[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether an intervention program designed to reduce stroke incidence would have long-term residual effects on reducing all-cause and cause-specific mortalities, including cancer 10 years after the intervention was completed.
This is a posttrial analysis. We prospectively observed the mortality of a community-based trial of primary prevention of stroke in China performed between July 1987 and June 1990 by extending the follow-up to 30 June 2000. At the baseline, 26,607 adults aged 35 years or above and free from stroke were recruited from five cites of mainland China; 13,212 and 13,395 were assigned into intervention and control group, respectively. Participants in intervention group received a regularly integrated intervention including lifestyle intervention and hypertensive drug treatment. The controls did not receive intervention provided by the investigators.
During the 10-year posttrial follow-up period, we observed a significant reduction on overall deaths [hazard ratio 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83, 0.99] and stroke mortality (hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.63, 1.00). An insignificant late trial beneficial effect was observed for hypertensive disease (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI 0.30, 1.58), ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio 0.87; 95% CI 0.64, 1.17), other nonmalignant diseases, and most cancer sites.
This study demonstrates that a 3-year integrated intervention program successful for stroke prevention had long-term residual beneficial effects on reducing overall disease burdens among urban Chinese population, especially for the deaths from stroke. However, whether the integrated intervention also leads to reduced mortality of cardiovascular diseases and cancer would have to be confirmed by future larger studies.
Journal of Hypertension 09/2011; 29(11):2220-5. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify possible sources of stigma of epilepsy in key informant groups, "mini-ethnographic" studies were conducted in rural and urban locations in China. Data collected from 45 semistructured interviews and 8 focus group discussions (6 persons each) were analyzed to investigate the world experienced by people with epilepsy. Underpinned by a social constructionist approach to data analysis, emerging themes were identified with the use of computer-assisted data analysis (NVivo 8). A hierarchical model was then constructed, to include practical level issues (attitudes toward risk, attitudes toward costs of epilepsy) and cultural level issues (contrast between rurality and tradition and urbanization and modernity in the Chinese context). The analysis enriches current research on factors and sources of stigma of epilepsy and highlights issues for future practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore associations between levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in populations.
Baseline investigations on stroke-related risk factors and physical examinations were performed in 10 093 (> 35 years) stroke-free urban community residents from 5 cities in China during May to July in 1987, follow-up investigations on stroke events were made during 1998 to 2000. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in middle, high tertiles of baseline TC or TG levels were compared with low baseline tertile residents using the Cox regression model.
There were 491 first strokes during the 8-years cohort follow-up. Compared with the low tertile, risk of ischemic stroke in the middle and high tertiles of TC level was increased by 61% (HR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.14-2.27) and 58% (HR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.12-2.22) after adjustments for DBP, age, sex and other variables in the Cox proportional hazards model. Compared with the low tertile, risk of ischemic stroke in the high tertile of TG level was increased by 43% (HR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.02-2.00). However, risk of hemorrhagic stroke in the middle and high tertiles of TC level decreased by 12% (HR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.64-1.22) and 33% (HR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.48-0.95) compared with the low tertile.
Elevated serum TC and TG are independent risk factors for risk of ischemic stroke. However, low TC was related with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke.
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] 03/2010; 38(3):268-71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of minimally invasive craniopuncture therapy compared with conservative treatment in treating intracerebral hemorrhage (25-40 ml) in the basal ganglion.
A multicenter, randomized control clinical trial comprised 465 cases of hemorrhage in the basal ganglion from 42 hospitals in China. Three hundred and seventy-seven patients with hemorrhage were randomly assigned to receive minimally invasive craniopuncture therapy (n=195) or conservative control treatment (n=182). The main indices of evaluation were the degree of neurological impairment at the 14th day after treatment, activities of daily living at the end of the 3rd month and the case fatality within 3 months.
Improvement of neurological function in the minimally invasive craniopuncture group was significantly better than that in the control group at the 14th day (chi(2)=7.93, P=0.02). At the end of the 3rd month, there was a significant difference between the two groups in activities of daily living score (chi(2)=23.13, P<0.001). The proportion of dependent survival patients (modified Rankin scale >2) in the craniopuncture group (40.9%) was significantly lower than that in the conservative group (63.0%) at the end of the 3rd month (chi(2)=16.95, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the cumulative fatality rates within three months between the two groups [6.7% (13/195) in the craniopuncture group and 8.8% (16/182) in the conservative group].
This minimally invasive craniopuncture technique can improve the independent survival of patients with small basal ganglion hemorrhage. It is a safe and practical technique in treating cerebral hemorrhage.
International Journal of Stroke 03/2009; 4(1):11-6. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe whether the community-based management for patients with hypertension can reduce the incidence of stroke.
Sample of this study included 36 863 people aged 35 years or more who came from a cohort consisting three communities from Tiantan Hospital, Puren Hospital and the Gymnasium Road Hospital in Beijing, based on the surveys on the Integrated Community Intervention Measures of Cerebro-vascular Diseases. Some patients with hypertension in this cohort were followed up and under management. First-ever stroke was considered as the end-point event.
In both groups diagnosed as borderline hypertension or definite hypertension group, the rates of management and control showed an annual increase. The management rate for women was higher, but the control rate was lower (P < 0.05) than that for men. In the third year of this study, the control rate was nearly 18%. With the qualification of control rate, the risk factors of overall stroke, ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke reduced gradually, and the qualification of control rate showed more effects on hemorrhagic stroke. The qualification of control rate in the three years could cause the risk factors of total stroke, ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke to reduce by 25.7%, 19.1%, 27.4%, respectively. When comparing with blood pressure level at < 160/95 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), the level of < 140/90 mm Hg could reduce the risk factors as: 12.3% to total stroke, 12.8% to ischemic stroke and 14.9% to hemorrhagic stroke.
Programs as long-term followed-up and management for patients with hypertension, and control the blood pressure at low level etc. could significantly reduce the incidence of stroke.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 02/2008; 29(2):116-20.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of a long-term community-based intervention program on risk factors of stroke among people with different risk factors.
In 1987,2 geographically separated communities with 10 000 registered residents of each, were selected as either intervention or control communities in Beijing and Changsha. A cohort containing 2700 subjects at the age of 35 years or older,and free of stroke were sampled from each community. The baseline survey was conducted to screen the subjects at high risk for intervention and there were 5319 and 5506 subjects enrolled in intervention and control cohorts,respectively. Then,a program for controlling the risk factors of stroke was initiated in the intervention cohort and health education was provided to the whole intervention community. A follow-up survey was conducted in 1999. The information on incidence and mortality of stroke was collected.
Comparing with the control cohort, the risk of incidence and mortality of stroke decreased by 22 % ( HR = 0.78,95 % CI:0. 66-0.92) and 73 % (HR = 0.27,95 % CI:0. 17-0.42) in intervention cohort. The risks of stroke were lower in intervention cohort than in control cohort among almost all of the sub-groups with or without risk factors of stroke except for being male,current smokers and current alcohol drinkers. The risk of death caused by stroke decreased significantly in those with or without the risk factors of stroke.
