[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MtrCDE multidrug pump, from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE, which are connected by the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Although it is clear that MtrD delivers drugs to the channel of MtrE, it remains unclear how drug delivery and channel opening are connected. We used a vancomycin sensitivity assay to test for opening of the MtrE channel. Cells expressing MtrE or MtrE-E434K were insensitive to vancomycin; but became moderately and highly sensitive to vancomycin respectively, when coexpressed with MtrC, suggesting that the MtrE channel opening requires MtrC binding and is energy-independent. Cells expressing wild-type MtrD, in an MtrCE background, were vancomycin-insensitive, but moderately sensitive in an MtrCE-E434K background. The mutation of residues involved in proton translocation inactivated MtrD and abolished drug efflux, rendered both MtrE and MtrE-E434K vancomycin-insensitive; imply that the pump-component interactions are preserved, and that the complex is stable in the absence of proton flux, thus sealing the open end of MtrE. Following the energy-dependent dissociation of the tripartite complex, the MtrE channel is able to reseal, while MtrE-E434K is unable to do so, resulting in the vancomycin-sensitive phenotype. Thus, our findings suggest that opening of the OMP via interaction with the MFP is energy-independent, while both drug export and complex dissociation require active proton flux.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multiple transferable resistance (mTR) pump from Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE multidrug pump is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE and the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Previously we established that while there is a weak interaction of MtrD and MtrE, MtrC binds with relatively high affinity to both MtrD and MtrE. MtrD conferred antibiotic resistance only when it was expressed with MtrE and MtrC, suggesting that these proteins form a functional tripartite complex in which MtrC bridges MtrD and MtrE. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MtrC interacts with an intraprotomer groove on the surface of MtrE, inducing channel opening. However, a second groove is apparent at the interface of the MtrE subunits, which might also be capable of engaging MtrC. We have now established that MtrC can be cross-linked to cysteines placed in this interprotomer groove and that mutation of residues in the groove impair the ability of the pump to confer antibiotic resistance by locking MtrE in the closed channel conformation. Moreover, MtrE K390C forms an intermolecular disulfide bond with MtrC E149C locking MtrE in the open channel conformation, suggesting that a functional salt bridge forms between these residues during the transition from closed to open channel conformations. MtrC forms dimers that assemble into hexamers, and electron microscopy studies of single particles revealed that these hexamers are arranged into ring-like structures with an internal aperture sufficiently large to accommodate the MtrE trimer. Cross-linking of single cysteine mutants of MtrC to stabilize the dimer interface in the presence of MtrE, trapped an MtrC-MtrE complex with a molecular mass consistent with a stoichiometry of 3:6 (MtrE(3)MtrC(6)), suggesting that dimers of MtrC interact with MtrE, presumably by binding to the two grooves. As both MtrE and MtrD are trimeric, our studies suggest that the functional pump is assembled with a stoichiometry of 3:6:3.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(30):26900-12. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phage λ Orf substitutes for the activities of the Escherichia coli RecFOR proteins in vivo and is therefore implicated as a recombination mediator, encouraging the assembly of bacterial RecA onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coated with SSB. Orf exists as a dimer in solution, associates with E. coli SSB and binds preferentially to ssDNA. To help identify interacting domains we analysed Orf and SSB proteins carrying mutations or truncations in the C-terminal region. A cluster of acidic residues at the carboxy-terminus of SSB is known to attract multiple protein partners to assist in DNA replication and repair. In this case an alternative domain must be utilized since Orf association with SSB was unaffected by an SSB113 point mutant (P176S) or removal of the last ten residues (ΔC10). Structurally the Orf C-terminus consists of a helix with a flexible tail that protrudes from each side of the dimer and could serve as a binding site for either SSB or DNA. Eliminating the six residue flexible tail (ΔC6) or the entire helix (ΔC19) had no significant impact on the Orf-SSB interaction. However, the OrfΔC6 protein exhibited reduced DNA binding, a feature shared by single amino acid substitutions within (W141F) or adjacent (R140A) to this region. The OrfΔC19 mutant bound poorly to DNA and secondary structure analysis in solution revealed that this truncation induces protein misfolding and aggregation. The results show that the carboxy-terminus of Orf is involved in nucleic acid recognition and also plays an unexpected role in maintaining structural integrity.
Journal of Molecular Recognition 03/2011; 24(2):333-40. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multiple transferable resistance (MTR) pump, from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is typical of the specialized machinery used to translocate drugs across the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. It consists of a tripartite complex composed of an inner-membrane transporter, MtrD, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, MtrC, and an outer-membrane channel, MtrE. We have expressed the components of the pump in Escherichia coli and used the antibiotic vancomycin, which is too large to cross the outer-membrane by passive diffusion, to test for opening of the MtrE channel. Cells expressing MtrCDE are not susceptible to vancomycin, indicating that the channel is closed; but become susceptible to vancomycin in the presence of transported substrates, consistent with drug-induced opening of the MtrE channel. A mutational analysis identified residues Asn-198, Glu-434, and Gln-441, lining an intraprotomer groove on the surface of MtrE, to be important for pump function; mutation of these residues yielded cells that were sensitive to vancomycin. Pull-down assays and micro-calorimetry measurements indicated that this functional impairment is not due to the inability of MtrC to interact with the MtrE mutants; nor was it due to the MtrE mutants adopting an open conformation, because cells expressing these MtrE mutants alone are relatively insensitive to vancomycin. However, cells expressing the MtrE mutants with MtrC are sensitive to vancomycin, indicating that residues lining the intra-protomer groove control opening of the MtrE channel in response to binding of MtrC.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(7):5484-93. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a general mass spectrometry approach to determine subunit stoichiometry and lipid binding in intact membrane protein complexes. By exploring conditions for preserving interactions during transmission into the gas phase and for optimally stripping away detergent, by subjecting the complex to multiple collisions, we released the intact complex largely devoid of detergent. This enabled us to characterize both subunit stoichiometry and lipid binding in 4 membrane protein complexes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses the types of transport systems that confer resistance to antibiotics, antimicrobial drugs, and toxic
metals. A number of these are discussed in detail in other chapters, so here we focus on the ways in which microorganisms
have evolved to use transporters to evade the toxic effects of drugs and metals.
Resistance to therapeutic drugs and toxic metals encompasses a diverse range of biological systems, all of which have an impact
on humans. From the relative simplicity of bacterial cells, fungi, and protozoa to the complexity of human cancer cells, resistance
has become problematic. One of the most frequently employed strategies for resistance to cytotoxic compounds and elements
in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is extrusion from the cell catalyzed by membrane transporters. These effl ux proteins reduce
their intracellular concentration to subtoxic levels (1). Although some of these transporters extrude specifi c drugs and
metals, others can extrude a wide range of structurally dissimilar drugs. Currently, much research is directed toward understanding
the molecular mechanisms of these transport proteins. Potential clinical applications include the design of inhibitors that
block these effl ux systems. Clinically useful inhibitors could allow a renaissance for drugs rendered obsolete by the development
of effl ux systems in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 284(2):1145-54. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogenic fungus that switches from a saprobic mycelium to a pathogenic yeast. Consistent with the morphological transition being regulated by the cAMP-signalling pathway, there is an increase in cellular cAMP levels both transiently at the onset (< 24 h) and progressively in the later stages (> 120 h) of the transition to the yeast form, and this transition can be modulated by exogenous cAMP. We have cloned the cyr1 gene encoding adenylate cyclase (AC) and established that its transcript levels correlate with cAMP levels. In addition, we have cloned the genes encoding three Galpha (Gpa1-3), Gbeta (Gpb1) and Ggamma (Gpg1) G proteins. Gpa1 and Gpb1 interact with one another and the N-terminus of AC, but neither Gpa2 nor Gpa3 interacted with Gpb1 or AC. The interaction of Gpa1 with Gpb1 was blocked by GTP, but its interaction with AC was independent of bound nucleotide. The transcript levels for gpa1, gpb1 and gpg1 were similar in mycelium, but there was a transient excess of gpb1 during the transition, and an excess of gpa1 in yeast. We have interpreted our findings in terms of a novel signalling mechanism in which the activity of AC is differentially modulated by Gpa1 and Gpb1 to maintain the signal over the 10 days needed for the morphological switch.