Zhiwu Zhang

Beijing Genomics Institute, Bao'an, Guangdong, China

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Publications (29)223.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a bilateral mononeuropathy with an unknown pathogenesis that significantly affects performance in Thoroughbreds. A genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of RLN is suggested by the higher prevalence of the condition in offspring of RLN-affected than unaffected stallions. To better understand RLN pathogenesis and its genetic basis, we performed a genome-wide association (GWAS) of 282 RLN-affected and 268 control Thoroughbreds. We found a significant association of RLN with the LCORL/NCAPG locus on ECA3 previously shown to affect body size in horses. Using height at the withers of 505 of these horses, we confirmed the strong association of this locus with body size, and demonstrated a significant phenotypic and genetic correlation between height and RLN grade in this cohort. Secondary genetic associations for RLN on ECA18 and X did not correlate with withers height in our cohort, but did contain candidate genes likely influencing muscle physiology and growth: myostatin (MSTN) and integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A). This linkage between body size and RLN suggests that selective breeding to reduce RLN prevalence would likely reduce adult size in this population. However, our results do not preclude the possibility of modifier loci that attenuate RLN risk without reducing size or performance, or that the RLN risk allele is distinct but tightly linked to the body size locus on ECA3. This study is both the largest body size GWAS and the largest RLN GWAS within Thoroughbred horses to date, and suggests that improved understanding of the relationship between genetics, equine growth rate, and RLN prevalence may significantly advance our understanding and management of this disease.
    BMC Genomics 04/2014; 15(1):259. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Height is one of the most heritable and easily measured traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Given a pedigree or estimates of the genomic identity-by-state among related plants, height is also accurately predictable. But, mapping alleles explaining natural variation in maize height remains a formidable challenge. To address this challenge, we measured the plant height, ear height, flowering time, and node counts of plants grown in over 64,500 plots across 13 environments. These plots contained over 7,300 inbreds representing most publically available maize inbreds in the U.S. and families of the maize Nested Association Mapping (NAM) panel. Joint-linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), fine mapping in near isogenic lines (NILs), genome wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were performed. The heritability of maize height was estimated to be over 90%. Mapping NAM family-nested QTL revealed the largest explained 2.1±0.9% of height variation. The effects of two tropical alleles at this QTL were independently validated by fine mapping in NIL families. Several significant associations found by GWAS co-localized with established height loci including brassinosteroid-deficient dwarf1, dwarf plant1, and semi-dwarf2. GBLUP explained over 80% of height variation in the panels and outperformed bootstrap aggregation of family-nested QTL models in evaluations of prediction accuracy. These results revealed maize height was under strong genetic control and had a highly polygenic genetic architecture. They also showed multiple models of genetic architecture differing in polygenicity and effect sizes can plausibly explain a population's variation in maize height; but may vary in predictive efficacy.
    Genetics 02/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hip (HD) and Elbow Dysplasia (ED) are two common complex developmental disorders of dogs. In order to decrease their prevalence and severity, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) has a voluntary registry of canine hip and elbow conformation certified by boarded radiologists. However, the voluntarily reports have been severely biased against exposing dogs with problems, especially at beginning period. Fluctuated by additional influential factors such as age, the published raw scores barely showed trends of improvement. In this study, we used multiple-trait mixed model to simultaneously adjust these factors and incorporate pedigree to derive Estimated Breeding Values (EBV). A total of 1,264,422 dogs from 74 breeds were evaluated for EBVs from 760,455 hip scores and 135,409 elbow scores. These EBVs have substantially recovered the reporting bias and the other influences. Clear and steady trends of genetic improvement were observed over the 40 years since 1970. The total genetic improvements were 16.4% and 1.1% of the phenotypic standard deviation for HD and ED, respectively. The incidences of dysplasia were 0.83% and 2.08%, and the heritabilities were estimated as 0.22 and 0.17 for hip and elbow scores, respectively. The genetic correlation between them was 0.12. We conclude that EBV is more effective than reporting raw phenotype. The weak genetic correlation suggested that selection based on hip scores would also slightly improve elbow scores but it is necessary to allocate effort toward improvement of elbow scores alone.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76390. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are widely used in genome-wide genetic marker discovery and genotyping. However, current NGS approaches are not easy to apply to general outbred populations (human and some major farm animals) for SNP identification because of the high level of heterogeneity and phase ambiguity in the haplotype. Here, we reported a new method for SNP genotyping, called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing (GGRS) to genotype outbred species. Through an improved procedure for library preparation and a marker discovery and genotyping pipeline, the GGRS approach can genotype outbred species cost-effectively and high-reproducibly. We also evaluated the efficiency and accuracy of our approach for high-density SNP discovery and genotyping in a large genome pig species (2.8 Gb), for which more than 70,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be identified for an expenditure of only $80 (USD)/sample.