The long-term community intervention on the risk factors of stroke could effectively reduce the risk of incidence and mortality of stroke among people with or without the risk factors of stroke. More attention should be paid to the males and those who smoke or drink alcohol.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 02/2007; 28(1):49-52.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke has been the main cause of death in most urban residents in China since the 1990s. A community-based intervention trial carried out in China aimed to reduce the incidence and mortality of stroke. In 1991, two well-matched communities each with approximately 50,000 people were selected as intervention or control communities in the urban areas of Beijing, Shanghai and Changsha. Regular health education and health promotion activities were carried out between 1991 and 2000 in the intervention communities but no special action was taken in the control communities. Both fatal and nonfatal stroke cases were meticulously registered during the study in the two communities to assess the effect of long-term intervention. The trend in stroke incidence and the effect of intervention on stroke incidence were analyzed using a Poisson regression model adjusted for age, sex, year and city. Between 1991 and 2000, 2,273 first-ever stroke cases were registered in the intervention communities and 3,015 in the control communities. Geographic variation and changes in the incidence of stroke and its subtypes were found among these 3 cities. Through 10 years of intervention, incidence risks of all, ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes decreased by 11.4% (relative risk 0.8959; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.8483-0.9460; p < 0.0001), 13.2% (relative risk 0.8676; 95% CI 0.8054-0.9345; p = 0.0002) and 7.2% (relative risk 0.9283; 95% CI 0.8517-1.0117; p = 0.0899), respectively, in the intervention compared with control communities. Accordingly, comprehensive community-based intervention measures could effectively reduce the incidence of stroke in the population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the application of Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) as an aid in health outcome measures to evaluate the epilepsy disease burden in rural China and to provide Chinese data to achieve a better understanding of disease burden due to epilepsy.
The DALY is the sum of the number of years of survival with disability (Years Lived with Disability, YLD) and the number of years lost because of premature mortality (Years of Life Lost, YLL). We calculated the YLD based on the prevalence survey of epilepsy among 66,393 people sampled in Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Ningxia, Shanghai, and Shanxi provinces in 2000. The epilepsy mortality data from Chinese literature provided the YLL due to epilepsy. We applied sensitivity analysis to evaluate the influence of uncertainty on the epilepsy mortality value and disability weight in the study.
In 2000, epilepsy caused 1.83 and 2.48 DALY lost per 1,000 population in Henan and Ningxia province, which had the lowest and the highest DALY lost among the six study areas. Overall, epilepsy caused 1.41 YLLs and 0.67 YLDs per 1,000 population; thus the DALYs lost because of epilepsy was 2.08 per 1,000 population, representing the epilepsy disease burden in rural China.
The DALY measure, which includes the extent of disability from epilepsy, provides a useful tool for the epilepsy disease burden assessment. The disease burden of epilepsy in China is considered higher than previous estimations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the diagnosis,treatment and requirement of epilepsy patients in some urban communities in China, and to provide the evidence of searching for effective treatment and management on epilepsy under the China's context.
A face-to-face survey were conducted in 3 urban communities in Shanghai, Beijing and Changsha, respectively. The questions in the questionniare were general information, hospital visit, treatment, the level and way of getting on the knowledge of epilepsy, as well as the current obstacles and needs.
Most of the patients selected the regular hospitals (90.8%) and the departments (92.3%) for their epielspy diagnosis and treatment. They used AEDs modo dictu (77.4%), and had controlled the seizures quite well (82.6%). A small part of patients still could not deeply understand the basic knowledge on epilepsy (13.5%). They ignored to follow up the drug concentration (45.8%) in blood and the blood biocheminstry indicators (43.9%). Some patients went to private clinics (12.9%) and used lay people remedies (7.7%). Longtime waiting (36.8%), inconvenient traffic (23.2%), and high expenses (22.6%) were the main problems influencing the timely treatment. The main obstacles of the patients were employment (47.2%), marriage (29.9%), psychological conditions (44.4%) and interpersonal relationship (29.9%). The main requirements were the effectiveness (87.0%) and cheap AEDs (40.9%) as well as the convenience of hospital visit (37.0%).
It is very important to emphasize knowledge and publicity/education on epilepsy as well as the psychological treatment according to the requirements of patients.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 11/2006; 27(11):1000-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of phenobarbital in treatment of patients with convulsive forms of epilepsy in rural areas and to develop a suitable relevant model for rural China.
