibility-weighted imaging or gradient-recalled echo to assess CMBs, arterial spin labeling for CBF, and T1- and T2-weighted imaging for atrophy, white matter hyperintensities, and infarcts. Positron emission tomography was conducted with fluorodeoxyglucose to measure cerebral metabolism and Pittsburgh compound B for fibrillar Aβ. Neuropsychological evaluation, including the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, was performed.
Magnetic resonance images were rated for the presence and location of CMBs. Lobar CMBs were subclassified as cortical or subcortical. Measurements of CBF, metabolism, and Aβ were compared with the presence and number of CMBs with voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses.
The presence of cortical CMBs was associated with significantly reduced CBF in multiple regions on voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses (percentage difference in global CBF, -25.3%; P = .0003), with the largest reductions in the parietal cortex (-37.6%; P < .0001) and precuneus (-31.8%; P = .0006). Participants with any CMBs showed a nonsignificant trend toward reduced CBF. Participants with cortical CMBs had a significant association with greater prevalence of infarcts (24% vs 6%; P = .047) and demonstrated a trend to greater prevalence of deficits demonstrated on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (45% vs 19%; P = .12). There was no difference in cortical amyloid (measured by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography) between participants with and without CMBs (P = .60).
In cognitively normal elderly individuals, incidental CMBs in cortical locations are associated with widespread reductions in resting-state CBF. Chronic hypoperfusion may put these people at risk for neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. Our results suggest that resting-state CBF is a marker of CMB-related small-vessel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 40-60% of patients with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) develop psychosis, which represents a distinct phenotype of more severe cognitive and functional deficits. The estimated heritability of AD+P is ~61%, which makes it a good target for genetic mapping. We performed a genome-wide copy-number variation (CNV) study on 496 AD cases with psychosis (AD+P), 639 AD subjects with intermediate psychosis (AD intermediate P) and 156 AD subjects without psychosis (AD−P) who were recruited at the University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer's Disease Research Center using over 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and CNV markers. CNV load analysis found no significant difference in total and average CNV length and CNV number in the AD+P or AD intermediate P groups compared with the AD−P group. Our analysis revealed a marginally significant lower number of duplication events in AD+P cases compared with AD−P controls (P=0.059) using multivariable regression model. The most interesting finding was the presence of a genome-wide significant duplication in the APC2 gene on chromosome 19, which was protective against developing AD+P (odds ratio=0.42; P=7.2E−10). We also observed suggestive associations of duplications with AD+P in the SET (P=1.95E−06), JAG2 (P=5.01E−07) and ZFPM1 (P=2.13E−07) genes and marginal association of a deletion in CNTLN (P=8.87E−04). We have identified potential novel loci for psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease that warrant follow-up in large-scale independent studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are two autoimmune disorders that have been reported to co-occur in the same subjects or in different subjects from the same family. This suggests the sharing of disease susceptibility loci between RA and T1D. This study was aimed to find out such susceptibility loci that are common in both T1D and RA in Pakistani population. A total of 366 Pakistanis comprising related and unrelated RA cases and controls were recruited. Blood samples were collected from all patients followed by DNA isolation. Thirty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be associated with T1D were genotyped in RA cases and controls using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Data was analyzed using FamCC software. We have identified seven SNP associations that survived multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate: SKAP2/rs7804356 (p = 2.47E-04), GLIS3/rs7020673 (p = 2.86E-04), GSDMB/rs2290400 (p = 23.48E-04), BACH2/rs11755527 (p = 9.16E-04), C6orf173/ rs9388489 (p = 3.11E-03), PRKCQ/DKFZp667F0711/ rs947474 (p = 4.53E-03), and DLK1/ rs941576 (p = 9.51E-03). Our results support the presence of overlapping loci between RA and T1D in Pakistani patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in lipid regulatory genes, particularly APOE, significantly influences the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to assess the association between APOE polymorphism and angiographically assessed coronary stenosis in Pakistani population. A total of 695 subjects (22.3% female, mean age = 54 ± 11 years) presenting with chest pain were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. CAD stenosis/extent was assessed by angiography. Patients were classified as having severe stenosis (≥70%), moderate stenosis (30-69%), and mild stenosis (<30%). CAD patients with ≥70% stenosis (n = 491) were further categorized based on possessing one, two, or three vessel diseases to assess the disease extent. Genomic DNA from leukocytes was isolated with DNA purification kit (Qiagen) and APOE polymorphisms (E2/E3/E4) were determined using TaqMan assays. Six hundred and seventy-two of 695 subjects were successfully genotyped. The frequency of APOE∗4 carriers (3/4 and 4/4 genotypes) was significantly higher in severe stenosis group (≥70%) as compared to mild group (<30%) (22.8% versus 13.01%; P = 0.01). In multiple regression, the odds ratio for APOE∗4 carriers to develop ≥70% stenosis was 2.16 (95% CI: 1.29-3.79; P < 0.005). In conclusion, the