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67500. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term outcome of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and extracapsular repair (ECR) for treatment of a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (RCCL). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS: Normal adult dogs (control, n = 79); dogs with unilateral CCL disease (n = 38). METHODS: Dogs had TPLO (n = 15) or ECR (n = 23) for treatment of RCCL. Force plate gait analysis was performed for the control group at one time point and for treatment groups at serial points: preoperatively, 2 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Symmetry indices (SIs) were calculated between operated and unoperated pelvic limb for ground reaction forces (GRFs), including peak vertical force (PVF), contact time (CT), and vertical impulse (VI). GRFs of the treatment groups and control group were compared using a general linear model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: At 8 weeks, for PVF and VI, the TPLO group had more symmetric limb loading than the ECR group at the walk and trot. SIs of the TPLO group were not different from the control group by 6 months to 1 year postoperatively. SIs for the ECR group were less symmetrical than the control group at all time periods. Using survival analysis, median time to normal function was no different at the walk between groups, but was shorter for the TPLO group for VI and PVF. CONCLUSIONS: Dogs achieved normal limb loading faster after TPLO than ECR. TPLO resulted in operated limb function that was indistinguishable from the control population by 1 year postoperatively.
    Veterinary Surgery 11/2012; · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if medial patellar luxation (MPL) in Yorkshire Terriers is associated with tibial torsion. Prospective cross-sectional study. Yorkshire Terriers (n = 30; 60 tibiae). Each MPL was graded using a categorical grading scheme. Computed tomography of the tibiae was performed and tibial torsion angle (TTA) was assessed. MPL grade was analyzed with a general linear model where the independent variables include sex, neutering status, age, weight, and TTA. Factors that had collective impact on MPL grade were TTA, age, and weight squared. As MPL grade increased, TTA decreased by 0.05° and age increased by 0.13 years. As weight increased, MPL decreased. There was no effect (P > .05) from scorers, side, and neutering status. Body weight squared, TTA, and age affect MPL grade, suggesting that a torsional deformity may contribute to the development of MPL in Yorkshire terriers along with weight and age.
    Veterinary Surgery 11/2012; 41(8):966-72. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selection of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from elite hybrids is a key method in maize breeding especially in developing countries. The RILs are normally derived by repeated self-pollination and selection. In this study, we first investigated the accuracy of different models in predicting the performance of F(1) hybrids between RILs derived from two elite maize inbred lines Zong3 and 87-1, and then compared these models through simulation using a wider range of genetic models. Results indicated that appropriate prediction models depended on genetic architecture, e.g., combined model using breeding value and genome-wide prediction (BV+GWP) has the highest prediction accuracy for high V (D)/V (A) ratio (>0.5) traits. Theoretical studies demonstrated that different components of genetic variance were captured by different prediction models, which in turn explained the accuracy of these models in predicting the F(1) hybrid performance. Based on genome-wide prediction model (GWP), 114 untested F(1) hybrids possibly having higher grain yield than the original F(1) hybrid Yuyu22 (the single cross between Zong3 and 87-1) have been identified and recommended for further field test.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2012; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Software programs that conduct genome-wide association studies and genomic prediction and selection need to use methodologies that maximize statistical power, provide high prediction accuracy and run in a computationally efficient manner. We developed an R package called Genome Association and Prediction Integrated Tool (GAPIT) that implements advanced statistical methods including the compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) and CMLM-based genomic prediction and selection. The GAPIT package can handle large datasets in excess of 10 000 individuals and 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with minimal computational time, while providing user-friendly access and concise tables and graphs to interpret results. Availability: http://www.maizegenetics.net/GAPIT. Contact: zhiwu.zhang@cornell.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Bioinformatics 07/2012; 28(18):2397-2399. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas breeders have exploited diversity in maize for yield improvements, there has been limited progress in using beneficial alleles in undomesticated varieties. Characterizing standing variation in this complex genome has been challenging, with only a small fraction of it described to date. Using a population genetics scoring model, we identified 55 million SNPs in 103 lines across pre-domestication and domesticated Zea mays varieties, including a representative from the sister genus Tripsacum. We find that structural variations are pervasive in the Z. mays genome and are enriched at loci associated with important traits. By investigating the drivers of genome size variation, we find that the larger Tripsacum genome can be explained by transposable element abundance rather than an allopolyploid origin. In contrast, intraspecies genome size variation seems to be controlled by chromosomal knob content. There is tremendous overlap in key gene content in maize and Tripsacum, suggesting that adaptations from Tripsacum (for example, perennialism and frost and drought tolerance) can likely be integrated into maize.