A demonstration protocol was conducted in the rural areas of 8 counties from 6 provinces and municipality in China, Heilongjiang, Ningxia, Henan, Jiangsu, Shanxi, and Shanghai from December 2001 to June 2004. Epidemiological investigation of the prevalence and treatment gap of epilepsy was carried out. Patients with convulsive forms of epilepsy thus screened underwent treatment of phenobarbital. Physicians of township hospitals received short-term training to be in charge of the treatment and regular follow-up of the patients.
A total of 2455 patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures in these 6 rural areas were screened and entered the treatment group. 347 patients (26.2%) had been seizure-free during the period of these 2 years, 415 patients (31.3%) had their seizure frequencies decreased by > 75% as compared with those during the period of 6 months before treatment, and the conditions of 26.1% of the patients did not change or even became worse. About 26.1% of the patients had mild side effects, 3.7% had moderate side effects, and only 0.3% had severe side effects when the dosage of phenobarbital in the first 3 months was increased. 597 patients (24.3%) withdrew from the treatment group because of various reasons.
This protocol was suitable to the rural areas of China. The trained physicians are capable of fulfilling the task to treat the patients with epilepsy. Phenobarbital is an effective drug for most patients with convulsive seizures and has no severe side effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the incidence and trends of stroke and its major subtypes during the 1990s in 3 cities in China.
Stroke cases registered between 1991 to 2000 were initially identified through the stroke surveillance networks established in Beijing, Shanghai, and Changsha, and then confirmed by neurologists.
The age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person years of overall first-ever stroke were 135.0 (95% CI, 126.5 to 144.6) in Beijing, 76.1 (70.6 to 82.6) in Shanghai, and 150.0 (141.3 to 160.0) in Changsha during the 1990s. Incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) was highest in Beijing, followed by Changsha and Shanghai; for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the highest rate was found in Changsha, followed by Beijing and Shanghai. The same order as ICH was also observed for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The age-adjusted incidence of overall stroke and ICH for individuals > or =55 years of age in our populations was generally higher than that from Western populations. During the 1990s, ICH incidence decreased significantly at a rate of 12.0% per year in Beijing, 4.4% in Shanghai, and 7.7% in Changsha; in contrast, except for Changsha, IS incidence increased in Beijing (5.0% per year) and Shanghai (7.7%).
There is a geographic variation in the incidence of stroke and its subtypes among these 3 cities, but the incidence of overall and hemorrhagic stroke in China is generally higher than that in the Western countries. Interestingly, the decrease in ICH and increase in IS during the past decade may reflect some underlying changes of risk factors in Chinese populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is the most important indicator of stroke. We aim to compare the long-term effects of the subtypes of hypertension on the risk of stroke in a Chinese cohort.
A total of 26,587 subjects > or =35 years of age and free of stroke were recruited in 5 cities in 1987. The subtypes of hypertension were defined as isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH), as well as managed hypertension (MHT), according to the criteria of systolic blood pressure > or =140 or diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg or under antihypertensive treatment. The relative risks of stroke with the subtypes of hypertension, compared with normotensives, were estimated using the Cox model after adjustments for age, sex, and other confounders.
The prevalence of hypertension was: ISH 7.1%, SDH 18.4%, IDH 6.7%, and MHT 3.9%. During a total of 233 437 person years of follow-up, 1107 subjects developed stroke (614 ischemic and 451 hemorrhagic events and 42 unclassified). SDH patients were at the highest risk of stroke among all the hypertensives. The hazard ratio and 95% CI was 2.96 (2.49 to 3.52) for all stroke, 4.05 (3.10 to 5.30) for hemorrhagic, and 2.33 (1.84 to 2.95) for ischemic stroke. Although the incidence of stroke was higher in the older population, the effect of hypertension, especially SDH, on hemorrhagic stroke is stronger in the middle-aged population.
ISH and IDH are similarly prevalent in the population; both are independent predictors of stroke. Patients with SDH are at the highest risk of stroke and should be treated more aggressively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the past 2 decades, stroke has been a principal cause of death in China, and stroke incidence tends to increase with the increase of stroke-related risk factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of urban community-based intervention on 3-year survival and recurrence after first-ever stroke.