presence of APOE∗4 allele is a significant risk factor to develop severe coronary stenosis (>70%) among Pakistanis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: APOE ɛ4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ɛ4+ (10 352 cases and 9207 controls) and APOE ɛ4- (7184 cases and 26 968 controls) subgroups as well as in the total sample testing for interaction between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and APOE ɛ4 status. Suggestive associations (P<1 × 10(-4)) in stage 1 were evaluated in an independent sample (stage 2) containing 4203 subjects (APOE ɛ4+: 1250 cases and 536 controls; APOE ɛ4-: 718 cases and 1699 controls). Among APOE ɛ4- subjects, novel genome-wide significant (GWS) association was observed with 17 SNPs (all between KANSL1 and LRRC37A on chromosome 17 near MAPT) in a meta-analysis of the stage 1 and stage 2 data sets (best SNP, rs2732703, P=5·8 × 10(-9)). Conditional analysis revealed that rs2732703 accounted for association signals in the entire 100-kilobase region that includes MAPT. Except for previously identified AD loci showing stronger association in APOE ɛ4+ subjects (CR1 and CLU) or APOE ɛ4- subjects (MS4A6A/MS4A4A/MS4A6E), no other SNPs were significantly associated with AD in a specific APOE genotype subgroup. In addition, the finding in the stage 1 sample that AD risk is significantly influenced by the interaction of APOE with rs1595014 in TMEM106B (P=1·6 × 10(-7)) is noteworthy, because TMEM106B variants have previously been associated with risk of frontotemporal dementia. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed that rs113986870, one of the GWS SNPs near rs2732703, is significantly associated with four KANSL1 probes that target transcription of the first translated exon and an untranslated exon in hippocampus (P⩽1.3 × 10(-8)), frontal cortex (P⩽1.3 × 10(-9)) and temporal cortex (P⩽1.2 × 10(-11)). Rs113986870 is also strongly associated with a MAPT probe that targets transcription of alternatively spliced exon 3 in frontal cortex (P=9.2 × 10(-6)) and temporal cortex (P=2.6 × 10(-6)). Our APOE-stratified GWAS is the first to show GWS association for AD with SNPs in the chromosome 17q21.31 region. Replication of this finding in independent samples is needed to verify that SNPs in this region have significantly stronger effects on AD risk in persons lacking APOE ɛ4 compared with persons carrying this allele, and if this is found to hold, further examination of this region and studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism(s) are warranted.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 17 March 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a strong genetic basis for late-onset of Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), and thus far >20 genes/loci have been identified that affect the risk of LOAD. In addition to disease risk, genetic variation at these loci may also affect components of the natural history of AD, such as survival in AD. In this study, we first examined the role of known LOAD genes with survival time in 983 AD patients. We then performed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene-based association analyses to identify novel loci that may influence survival of AD. Survival analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression under an additive genetics model. We found multiple nominally significant associations (p < 0.01) either within or adjacent to known LOAD genes. Genome-wide SNP analysis identified multiple suggestive novel loci and two of them were also significant in gene-based analysis (CCDC85C and NARS2) that survived after controlling for false-discovery rate at 0.05. In summary, we have identified two novel genes for survival in AD that need to be replicated in independent samples. Our findings highlight the importance of focusing on AD-related phenotypes that may help to identify additional genes relevant to AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with plasma lipid levels but those common variants together account only for a small proportion of the genetic variance of lipid traits. It has been hypothesized that the remaining heritability may partly be explained by rare variants with strong effect sizes. Here, we have comprehensively investigated the associations of both common and uncommon/rare variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in relation to plasma lipoprotein–lipid levels in African Blacks (ABs). For variant discovery purposes, the entire LPL gene and flanking regions were resequenced in 95 ABs with extreme high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. A total of 308 variants were identified, of which 64 were novel. Selected common tagSNPs and uncommon/rare variants were genotyped in the entire sample (n=788), and 126 QC-passed variants were evaluated for their associations with lipoprotein–lipid levels by using single-site, haplotype and rare variant (SKAT-O) association analyses. We found eight not highly correlated (r2<0.40) signals (rs1801177:G>A, rs8176337:G>C, rs74304285:G>A, rs252:delA, rs316:C>A, rs329:A>G, rs12679834:T>C, and rs4921684:C>T) nominally (P<0.05) associated with lipid traits (HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 or ApoB levels) in our sample. The most significant SNP, rs252:delA, represented a novel association observed with LDL-C (P=0.002) and ApoB (P=0.012). For TG and LDL-C, the haplotype analysis was more informative than the single-site analysis. The SKAT-O analysis revealed that the bin (group) containing 22 rare variants with MAF≤0.01 exhibited nominal association with TG (P=0.039) and LDL-C (P=0.027). Our study indicates that both common and uncommon/rare LPL variants/haplotypes may affect plasma lipoprotein–lipid levels in general African population.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2015; 23(9). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2014.268 · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
To identify risk alleles contributing towards Type 1 Diabetes in Pakistani patients.
