Koji Otsu

The Cardiovascular Institute, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (7)26.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Caveolin, a member of the membrane-anchoring protein family, accumulates various growth receptors in caveolae and inhibits their function. Upregulation of caveolin attenuates cellular proliferation and growth. However, the role of caveolin in regulating insulin signals remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that caveolin potently enhances insulin receptor (IR) signaling when overexpressed in the liver in vivo. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to overexpress caveolin specifically in the liver of diabetic obese mice, which were generated with a high-fat diet. Expression of molecules involved in IR signaling, such as IR or Akt, remained unchanged after gene transfer. However, hepatic glycogen synthesis was markedly increased with a decrease in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase protein expression. Insulin sensitivity was increased after caveolin gene transfer as determined by decreased blood glucose levels in response to insulin injection and fasting blood glucose levels. Glucose tolerant test performance was also improved. Similar improvements were obtained in KKA(y) genetically diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of caveolin-3 in hepatic cells also enhanced IR signaling, as shown by increased phosphorylation of IR in response to insulin stimulation and higher glycogen synthesis at baseline. These effects were attributed mostly to increased insulin receptor activity and caveolin-mediated, direct inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which was increased in obese mouse livers. In conclusion, our results suggest that caveolin is an important regulator of glucose metabolism that can enhance insulin signals.
    AJP Cell Physiology 11/2009; 298(3):C450-6. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that chronic stimulation of the prostaglandin E2-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signal pathway plays a critical role in intimal cushion formation in perinatal ductus arteriosus (DA) through promoting synthesis of hyaluronan. We hypothesized that Epac, a newly identified effector of cAMP, may play a role in intimal cushion formation (ICF) in the DA distinct from that of PKA. In the present study, we found that the levels of Epac1 and Epac2 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the rat DA during the perinatal period. A specific EP4 agonist, ONO-AE1-329, increased Rap1 activity in the presence of a PKA inhibitor, PKI-(14-22)-amide, in DA smooth muscle cells. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (O-Me-cAMP), a cAMP analog selective to Epac activator, promoted migration of DA smooth muscle cells (SMC) in a dose-dependent manner. Adenovirus-mediated Epac1 or Epac2 gene transfer further enhanced O-Me-cAMP-induced cell migration, although the effect of Epac1 overexpression on cell migration was stronger than that of Epac2. In addition, transfection of small interfering RNAs for Epac1, but not Epac2, significantly inhibited serum-mediated migration of DA SMCs. In the presence of O-Me-cAMP, actin stress fibers were well organized with enhanced focal adhesion, and cell shape was widely expanded. Adenovirus-mediated Epac1, but not Epac2 gene transfer, induced prominent ICF in the rat DA explants when compared with those with green fluorescent protein gene transfer. The thickness of intimal cushion became significantly greater (1.98-fold) in Epac1-overexpressed DA. O-Me-cAMP did not change hyaluronan production, although it decreased proliferation of DA SMCs. The present study demonstrated that Epac, especially Epac1, plays an important role in promoting SMC migration and thereby ICF in the rat DA.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 283(42):28702-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular remodeling after mechanoinjury largely depends on the migration of smooth muscle cells, an initial key step to wound healing. However, the role of the second messenger system, in particular, the cAMP signal, in regulating such remodeling remains controversial. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) has been identified as a new target molecule of the cAMP signal, which is independent from PKA. We thus examined whether Epac plays a distinct role from PKA in vascular remodeling. To examine the role of Epac and PKA in migration, we used primary culture smooth muscle cells from both the fetal and adult rat aorta. A cAMP analog selective to PKA, 8-(4-parachlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP), decreased cell migration, whereas an Epac-selective analog, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, enhanced migration. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of PKA decreased cell migration, whereas that of Epac1 significantly enhanced cell migration. Striking morphological differences were observed between pCPT-cAMP- and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-treated aortic smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Epac1 enhanced the development of neointimal formation in fetal rat aortic tissues in organ culture. When the mouse femoral artery was injured mechanically in vivo, we found that the expression of Epac1 was upregulated in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas that of PKA was downregulated with the progress of neointimal thickening. Our findings suggest that Epac1, in opposition to PKA, increases vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Epac may thus play an important role in advancing vascular remodeling and restenosis upon vascular injury.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2008; 295(4):H1547-55. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Certain anti-cancer prodrugs are subject to cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism and become more active. Because CYP activity may be regulated by phosphorylation via adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A, selective adenylyl cyclase subtype activators may be utilized in future chemotherapy to regulate CYP activity as a switch in a tumor tissue-specific manner.
    Drug metabolism letters. 09/2007; 1(3):176-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Certain anti-cancer prodrugs are subject to cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism and become more active. Because CYP activity may be regulated by phosphorylation via adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A, selective adenylyl cyclase subtype activators may be utilized in future chemotherapy to regulate CYP activity as a switch in a tumor tissue-specific manner.
    Drug Metabolism Letters 07/2007; 1(3):176-178.
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    ABSTRACT: Caveolae, discovered by electron microscope in the 1950s, are membrane invaginations that accommodate various molecules that are involved in cellular signaling. Caveolin, a major protein component of caveolae identified in 1990s, has been known to inhibit the function of multiple caveolar proteins, such as kinases, which are involved in cell growth and proliferation, and thus considered to be a general growth signal inhibitor. Recent studies using transgenic mouse models have suggested that insulin signal may be exempted from this inhibition, which rather requires the presence of caveolin for proper signaling. Caveolin may stabilize insulin receptor protein or directly stimulate insulin receptors. Other studies have demonstrated that caveolae provide the TC10 complex with cellular microdomains for glucose transportation through Glut4. These findings suggest that caveolin plays an important role in insulin signal to maintain glucose metabolism in intact animals. However, the role of caveolin in insulin signal may differ from that in other transmembrane receptor signals.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2005; 17(10):1175-82. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is preceded by the development of insulin resistance, in which the action of insulin is impaired, largely in skeletal muscles. Caveolin-3 (Cav3) is a muscle-specific subtype of caveolin, an example of a scaffolding protein found within membranes. Cav is also known as growth signal inhibitor, although it was recently demonstrated that the genetic disruption of Cav3 did not augment growth in mice. We found, however, that the lack of Cav3 led to the development of insulin resistance, as exemplified by decreased glucose uptake in skeletal muscles, impaired glucose tolerance test performance, and increases in serum lipids. Such impairments were markedly augmented in the presence of streptozotocin, a pancreatic beta cell toxin, suggesting that the mice were susceptible to severe diabetes in the presence of an additional risk factor. Insulin-stimulated activation of insulin receptors and downstream molecules, such as IRS-1 and Akt, was attenuated in the skeletal muscles of Cav3 null mice, but not in the liver, without affecting protein expression or subcellular localization. Genetic transfer of Cav3 by needle injection restored insulin signaling in skeletal muscles. Our findings suggest that Cav3 is an enhancer of insulin signaling in skeletal muscles but does not act as a scaffolding molecule for insulin receptors.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2004; 101(34):12670-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor