Stéphane Laurent

Université René Descartes - Paris 5, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (494)1843.67 Total impact

  • Hasan Obeid · Hakim Khettab · Magid Hallab · Pierre Boutouyrie · Stéphane Laurent ·

    Artery Research 12/2015; 12:12. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2015.10.231

  • Artery Research 12/2015; 12:46. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2015.10.030

  • Artery Research 12/2015; 12:43-44. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2015.10.019

  • Artery Research 12/2015; 12:10. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2015.10.224

  • Artery Research 12/2015; 12:24. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2015.10.283

  • Artery Research 12/2015; 12:15. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2015.10.245
  • Sandrine Millasseau · Stephane Laurent · Pierre Boutouyrie ·

    Journal of Hypertension 11/2015; 33(12):2550-2551. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000755 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2015; 66(19):2116-2125. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.888 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the BEtter control of BP in hypertensive pAtients monitored Using the HOTMAN sYstem study, we investigated whether utilizing noninvasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters combined with a drug selection algorithm (integrated hemodynamic management - IHM) compared with conventional drug selection may improve uncontrolled hypertension in European Hypertension Excellence centers. Method: Uncontrolled (office SBP >140 mmHg and ambulatory daytime SBP >135 mmHg while taking ≥2 antihypertensive drugs) essential hypertensive patients were referred to five European Hypertension Excellence centers and, if eligible, were randomized to IHM-guided (n = 83) vs. conventional (control, n = 84) treatment adjustment in an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective randomized parallel groups controlled study. Results: The average number of antihypertensive drugs increased from 3.1 to 4.1 in both groups and differed only in a rise of the use of diuretics in the IHM groups (from 13 to 31%). Daytime SBP, defined as the primary endpoint, decreased markedly and to the same extent from baseline to 6 months in IHM (-15.8 ± 14.8 mmHg) and control (-15.4 ± 14.5 mmHg) groups (P = 0.87), with a similar behavior of office SBP (no between group differences, P = 0.18). Average number of adverse events was significantly lower in IHM than in controls (P = 0.008) but of the more general type and not necessarily related to drug treatment. Conclusion: Thus, noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring associated with a drug selection algorithm induced similar reductions in ambulatory daytime and office SBP compared with conventional drug selection in uncontrolled hypertensive patients referred to European Hypertension Excellence centers.Clinical Trial Registration - URL: Unique identifier: NCT01482364.
    Journal of Hypertension 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000749 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness, representing mainly aortic stiffness. As compared with the elastic carotid and aorta, the more muscular femoral artery may be differently associated with cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs), or, as shown in a recent study, provide additional predictive information beyond carotid-femoral PWV. Still, clinical application is hampered by the absence of reference values. Therefore, our aim was to establish age and sex-specific reference values for femoral stiffness in healthy individuals and to investigate the associations with CV-RFs. METHODS: Femoral artery distensibility coefficient, the inverse of stiffness, was calculated as the ratio of relative diastolic-systolic distension (obtained from ultrasound echo-tracking) and pulse pressure among 5069 individuals (49.5% men, age range: 15-87 years). Individuals without cardiovascular disease (CVD), CV-RFs and medication use (n = 1489; 43% men) constituted a healthy subpopulation used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of femoral artery distensibility coefficient across age. RESULTS: In the total population, femoral artery distensibility coefficient Z-scores were independently associated with BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and total to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio. Standardized βs, in men and women, respectively, were -0.18 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.23 to -0.13] and -0.19 (-0.23 to -0.14) for BMI; -0.13 (-0.18 to -0.08) and -0.05 (-0.10 to -0.01) for MAP; and -0.07 (-0.11 to -0.02) and -0.16 (-0.20 to -0.11) for total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. CONCLUSION: In young and middle-aged men and women, normal femoral artery stiffness does not change substantially with age up to the sixth decade. CV-RFs related to metabolic disease are associated with femoral artery stiffness.