    Nature Genetics 06/2012; 44(7):803-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is characterized by hip laxity and subluxation that can lead to hip osteoarthritis. Studies have shown the involvement of multiple genetic regions in the expression of CHD. Although we have associated some variants in the region of fibrillin 2 with CHD in a subset of dogs, no major disease-associated gene has been identified. The focus of this study is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with CHD. Two sequential multipoint linkage analyses based on a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo approach were applied on a cross-breed pedigree of 366 dogs. Hip radiographic trait (Norberg Angle, NA) on both hips of each dog was tested for linkage to 21,455 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 39 chromosomes. Putative QTL for the NA was found on 11 chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 19, 21, 32, 36, and 39). Identification of genes in the QTL region(s) can assist in identification of the aberrant genes and biochemical pathways involving hip dysplasia in both dogs and humans.
    Journal of Applied Statistics - J APPL STAT. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether a mutation in the fibrillin 2 gene (FBN2) is associated with canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and osteoarthritis in dogs. 1,551 dogs. Procedures-Hip conformation was measured radiographically. The FBN2 was sequenced from genomic DNA of 21 Labrador Retrievers and 2 Greyhounds, and a haplotype in intron 30 of FBN2 was sequenced in 90 additional Labrador Retrievers and 143 dogs of 6 other breeds. Steady-state values of FBN2 mRNA and control genes were measured in hip joint tissues of fourteen 8-month-old Labrador Retriever-Greyhound crossbreeds. The Labrador Retrievers homozygous for a 10-bp deletion haplotype in intron 30 of FBN2 had significantly worse CHD as measured via higher distraction index and extended-hip joint radiograph score and a lower Norberg angle and dorsolateral subluxation score. Among 143 dogs of 6 other breeds, those homozygous for the same deletion haplotype also had significantly worse radiographic CHD. Among the 14 crossbred dogs, as the dorsolateral subluxation score decreased, the capsular FBN2 mRNA increased significantly. Those dogs with incipient hip joint osteoarthritis had significantly increased capsular FBN2 mRNA, compared with those dogs without osteoarthritis. Dogs homozygous for the FBN2 deletion haplotype had significantly less FBN2 mRNA in their femoral head articular cartilage. The FBN2 deletion haplotype was associated with CHD. Capsular gene expression of FBN2 was confounded by incipient secondary osteoarthritis in dysplastic hip joints. Genes influencing complex traits in dogs can be identified by genome-wide screening, fine mapping, and candidate gene screening.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2011; 72(4):530-40. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In maize, water stress at flowering causes loss of kernel set and productivity. While changes in the levels of sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) are thought to play a role in this stress response, the mechanistic basis and genes involved are not known. A candidate gene approach was used with association mapping to identify loci involved in accumulation of carbohydrates and ABA metabolites during stress. A panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes from these metabolic pathways and in genes for reproductive development and stress response was used to genotype 350 tropical and subtropical maize inbred lines that were well watered or water stressed at flowering. Pre-pollination ears, silks, and leaves were analysed for sugars, starch, proline, ABA, ABA-glucose ester, and phaseic acid. ABA and sugar levels in silks and ears were negatively correlated with their growth. Association mapping with 1229 SNPs in 540 candidate genes identified an SNP in the maize homologue of the Arabidopsis MADS-box gene, PISTILLATA, which was significantly associated with phaseic acid in ears of well-watered plants, and an SNP in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, a key regulator of carbon flux into respiration, that was associated with silk sugar concentration. An SNP in an aldehyde oxidase gene was significantly associated with ABA levels in silks of water-stressed plants. Given the short range over which decay of linkage disequilibrium occurs in maize, the results indicate that allelic variation in these genes affects ABA and carbohydrate metabolism in floral tissues during drought.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 11/2010; 62(2):701-16. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uncovering the genetic basis of agronomic traits in crop landraces that have adapted to various agro-climatic conditions is important to world food security. Here we have identified ∼ 3.6 million SNPs by sequencing 517 rice landraces and constructed a high-density haplotype map of the rice genome using a novel data-imputation method. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 14 agronomic traits in the population of Oryza sativa indica subspecies. The loci identified through GWAS explained ∼ 36% of the phenotypic variance, on average. The peak signals at six loci were tied closely to previously identified genes. This study provides a fundamental resource for rice genetics research and breeding, and demonstrates that an approach integrating second-generation genome sequencing and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy to classical biparental cross-mapping for dissecting complex traits in rice.