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental arsenic is a world-wide health issue, making it imperative for us to understand mechanisms of metalloid uptake and detoxification. The predominant intracellular form is the highly mephitic arsenite, which is detoxified by removal from cytosol. What prevents arsenite toxicity as it diffuses through cytosol to efflux systems? Although intracellular copper is regulated by metallochaperones, no chaperones involved in conferring resistance to other metals have been identified. In this article, we report identification of an arsenic chaperone, ArsD, encoded by the arsRDABC operon of Escherichia coli. ArsD transfers trivalent metalloids to ArsA, the catalytic subunit of an As(III)/Sb(III) efflux pump. Interaction with ArsD increases the affinity of ArsA for arsenite, thus increasing its ATPase activity at lower concentrations of arsenite and enhancing the rate of arsenite extrusion. Cells are consequently resistant to environmental concentrations of arsenic. This report of an arsenic chaperone suggests that cells regulate the intracellular concentration of arsenite to prevent toxicity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2006; 103(42):15617-22. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the cause of bacterial leaf streak in rice, possesses clusters of hrp genes that determine its ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice. A 27-kb region of the genome of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (RS105) was identified and sequenced, revealing 10 hrp, 9 hrc (hrp conserved), and 8 hpa (hrp-associated) genes and 7 regulatory plant-inducible promoter boxes. While the region from hpa2 to hpaB and the hrpF operon resembled the corresponding genes of other xanthomonads, the hpaB-hrpF region incorporated an hrpE3 gene that was not present in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. We found that an hrpF mutant had lost the ability to elicit the HR in tobacco and pathogenicity in adult rice plants but still caused water-soaking symptoms in rice seedlings and that Hpa1 is an HR elicitor in nonhost tobacco whose expression is controlled by an hrp regulator, HrpX. Using an Hrp phenotype complementation test, we identified a small hrp cluster containing the hrpG and hrpX regulatory genes, which is separated from the core hrp cluster. In addition, we identified a gene, prhA (plant-regulated hrp), that played a key role in the Hrp phenotype of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola but was neither in the core hrp cluster nor in the hrp regulatory cluster. A prhA mutant failed to reduce the HR in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice but caused water-soaking symptoms in rice. This is the first report that X. oryzae pv. oryzicola possesses three separate DNA regions for HR induction in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice, which will provide a fundamental base to understand pathogenicity determinants of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola compared with those of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2006; 72(9):6212-24. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic recombination in bacteriophage lambda relies on DNA end processing by Exo to expose 3'-tailed strands for annealing and exchange by beta protein. Phage lambda encodes an additional recombinase, Orf, which participates in the early stages of recombination by supplying a function equivalent to the Escherichia coli RecFOR complex. These host enzymes assist loading of the RecA strand exchange protein onto ssDNA coated with ssDNA-binding protein. In this study, we purified the Orf protein, analyzed its biochemical properties, and determined its crystal structure at 2.5 angstroms. The homodimeric Orf protein is arranged as a toroid with a shallow U-shaped cleft, lined with basic residues, running perpendicular to the central cavity. Orf binds DNA, favoring single-stranded over duplex and with no obvious preference for gapped, 3'-tailed, or 5'-tailed substrates. An interaction between Orf and ssDNA-binding protein was indicated by far Western analysis. The functional similarities between Orf and RecFOR are discussed in relation to the early steps of recombinational exchange and the interplay between phage and bacterial recombinases.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2005; 102(32):11260-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: VceR, a member of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators, is a repressor of the vceCAB operon, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump in Vibrio cholerae. VceR binds to a 28 bp inverted-repeat within the vceR-vceC intergenic region and is dissociated from this site with CCCP, a pump substrate. The rate of the CCCP-induced conformational change in VceR was determined by stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy, revealing a highly co-operative process that occurs with a Hill coefficient of approximately 4. The apparent affinity for CCCP decreased in a linear manner with increasing concentrations of DNA, indicative of competition between the CCCP and DNA for binding to VceR. These data are consistent with an equilibrium between mutually exclusive conformations that are supported by the binding of DNA and CCCP to the N and C termini of VceR, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light-scattering studies indicate that VceR exists predominantly as a dimer; however, a pair of dimers binds to the DNA. In order to account for the fact that VceR is a dimer in the absence of DNA but binds CCCP with a Hill co-efficient of 4, implying that it has at least four binding-sites, we propose that the VceR monomer possesses a pair of binding sites that can be simultaneously occupied by CCCP. Using a gene-reporter system and stopped-flow spectroscopy, we established that the equilibrium between free VceR and VceR-CCCP plays a critical role in controlling expression of the pump. The co-operative transition between these states allows the repressor to respond to relatively small changes in drug concentration. Thus, repression and induction can be readily switched about a critical drug concentration which will prove toxic to the cell.