    Journal of Hypertension 10/2015; 33(10):1997-2009. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000655 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive measures of common carotid artery properties, such as diameter and distension, and pulse pressure, have been widely used to determine carotid artery distensibility coefficient - a measure of carotid stiffness (stiffness ∼1/distensibility coefficient). Carotid stiffness has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may therefore be a useful intermediate marker for CVD. We aimed to establish age and sex-specific reference intervals of carotid stiffness. METHODS: We combined data on 22 708 individuals (age range 15-99 years, 54% men) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD and established cardiovascular risk factors constituted a healthy sub-population (n = 3601, 48% men) and were used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of carotid distensibility coefficient across age. RESULTS: In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n = 12 906, 52% men), carotid distensibility coefficient Z-scores based on these percentile equations were independently and negatively associated, in men and women, respectively, with diabetes {-0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.41; -0.15] and -0.27 (-0.43; -0.12)}, mean arterial pressure [-0.26 (-0.29; -0.24) and -0.32 (-0.35; -0.29)], total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio [-0.05 (-0.09; -0.02) and -0.05 (-0.11; 0.01)] and BMI [-0.06 (-0.09; -0.04) and -0.05 (-0.08; -0.02)], whereas these were positively associated with smoking [0.30 (0.24; 0.36) and 0.24 (0.18; 0.31)]. CONCLUSIONS: We estimated age and sex-specific percentiles of carotid stiffness in a healthy population and assessed the association between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid distensibility coefficient Z-scores, which enables comparison of carotid stiffness values between (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures.
    Journal of Hypertension 10/2015; 33(10):1981-96. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000654 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: We assessed the influence of medication adherence on blood pressure (BP) control and target organ damage in a pre-specified analysis of a published trial comparing sequential nephron blockade (SNB) or sequential renin-angiotensin system blockade (SRASB) in patients with resistant hypertension. Methods: Patients were randomized to SNB (n = 82) or SRASB (n = 82) and studied at baseline and after 12 weeks. BP was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured by applanation tonometry and left ventricular mass (LVM) by echocardiography. Low medication adherence was assessed through plasma irbesartan concentration below 20 ng/ml; urinary N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline/creatinine ratio below 4 nmol/mmol; last medication intake before visit greater than 24 h and pill counting below 80% of theoretical intake. Medication adherence score (sum of items, max = 4) is defined as low (medication adherence score <2) or acceptable (medication adherence score ≥2). Results: Among 164 patients, 134 (81.7%) had acceptable medication adherence and 30 (18.3%) low medication adherence, with similar proportions in the SNB and SRASB arms. After 12 weeks, in patients with acceptable medication adherence, BP was more frequently controlled in those treated with SNB (64%), than SRASB (18%; P < 0.001). The difference in daytime SBP was -11.5 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -15.4 to -7.5, P < 0.0001] in patients with acceptable medication adherence. In contrast, in patients with low medication adherence, the difference between groups was smaller and not significant (-9.4 mmHg, 95% CI -20.4 to 1.7, P = 0.09). Independently of BP changes, PWV and LVM decreased more in the SNB than in the SRASB arm when medication adherence was acceptable (-0.52 m/s, 95% CI -1.3 to -0.007, P = 0.047; and -24 g/m, 95% CI -36 to -12, P = 0.0003), whereas no significant changes were observed in low medication adherence patients. Conclusion: Medication adherence contributes to BP-lowering and regression of target organ damage. The differential effects of SNB and SRASB is observed in patients with acceptable medication adherence, and not in patients with low medication adherence.
    Journal of Hypertension 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000737 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective: Blood pressure variability (BPV) within 24 h or between visits has been found to represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study was aimed at determining whether a clinical significance can be given also to the BP variations occurring within a single clinical visit. Methods: BPV was quantified as coefficient of variation and as standard deviation (SD) of the mean of three systolic SBP values within a visit in the context of a large-cross subclinical survey (BP-CARE) of treated hypertensive patients living in Eastern European countries. The study population was divided into coefficient of variation and SD quartiles and for each quartile a relationship was sought with a large number of cardiovascular risk factors based on patients' history, physical and laboratory examinations. Results: The 6425 hypertensive patients had an age of 59.2 ± 11 years (mean ± SD); they were equally distributed by sex and displayed an average SD and coefficient of variation amounting to 5.1 ± 6.2 mmHg and 3.5 ± 4.0%, respectively. Compared with the lowest coefficient of variation quartile (Q1), patients in the highest quartile (Q4) showed a significantly greater prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (Q1: 58.5 ± 11 vs. Q4: 60.3 ± 11 years, P < 0.001), serum total cholesterol (Q1: 213.0 ± 46 vs. Q4: 216.4 ± 51 mg/dl, P < 0.05), blood glucose (Q1: 106.2 ± 35 vs. Q4: 109.8 ± 39 mg/dl, P < 0.005), previous cardiovascular events (Q1: 57.4 vs. Q4: 63.9%, P < 0.001), and resistant hypertension (Q1: 26.3 vs. Q4: 34.1%, P < 0.001). They also showed higher office (Q1: 143.2 ± 18 vs. Q4: 154.3 ± 19 mmHg, P < 0.001) and 24-h ambulatory SBP values (Q1: 134.8 ± 17 vs. Q4: 141.2 ± 18 mmHg, P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained when BPV was expressed as SD. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that greater within-visit BP variabilities are associated with a worse cardiovascular risk profile. This suggests that even this type of BPV may have clinical significance.