    Nature Genetics 10/2010; 42(11):961-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the genetic basis of nitrogen and carbon metabolism will accelerate the development of plant varieties with high yield and improved nitrogen use efficiency. A robotized platform was used to measure the activities of 10 enzymes from carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the maize (Zea mays) intermated B73 × Mo17 mapping population, which provides almost a 4-fold increase in genetic map distance compared with conventional mapping populations. Seedling/juvenile biomass was included to identify its genetic factors and relationships with enzyme activities. All 10 enzymes showed heritable variation in activity. There were strong positive correlations between activities of different enzymes, indicating that they are coregulated. Negative correlations were detected between biomass and the activity of six enzymes. In total, 73 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found that influence the activity of these 10 enzymes and eight QTL that influence biomass. While some QTL were shared by different enzymes or biomass, we critically evaluated the probability that this may be fortuitous. All enzyme activity QTL were in trans to the known genomic locations of structural genes, except for single cis-QTL for nitrate reductase, Glu dehydrogenase, and shikimate dehydrogenase; the low frequency and low additive magnitude compared with trans-QTL indicate that cis-regulation is relatively unimportant versus trans-regulation. Two-gene epistatic interactions were identified for eight enzymes and for biomass, with three epistatic QTL being shared by two other traits; however, epistasis explained on average only 2.8% of the genetic variance. Overall, this study identifies more QTL at a higher resolution than previous studies of genetic variation in metabolism.
    Plant physiology 10/2010; 154(4):1753-65. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed linear model (MLM) methods have proven useful in controlling for population structure and relatedness within genome-wide association studies. However, MLM-based methods can be computationally challenging for large datasets. We report a compression approach, called 'compressed MLM', that decreases the effective sample size of such datasets by clustering individuals into groups. We also present a complementary approach, 'population parameters previously determined' (P3D), that eliminates the need to re-compute variance components. We applied these two methods both independently and combined in selected genetic association datasets from human, dog and maize. The joint implementation of these two methods markedly reduced computing time and either maintained or improved statistical power. We used simulations to demonstrate the usefulness in controlling for substructure in genetic association datasets for a range of species and genetic architectures. We have made these methods available within an implementation of the software program TASSEL.