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease which is caused by destruction of insulin producing β cells by immune system. Genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors contribute to its etiology. To date more than 40 risk loci have been identified for T1D.
A total of 191 family-based and unrelated T1D cases and controls were recruited. DNA was extracted and 32 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported in Europeans were genotyped. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays and the data was analyzed using FamCC software.
Our results showed significant association of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with T1D at p < 0.01, including HLA-DQA1/rs9272346, ERBB3/rs2292239, SIRPG/rs2281808, IL2-KIAA1109/rs4505848, GLIS3/rs7020673, CD226/rs763361, PTPN2/rs478582, IKZF1/rs10272724, BACH2/rs11755527, C6orf173/rs9388489, whereas 5 more SNPs showed their association at 0.01 < p < 0.05 in Pakistani population.
We have replicated many of the T1D loci established among Europeans in a Pakistani population
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2015.01.022 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is rapidly increasing in Pakistan. Various micro- and macro-vascular complications are associated with disease progression which increases the economic burden not only on patients but also on country. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of micro- and macro-vascular complications among T2DM patients in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 692 T2DM patients during July 2011 to December 2012. The participants recruited in this study were clinically diagnosed by certified diabetologist and endocrinologists in the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) and Kahuta Research Laboratory (KRL) hospital of Islamabad. Demographic and clinical data was collected under supervision of a diabetologist and endocrinologist using a specially designed questionnaire. Clinical variables were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and Graphpad prism 5 version 5.01. Of the 678 T2DM patients, 432 (63.62 %) were females with mean age of 51.81 ± 11.43. Out of total patients, 0.56 % were diagnosed with retinopathy, 0.84 % with nephropathy, 0.28 % with neuropathy, 28.17 % with ischemic heart diseases, 8.45 % with stroke, and 5.35 % with peripheral vascular disease. Overall, 55.77 % of T2DM patients were hypertensive and 0.56 % experienced impotence. Significant association of hypertension (P = 0.0072), ischemic heart disease (IHD; P = 0.0001), and peripheral vascular disease (PVD; P = 0.014) was observed at gender level in the study subjects. This study indicates high prevalence of macro-vascular complications along with high triglyceride level and hypertension among T2DM patients. A study with larger sample set is suggested to explore the relation of genetic and environmental factors on disease progression and sub-population variations.
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13410-015-0380-6 · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, a rare variant in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) was described in a population from Iceland. This variant, in which alanine is replaced by threonine at position 673 (A673T), appears to protect against late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency of this variant in AD cases and cognitively normal controls to determine whether this variant will significantly contribute to risk assessment in individuals in the United States.
To determine the frequency of the APP A673T variant in a large group of elderly cognitively normal controls and AD cases from the United States and in 2 case-control cohorts from Sweden.
Case-control association analysis of variant APP A673T in US and Swedish white individuals comparing AD cases with cognitively intact elderly controls. Participants were ascertained at multiple university-associated medical centers and clinics across the United States and Sweden by study-specific sampling methods. They were from case-control studies, community-based prospective cohort studies, and studies that ascertained multiplex families from multiple sources.
Genotypes for the APP A673T variant were determined using the Infinium HumanExome V1 Beadchip (Illumina, Inc) and by TaqMan genotyping (Life Technologies).
The A673T variant genotypes were evaluated in 8943 US AD cases, 10 480 US cognitively normal controls, 862 Swedish AD cases, and 707 Swedish cognitively normal controls. We identified 3 US individuals heterozygous for A673T, including 1 AD case (age at onset, 89 years) and 2 controls (age at last examination, 82 and 77 years). The remaining US samples were homozygous for the alanine (A673) allele. In the Swedish samples, 3 controls were heterozygous for A673T and all AD cases were homozygous for the A673 allele. We also genotyped a US family previously reported to harbor the A673T variant and found a mother-daughter pair, both cognitively normal at ages 72 and 84 years, respectively, who were both heterozygous for A673T; however, all individuals with AD in the family were homozygous for A673.
The A673T variant is extremely rare in US cohorts and does not play a substantial role in risk for AD in this population. This variant may be primarily restricted to Icelandic and Scandinavian populations.