    Journal of Hypertension 09/2015; 33(11). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000700 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -We assess the contribution of common and rare putatively functional genetic variants (most of them coding) present on the Illumina exome Beadchip to the variability of plasma lipids and stiffness of the common carotid artery. -Measurements were obtained from 2283 men and 1398 women, and after filtering and exclusion of monomorphic variants, 32827 common (minor allele frequency >0.01) and 68770 rare variants were analyzed. A large fraction of the heritability of plasma lipids is attributable to variants present on the array, especially for Triglycerides (fraction of variance attributable to measured genotypes: V(G)/Vp=31.4%, P<3.1×10(-11)) and HDLc (V(G)/Vp=26.4%, P<4.2×10(-12)). Plasma lipids were associated with common variants located in known candidate genes but no implication of rare variants could be established. Gene-sets for plasma lipids, blood pressure and coronary artery disease were defined on the basis of recent meta-analyses of genome wide association studies (GWAS). We observed a strong association between the plasma lipids gene-set and plasma lipid variables but none of the 3 GWAS gene-sets was associated with the carotid parameters. Significant V(G)/Vp ratios were observed for external (14.5%, P<2.7×10(-5)) and internal diameter (13.4%, P<4.3×10(-4)), stiffness (12.5%, P< 8.0×10(-4)), intima-media thickness (10.6%, P<7.9×10(-4)) and wall cross sectional area (13.2%, P<2.4×10(-5)). A significant association was observed between the common rs2903692 polymorphism of the CLEC16A gene and the internal diameter (P<4.3×10(-7)). -These results suggest an involvement of CLEC16A, a gene that has been reported to be associated with immune disorders, in the modulation of carotid vasodilatation.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 07/2015; 8(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.000979 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Article: PP.20.36
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FD) is a rare idiopathic, segmental, non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory vascular disease, which occurs mostly in middle-aged patients and affects medium-sized arteries (renal and carotid arteries). We previously showed that renal FD is associated with supernumerary echo interfaces (triple signal pattern) detectable on echotracking tracings of the carotid artery (CA) compared to healthy subjects (HS), but we did not study patients with essential hypertension (EH). Design and method: In a cross sectional study, we compared the geometry and the mechanical properties of CA between 50 patients with multifocal FD of renal/carotid arteries, 50 patients with EH matched for age, sex, ethnicity and BP and 50 HS matched for age, sex and ethnicity. We used 1) a high-resolution radiofrequency-based echotracking system to perform a semiquantitative arterial phenotypic scoring and to detect additional interface at the level of the CA wall, and 2) Sphygmocor(R) to measure carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). All measurements were performed blind to the diagnosis. Results: FD, EH and HS were well matched (52yrs, 85% women, 80%caucasian). SBP was higher in FD (125 +/- 15 mmHg) and EH (121 +/- 12 mmHg) than EH (113 +/- 10 mmHg) despite antihypertensive treatments. The FD score was significantly higher and the triple signal pattern was observed more frequently in both FD and EH than in HS, with no difference between FD and EH. This was also the case for PWV. All other parameters (CA diameter, distensibility and intima-media thickness [IMT]) did not significantly differ between the 3 groups. Copyright
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33:e316-e317. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000468348.49727.30 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial stiffness has been demonstrated to predict and be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reference values of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness, and local carotid and femoral arterial stiffness, derived from the distensibility coefficient (DC), have been established. The use of different devices and methods, however, still hampers the widespread clinical use of these reference values. The aim of this work was therefore to create a web-based application that allows easy assessment - for different methodological approaches - of a given measured value of arterial stiffness, with the application providing the percentile reference associated with that specific value. Reference values of cf-PWV (11,092 individuals; age range: 15-97 years, 49.8% men) and local carotid (22,708 individuals; age range 15-99 years; 54% men) and femoral (5,069 individuals; age range: 15-87 years; 49.5% men) arterial stiffness were obtained from literature (The Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness' Collaboration 2010) and the database of The Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness' Collaboration. Individuals