Journal of Molecular Biology 07/2005; 349(2):387-400. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria arises in part from the activities of tripartite drug efflux pumps. In the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, one such pump comprises the inner membrane proton antiporter VceB, the periplasmic adaptor VceA, and the outer membrane channel VceC. Here, we report the crystal structure of VceC at 1.8 A resolution. The trimeric VceC is organized in the crystal lattice within laminar arrays that resemble membranes. A well resolved detergent molecule within this array interacts with the transmembrane beta-barrel domain in a fashion that may mimic protein-lipopolysaccharide contacts. Our analyses of the external surfaces of VceC and other channel proteins suggest that different classes of efflux pumps have distinct architectures. We discuss the implications of these findings for mechanisms of drug and protein export.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2005; 280(15):15307-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The active efflux of cytotoxic drugs mediated by multidrug transporters is the basis of multidrug resistance in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Individual multidrug transporters can be extremely versatile, often exhibiting a staggering range of substrate specificity that can negate the effects of clinically relevant therapies. The effective treatment of bacterial, fungal and protozoan infections, along with certain cancer treatments, has been compromised by the presence of multidrug transporters. Traditionally, advances in the understanding of multidrug transporters have been made through biochemical analyses; more recently, however, fundamental advances have been made with the elucidation of several three dimensional structures of representative multidrug pumps. Biochemical and structural analysis of multidrug pumps could lead to the development of novel 'anti-efflux' therapies.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology 11/2004; 4(5):479-86. · 5.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to therapeutic drugs encompasses a diverse range of biological systems, which all have a human impact. From the relative simplicity of bacterial cells, fungi and protozoa to the complexity of human cancer cells, resistance has become problematic. Stated in its simplest terms, drug resistance decreases the chance of providing successful treatment against a plethora of diseases. Worryingly, it is a problem that is increasing, and consequently there is a pressing need to develop new and effective classes of drugs. This has provided a powerful stimulus in promoting research on drug resistance and, ultimately, it is hoped that this research will provide novel approaches that will allow the deliberate circumvention of well understood resistance mechanisms. A major mechanism of resistance in both microbes and cancer cells is the membrane protein-catalysed extrusion of drugs from the cell. Resistant cells exploit proton-driven antiporters and/or ATP-driven ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters to extrude cytotoxic drugs that usually enter the cell by passive diffusion. Although some of these drug efflux pumps transport specific substrates, many are transporters of multiple substrates. These multidrug pumps can often transport a variety of structurally unrelated hydrophobic compounds, ranging from dyes to lipids. If we are to nullify the effects of efflux-mediated drug resistance, we must first of all understand how these efflux pumps can accommodate a diverse range of compounds and, secondly, how conformational changes in these proteins are coupled to substrate translocation. These are key questions that must be addressed. In this review we report on the advances that have been made in understanding the structure and function of drug efflux pumps.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have isolated a gene that encodes a half-ABC-transporter, designated Pfr1, from the dimorphic human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which has high identity with members of the ABC-superfamily involved in multidrug resistance. The pfr1 gene is predicted to encode a 827 amino acid protein that, in common with mammalian Mdr1, has a TM-NBD topology. The transcription of the pfr1 gene is induced by the triazole drug fluconazole but not by amphotericin B, suggesting a role in transport-mediated azole resistance. However, Pfr1 has greatest identity to the mitochondrial ABC transporters Mdl1 and Mdl2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian ABC-me, with identities of 47.2%, 40.6% and 39.5%, respectively, over the length of these proteins. Furthermore, the N-terminus of Pfr1 is rich in positively charged residues, a feature of mitochondrial targeting sequences. Considering these features, it seems likely that Pfr1 is a mitochondrial protein. Previous studies have revealed that the acquisition of azole resistance in S. cerevisiae is linked to mitochondrial loss and, conversely, that mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to the upregulation of PDR transporters mediated by the transcription factor Pdr3. Our studies suggest that a mitochondrial ABC transporter is induced as part of the cellular response to drug treatment. The promoter region of pfr1 contains a PDRE-like consensus sequence to which Pdr3 binds, which may be the element responsible for the upregulation of Pfr1 in response to fluconazole. The nucleotide binding domain of Pfr1 was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and shown to retain ATPase activity, consistent with Pfr1 functioning as a homodimeric transport ATPase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria possess tripartite transporters that catalyze drug extrusion across the inner and outer
membranes, thereby conferring resistance. These transporters consist of inner (IMP) and outer (OMP) membrane proteins, which
are coupled by a periplasmic membrane fusion (MFP) protein. However, it is not know whether the MFP translocates the drug
between the membranes, by acting as a channel, or whether it brings the IMP and OMP together, facilitating drug transfer.
The MFP EmrA has an elongated periplasmic domain, which binds transported drugs, and is anchored to the inner membrane by
a single α-helix, which contains a leucine zipper dimerization domain. Consistent with CD and hydrodynamic analyses, the periplasmic
domain is predicted to be composed of a β-sheet subdomain and an α-helical coiled-coil. We propose that EmrA forms a trimer
in which the coiled-coils radiate across the periplasm, where they could sequester the OMP TolC. The “free” leucine zipper
in the EmrA trimer might stabilize the interaction with the IMP EmrB, which also possesses leucine zipper motifs in the putative
N- and C-terminal helices. The β-sheet subdomain of EmrA would sit at the membrane surface adjacent to the EmrB, from which
it receives the transported drug, inducing a conformational change that triggers the interaction with the OMP.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2003; 278(15):12903-12912. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our understanding of the exact mechanisms used by the transmembrane protein pumps that confer cellular resistance to cytotoxic drugs has improved enormously with the recent determination of the structures of three Escherichia coli transporters, two belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and one to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family. Although these studies do not provide an insight into how drug pumps can recognize several structurally unrelated drugs, important advances have been also made in this area. Information on the molecular basis of multidrug recognition has been provided by determining the structure of transcriptional regulators that can bind, often structurally unrelated, cytotoxic drugs and control the expression of drug pumps.
Trends in Microbiology 02/2003; 11(1):21-9. · 8.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we identify an 11-residue helical module in the unique N-terminal region of the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4A1 that determines association with phospholipid bilayers and shows a profound selectivity for interaction with phosphatidic acid (PA). This module contains a core bilayer insertion unit that is formed by two tryptophan residues, Trp(19) and Trp(20), whose orientation is optimized for bilayer insertion by the Leu(16):Val(17) pairing. Ca(2+), at submicromolar levels, interacts with Asp(21) in this module and serves to gate bilayer insertion, which is completed within 10 ms. Selectivity for interaction with PA is suggested to be achieved primarily through the formation of a charge network of the form (Asp(21-):Ca(2+):PA(2-):Lys(24+)) with overall neutrality at the bilayer surface. This novel phospholipid-binding domain, which we call TAPAS-1 (tryptophan anchoring phosphatidic acid selective-binding domain 1), is here identified as being responsible for membrane association of the PDE4A1 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase. TAPAS-1 may not only serve as a paradigm for other PA-binding domains but also aid in detecting related phospholipid-binding domains and in generating simple chimeras for conferring membrane association and intracellular targeting on defined proteins.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2002; 277(31):28298-309. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ArsD is a trans-acting repressor of the arsRDABC operon that confers resistance to arsenicals and antimonials in Escherichia coli. It possesses two-pairs of vicinal cysteine residues, Cys(12)-Cys(13) and Cys(112)-Cys(113), that potentially form separate binding sites for the metalloids that trigger dissociation of ArsD from the operon. However, as a homodimer it has four vicinal cysteine pairs. Titration of the steady-state fluorescence of ArsD with metalloids revealed positive cooperativity, with a Hill coefficient of 2, between these sites. Disruption of the Cys(112)-Cys(113) site by mutagenesis of arsD, but not the Cys(12)-Cys(13) site, largely abolished this cooperativity, indicative of interactions between adjacent Cys(112)-Cys(113) sites within the dimer. The kinetics of metalloid binding were determined by stopped flow spectroscopy; the rate increased in a sigmoidal manner, with a Hill coefficient of 4, indicating that the pre-steady-state measurements reported cooperativity between all four sites of the dimer rather than just the intermolecular interactions reported by the steady-state measurements. The kinetics of Sb(III) displacement by As(III) revealed that the metalloid-binding sites behave differentially, with the rapid exchange of As(III) for Sb(III) at one site retarding the release of Sb(III) from the other sites. We propose a model involving the sequential binding and release of metalloids by the four binding sites of dimeric ArsD, with only one site releasing free metalloids.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2002; 277(29):25992-6002. · 4.65 Impact Factor