Two communities with a registered population of approximately 50 000 each were selected as either intervention or control communities in Beijing during 1991 to 2000. Comprehensive intervention measures including the management of high-risk population and the health education of whole community population were regularly implemented. Then the influence of community intervention on 3-year survival and recurrence after initial stroke was evaluated.
Within 3 years, 41.85% of 736 patients in the intervention community died whereas 40.34% of 818 patients in the control community died. Of 223 cases from the intervention community, 26 (11.66%) had a recurrent stroke within 3 years versus 52 (20.80%) of 250 cases from the control community. The statistical difference was found. Compared with the control community, the death risk of first-ever stroke in the intervention community decreased by 26% (relative risk [RR]=0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 0.89; P=0.002); especially, that of hemorrhagic stroke decreased by 39% (RR=0.61; 95%CI: 0.46 to 0.81; P=0.001). Compared with the control community, the recurrence risk of first-ever stroke from the intervention community decreased by 42% (RR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.00; P=0.048).
Community intervention may be effective and beneficial to the recurrence prevention and survival improvement of stroke, especially hemorrhagic stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the community-based intervention on reduction of hypertension and stroke in different age groups and subtypes hypertension.
In 6 cities, 2 geographically separated communities with a registered population about 10 000 of each were selected as either intervention or control communities. A cohort containing 2 700 subjects, 35 years or older, and free of stroke were sampled from each community. The baseline survey was conducted to screen the subjects for intervention. In each city, a program for control of hypertension, heart diseases and diabetes was initiated in the intervention cohort and health education was provided to the whole intervention community. A follow-up survey was conducted 3 years later.
Within 3 years, the prevalence of hypertension increased in both intervention and control cohorts, as well as in the middle and elderly cohorts, especially in the middle aged in control group. Among hypertensives in the intervention cohort, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension got improved. The incidence of stroke was 29% lower (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58 - 0.87) and mortality of stroke was 40% lower (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.86) in the intervention cohort than the control cohort. The intervention was most effective in reduction of stroke for those with isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (All P < 0.05). Meanwhile, all-cause mortality was 11% lower (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78 - 0.99) in the intervention cohort than in the control cohort.
The community-based intervention was effective in controlling the development of hypertension and stroke, while the elderly people benefit more than the middle aged people from the intervention.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 08/2003; 24(7):538-41.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of community intervention on risk factors of cerebrovascular disease.
With cluster sampling, 2,586 and 2,723 women and men aged 35 to 74 were selected randomly as intervention cohort and control cohort, respectively, from about 300 thousand community population in Beijing, Shanghai and Changsha, during 1997 to 2000. Their blood pressure, levels of blood lipid, body mass index (BMI) were measured and status of smoking and alcohol consumption were surveyed as indices of evaluation. Health education for smoking quit, alcohol consumption restriction and reinforced treatment for diabetic and hypertensive patients were implemented in the intervention communities. And, 2,544 and 2,533 persons in the two cohorts responded three years after intervention, and then all the indices mentioned above were measure again for them.
Average reduction in systolic blood pressure by 3.21 mm Hg and serum level of total cholesterol by 0.58 mmol/L was achieved in intervention cohort after intervention, but with 0.48 mmol/L increase in triglyceride. Average blood levels of both high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose increased in the two cohorts after intervention, but with 0.30 mmol/L net increase of blood glucose in control cohort. There was no significant difference in average increase of HDL-C between the two cohorts. BMI increased by 0.56 in control cohort, and no significant change in intervention cohort. Proportion of smoking decreased by 5.4% in men and 2.4% in women of intervention cohort, and no change in control cohort.
Level of risk factors for cerebrovascular disease reduced significantly with community intervention.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 04/2003; 37(2):105-8.