without CVD and established cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs) constituted a healthy subpopulation and were used to establish equations for percentiles of cf-PWV and sex-specific percentiles of carotid and femoral DC across age. Using these established equations, an application was created (in JavaScript) to provide the percentile reference value from routine parameters obtained in clinical practice. The tool can be found at:∼flondono/ and consists of two panels (see figure). The first panel (1) presents a menu, where the user selects the parameter to be determined (or standardized). Then an application is displayed in the second panel (2): a. Carotid DC; b. Femoral DC; c. cf-PWV, or d. cf-PWV conversion. Subsequently, the user provides a number of inputs which are used to calculate the selected parameter, the percentile and, when relevant, additional information. An easy and intuitive interface was created to assess a given measurement of arterial stiffness relative to know reference values.(Figure is included in full-text article.).
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33 Suppl 1 - ESH 2015 Abstract Book:e60-e. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467505.60342.95 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FD) is a rare idiopathic, segmental, non-atherosclerotic non-inflammatory vascular disease. We previously showed that FD is a general arterial disease with focal exacerbation of the trait. However, whether endothelial dysfunction may be involved in the pathophysiology of FD is unclear. In a cross sectional study, we compared the endothelial function between 50 patients with multifocal FD of renal/carotid arteries confirmed by CT-angiography, 50 essential hypertensive (EH) patients matched for age, sex, ethnicity and BP and 50 healthy subjects (HS) matched for age, sex and ethnicity. Exclusion criteria were: tobacco consumption, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, aspirin or statin treatment. Brachial artery (BA) FMD after release of hand ischemia and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced EID was measured using a high-resolution radiofrequency-based echotracking system blind to the diagnosis. FD, EH and HS were well matched (52yrs, 85% women, 80% caucasian). SBP was higher in FD (125 ± 15mmHg) and EH (121 ± 12mmHg) than EH (113 ± 10mmHg) despite antihypertensive treatments. BA external diameter was significantly lower in FD than in both HS and EH before, during and after hand ischemia and after GTN. BA intima media thickness (IMT), internal diameter did not differ between the 3 groups. FMD (%) or EID (%) did not significantly differ between the 3 groups. BA flow velocity did not significantly differ in any experimental condition.(Figure is included in full-text article.) CONCLUSIONS:: In conclusion, despite showing similar acute vasodilatory responses to flow and GTN, FD patients differed from EH and HS in terms of arterial morphology with smaller BA diameter associated with similar IMT. This paradoxical remodeling may suggest a chronic defect in the endothelium-dependent pathways involved in arterial remodeling in FD patients.
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33 Suppl 1 - ESH 2015 Abstract Book:e82-e83. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467574.64325.90 · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence to antihypertensive treatment (AHT) is usually assessed by scales such as Morisky Medication Adherence Scale questionnaire (MMAS-4) but objective urinary drug levels quantification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS-MS) is now available. Our aim was to compare adherence assessed by LCMS-MS or MMAS-4, in patients with resistant hypertension (RH), compared to patients with well controlled hypertension (CH). RH cohort consisted in 82 patients with daytime ABPM > 135/85 mmHg after 4 weeks treatment with a standardised triple AHT participating to a clinical trial. The CH cohort consisted in 91 patients followed in a routine care practice with controlled office BP (<140/90 mmHg) by a median of 2 (range 1-4) AHT. Urinary levels of 14 AHT or their metabolites were evaluated by LC/MS-MS. MMAS-4 was only available in CH. Patients were aware (RH) or not (CH) of the measurement. Non-adherence was defined as a urinary level of at least one AHT below the limit of quantification. LCMS-MS results: in the RH cohort, 63 patients (77%) were adherent, 11 (13%) were partly non-adherent and 8 (10%) were fully non-adherent. In the CH cohort, 86 (93%) were adherent, 5 (6%) were partly non-adherent, and 1 (1%) was fully non-adherent. Office SBP in the CH cohort was significantly higher in non-adherent (partially or fully) than in fully adherent patients (median: 140 vs. 130 mmHg, respectively; p = 0.01). Office DBP did not differ. According to LCMS-MS, the full adherence rate was significantly higher in CH compared to RH cohort (p = 0.002). According to MMAS-4 available in 88 CH patients, 76 (86%) were fully adherent, and 12 (14%) were medium or low adherent and no significant difference in office SBP/DBP was observed between the two subgroups. There was low or no agreement between LCMS-MS and MMAS-4, with 15/88 non concordant tests. In conclusion, measurement of urinary AHT by LCMS-MS gives relevant information on adherence to treatment in patients attending an outpatient clinic. This information is not overlapping with questionnaire tests. It confirms the role of objective non-adherence to treatment in resistance to treatment.