    Nature Genetics 03/2010; 42(4):355-60. · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(2). · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common inherited disease that affects dog wellbeing and causes a heavy financial and emotional burden to dog owners and breeders due to secondary hip osteoarthritis. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) initiated a program in the 1960's to radiograph hip and elbow joints and release the OFA scores to the public for breeding dogs against CHD. Over last four decades, more than one million radiographic scores have been released. The pedigrees in the OFA database consisted of 258,851 Labrador retrievers, the major breed scored by the OFA (25% of total records). Of these, 154,352 dogs had an OFA hip score reported between 1970 and 2007. The rest of the dogs (104,499) were the ancestors of the 154,352 dogs to link the pedigree relationships. The OFA hip score is based on a 7-point scale with the best ranked as 1 (excellent) and the worst hip dysplasia as 7. A mixed linear model was used to estimate the effects of age, sex, and test year period and to predict the breeding value for each dog. Additive genetic and residual variances were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis also provided an inbreeding coefficient for each dog. The hip scores averaged 1.93 (+/-SD = 0.59) and the heritability was 0.21. A steady genetic improvement has accrued over the four decades. The breeding values decreased (improved) linearly. By the end of 2005, the total genetic improvement was 0.1 units, which is equivalent to 17% of the total phenotypic standard deviation. A steady genetic improvement has been achieved through the selection based on the raw phenotype released by the OFA. As the heritability of the hip score was on the low end (0.21) of reported ranges, we propose that selection based on breeding values will result in more rapid genetic improvement than breeding based on phenotypic selection alone.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(2):e9410. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine hip dysplasia (HD) is a common polygenic trait characterized by hip malformation that results in osteoarthritis (OA). The condition in dogs is very similar to developmental dysplasia of the human hip which also leads to OA. A total of 721 dogs, including both an association and linkage population, were genotyped. The association population included 8 pure breeds (Labrador retriever, Greyhounds, German Shepherd, Newfoundland, Golden retriever, Rottweiler, Border Collie and Bernese Mountain Dog). The linkage population included Labrador retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crosses. Of these, 366 dogs were genotyped at ∼22,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and a targeted screen across 8 chromosomes with ∼3,300 SNPs was performed on 551 dogs (196 dogs were common to both sets). A mixed linear model approach was used to perform an association study on this combined association and linkage population. The study identified 4 susceptibility SNPs associated with HD and 2 SNPs associated with hip OA. The identified SNPs included those near known genes (PTPRD, PARD3B, and COL15A1) reported to be associated with, or expressed in, OA in humans. This suggested that the canine model could provide a unique opportunity to identify genes underlying natural HD and hip OA, which are common and debilitating conditions in both dogs and humans.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13219. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mixed models improve the ability to detect phenotype-genotype associations in the presence of population stratification and multiple levels of relatedness in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but for large data sets the resource consumption becomes impractical. At the same time, the sample size and number of markers used for GWAS is increasing dramatically, resulting in greater statistical power to detect those associations. The use of mixed models with increasingly large data sets depends on the availability of software for analyzing those models. While multiple software packages implement the mixed model method, no single package provides the best combination of fast computation, ability to handle large samples, flexible modeling and ease of use. Key elements of association analysis with mixed models are reviewed, including modeling phenotype-genotype associations using mixed models, population stratification, kinship and its estimation, variance component estimation, use of best linear unbiased predictors or residuals in place of raw phenotype, improving efficiency and software-user interaction. The available software packages are evaluated, and suggestions made for future software development.
    Briefings in Bioinformatics 11/2009; 10(6):664-75. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of many plant scientists' research is to explain natural phenotypic variation in terms of simple changes in DNA sequence. Traditionally, linkage mapping has been the most commonly employed method to reach this goal: experimental crosses are made to generate a family with known relatedness, and attempts are made to identify cosegregation of genetic markers and phenotypes within this family. In vertebrate systems, association mapping (also known as linkage disequilibrium mapping) is increasingly being adopted as the mapping method of choice. Association mapping involves searching for genotype-phenotype correlations in unrelated individuals and often is more rapid and cost-effective than traditional linkage mapping. We emphasize here that linkage and association mapping are complementary approaches and are more similar than is often assumed. Unlike in vertebrates, where controlled crosses can be expensive or impossible (e.g., in humans), the plant scientific community can exploit the advantages of both controlled crosses and association mapping to increase statistical power and mapping resolution. While the time and money required for the collection of genotype data were critical considerations in the past, the increasing availability of inexpensive DNA sequencing and genotyping methods should prompt researchers to shift their attention to experimental design. This review provides thoughts on finding the optimal experimental mix of association mapping using unrelated individuals and controlled crosses to identify the genes underlying phenotypic variation.
    The Plant Cell 09/2009; 21(8):2194-202. · 9.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
3k Downloads
3k Views
223.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Beijing Genomics Institute
      Bao'an, Guangdong, China
  • 2007–2013
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Oklahoma State University - Stillwater
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • Department of Animal Science
      Stillwater, OK, United States
  • 2010
    • China Agricultural University
      • College of Animal Science and Technology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China