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33 Suppl 1 - ESH 2015 Abstract Book:e93. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467603.33785.69 · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Article: PP.03.16
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility to measure local and regional indices of aortic function. However calculations of these indices usually require blood pressure (BP) values. Up to now, because of its easier availability, brachial BP was used instead of local aortic pressure. The SphygmoCor Xcel system (AtCor Medical, Australia) estimates aortic pressure non-invasively. It consists in a MRI compatible brachial cuff connected via a hose to a recording unit and computer. The aim of this study was to compare brachial and central BP values given by SphgymoCor Xcel with the standard 2 meters hose and a 6 meters hose more suitable for central BP assessment during MRI. Design and method: After 5 min rest supine, BP was measured simultaneously on both arms with one 2m SphgymoCor Xcel and one 6m SphgymoCor Xcel. Arms were randomly assigned. Tubing were then interchanged (cuffs unchanged) and recordings repeated. Results: 38 patients were studied (63% men). Seven (18%) were treated for hypertension, 2 (5%) for diabetes and 3 (11%) for dyslipidaemia. Median age was 36.8 years (28.5-58.4). Brachial systolic (bSBP2), diastolic (bDBP2) and central systolic BP (cSBP2) with the standard 2m hose varied from 95 to 158, from 57 to 96 and from 85 to 145 mmHg respectively. The difference between left and right arm was 3.1 +/- 7.8 (mean +/- SD, p = 0.02), 1.1 +/- 5.3 (p = 0.2) and 2.5 +/- 7.2 mmHg (p = 0.04) for bSBP2, bDBP2 and cSBP2 respectively. Values obtained on left and right sides were then averaged. There was no difference between bSBP, bDBP and cSBP obtained with the 2 and 6m tubing (-1.2 +/- 3.0 mmHg, p = 0.02, -0,7 +/- 2,6 mmHg, p = 0.07 and 0.2 +/- 2,4 mmHg p = 0.56, respectively). Augmented pressure (AP) and augmentation index (Aix) with 2m and 6m tubing were statistically different (2.7 +/- 4.0 mmHg, p < 0.001 and 5.3 +/- 7.6 %, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Brachial and central BP recorded with SphygmoCor Xcel and a 6m hose are in agreement with measurements done with the standard 2m hose. Assessing central BP during MRI exam is hence feasible. Other parameters (AP and Aix) based on higher frequency content are however less reliable. Copyright
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33:e157. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467799.39142.06 · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Article: 4C.08
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke may be the first manifestation of cerebrovascular disease. However, subclinical organ complications of underlying arterial stiffness and hypertension may coexist and stratify outcome. The study aimed to examine measures of arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) on subclinical brain damage in acute ischemic stroke patients. In a prospective study, we enrolled 132 (68,6% males) patients with acute ischemic stroke, AIS (age 62.2 ± 12.2 years, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 7.1 ± 6.5, mean ± SD). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), central augmentation index (cAIx), as well as central and peripheral BPs were measured (SphygmoCor, Omron, respectively) one week after stroke onset. The presence of brain subclinical lesions was graded on admission computed tomography scans using van Swieten criteria with any relevant cerebral small vessel disease considered as brain microvascular damage. In univariate analysis, high carotid-femoral PWV (p = 0.00005), and high cAIx (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with brain microvascular damage. Age, presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, previous ischemic stroke, but not BP values, also predicted brain outcome. In multivariate analysis, the predictive value of carotid-femoral PWV remained significant (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62; p = 0.02). By contrast, cAIx had no significant predictive value after adjustment. Increased aortic stiffness is associated with brain microvascular disease in patients with acute ischemic stroke, beyond and above classical risk factors. PWV provides a useful new tool for identification of subclinical brain damage in AIS.
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33 Suppl 1 - ESH 2015 Abstract Book:e58. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467502.75589.a8 · 4.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

25k Citations
1,843.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001-2015
    • Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Ouest)
      • • Service de Pharmacologie
      • • Service de Pharmacie
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989-2014
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2013
    • Lund University
      • Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2006-2012
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1988-2012
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
  • 2008-2010
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Centre de recherche des Cordeliers - UMR_S 872
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007-2010
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1988-1999
    • Hôtel-Dieu de Paris – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1990-1998
    • American Hospital of Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France