[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an immediate and critical need for a rapid, broad-based genotyping method that can evaluate multiple mutations simultaneously in clinical cancer specimens and identify patients most likely to benefit from targeted agents now in use or in late-stage clinical development. We have implemented a prospective genotyping approach to characterize the frequency and spectrum of mutations amenable to drug targeting present in urothelial, colorectal, endometrioid, and thyroid carcinomas and in melanoma. Cancer patients were enrolled in a Personalized Cancer Medicine Registry that houses both clinical information and genotyping data, and mutation screening was performed using a multiplexed assay panel with mass spectrometry-based analysis to detect 390 mutations across 30 cancer genes. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated from 820 Registry patients. The genes most frequently mutated across multiple cancer types were BRAF, PIK3CA, KRAS, and NRAS. Less common mutations were also observed in AKT1, CTNNB1, FGFR2, FGFR3, GNAQ, HRAS, and MAP2K1. Notably, 48 of 77 PIK3CA-mutant cases (62%) harbored at least one additional mutation in another gene, most often KRAS. Among melanomas, only 54 of 73 BRAF mutations (74%) were the V600E substitution. These findings demonstrate the diversity and complexity of mutations in druggable targets among the different cancer types and underscore the need for a broad-spectrum, prospective genotyping approach to personalized cancer medicine.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 09/2011; 13(5):504-13. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have proven to be effective in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that express EGFR. We recently published a phase I study of weekly matuzumab plus paclitaxel. This therapy was well tolerated and showed clinical responses in the majority of patients. Although matuzumab displays potent antitumor activity in some patients, not all patients respond well to treatment. Whether dysregulation of EGFR-mediated pathways precludes or sensitizes cells to paclitaxel is unknown. We sought to determine molecular predictive factors for therapy response in a phase I/II study patient cohort treated with matuzumab+/-paclitaxel. Twenty-three cases [including one complete response (CR), three partial responses (PR), 10 stable diseases (SD)] were screened using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR/sequencing and denaturing wave high performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) for expression, amplification, and mutation status of EGFR and downstream signaling pathways. All patients with PR or CR displayed an either high overall or single-cell EGFR expression in the majority of cells. In addition, all of the moderate responders, who achieved SD after at least two cycles of therapy, showed diffuse EGFR expression rates and/or strong single-cell EGFR expression. In contrast, 44% of the nonresponders showed low overall or single-cell EGFR expression levels. No low-expressing EGFR cases were present within the responder group. In addition, among patients with a gain-of-function mutation in KRAS primary therapy failure and/or short responses to therapy were observed. Our data suggest that EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status is predictive for clinical response to matuzumab +/- paclitaxel in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 04/2009; 8(3):481-9. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently identified a KIT exon 11 mutation in an anorectal melanoma of a patient who had an excellent response to treatment with imatinib. To determine the frequency of KIT mutations across melanoma subtypes, we surveyed a large series of tumors.
One hundred eighty-nine melanomas were screened for mutations in KIT exons 11, 13, and 17. KIT copy number was assessed by quantitative PCR. A subset of cases was evaluated for BRAF and NRAS mutations. Immunohistochemistry was done to assess KIT (CD117) expression.
KIT mutations were detected in 23% (3 of 13) of acral melanomas, 15.6% (7 of 45) of mucosal melanomas, 7.7% (1 of 13) of conjunctival melanomas, 1.7% (1 of 58) of cutaneous melanomas, and 0% (0 of 60) of choroidal melanomas. Almost all the KIT mutations were of the type predicted to be imatinib sensitive. There was no overlap with NRAS mutations (11.1% of acral and 24.3% of mucosal tumors) or with BRAF mutations (absent in mucosal tumors). Increased KIT copy number was detected in 27.3% (3 of 11) of acral and 26.3% (10 of 38) of mucosal melanomas, but was less common among cutaneous (6.7%; 3 of 45), conjunctival (7.1%; 1 of 14), and choroidal melanomas (0 of 28). CD117 expression, present in 39% of 105 tumors representing all melanoma types, did not correlate with either KIT mutation status or KIT copy number.
Our findings confirm that KIT mutations are most common in acral and mucosal melanomas but do not necessarily correlate with KIT copy number or CD117 expression. Screening for KIT mutations may open up new treatment options for melanoma patients.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2008; 14(21):6821-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 70-80 percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia enter complete remission, but at least half of these patients who achieve remission go on to relapse. Improved treatment is likely to come from increasing the time to relapse, especially for younger patients. With the vastly increasing number of targeted therapies there is a strong need for short-term end-points to efficiently test such therapies for further pursuance. Minimal residual disease assessment may offer such an end-point since it is a strong independent prognostic factor. As proof of principle we examined this concept for FLT3-ITD status at diagnosis.
We determined FLT3-ITD status in bone marrow samples from 196 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. The frequencies of residual leukemic cells of these 196 patients were assessed in 267 follow-up bone marrow samples using immunophenotypic assessment of minimal residual disease.
The median frequency of residual leukemic cells after the first cycle of chemotherapy was 8.5-fold higher in patients with FLT3-ITD than in those with wild type FLT3. Such a difference translates into differences in survival, even if other potentially outcome-modulating mutations, such as NPM1, KIT, NRAS, KRAS, FLT3-exon 20 and PTPN11 are included in the analysis.
This study shows that it could be possible to study the efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors using the level of minimal residual disease as a short-term end-point.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) harbor mutant KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) kinases, which are imatinib targets. Sunitinib, which targets KIT, PDGFRs, and several other kinases, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with GIST after they experience imatinib failure. We evaluated the impact of primary and secondary kinase genotype on sunitinib activity.
Tumor responses were assessed radiologically in a phase I/II trial of sunitinib in 97 patients with metastatic, imatinib-resistant/intolerant GIST. KIT/PDGFRA mutational status was determined for 78 patients by using tumor specimens obtained before and after prior imatinib therapy. Kinase mutants were biochemically profiled for sunitinib and imatinib sensitivity.
Clinical benefit (partial response or stable disease for > or = 6 months) with sunitinib was observed for the three most common primary GIST genotypes: KIT exon 9 (58%), KIT exon 11 (34%), and wild-type KIT/PDGFRA (56%). Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer for patients with primary KIT exon 9 mutations (P = .0005) or with a wild-type genotype (P = .0356) than for those with KIT exon 11 mutations. The same pattern was observed for overall survival (OS). PFS and OS were longer for patients with secondary KIT exon 13 or 14 mutations (which involve the KIT-adenosine triphosphate binding pocket) than for those with exon 17 or 18 mutations (which involve the KIT activation loop). Biochemical profiling studies confirmed the clinical results.
The clinical activity of sunitinib after imatinib failure is significantly influenced by both primary and secondary mutations in the predominant pathogenic kinases, which has implications for optimization of the treatment of patients with GIST.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2008; 26(33):5352-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the activity of imatinib in treating advanced, life-threatening malignancies expressing one or more imatinib-sensitive tyrosine kinases.
This was a phase II, open-label, single arm study. Patients > or = 15 years old with malignancies showing histologic or molecular evidence of expression/activation of imatinib-sensitive tyrosine kinases were enrolled. Patients were treated with 400 or 800 mg/d imatinib for hematologic malignancy and solid tumors, respectively. Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective was to identify evidence of imatinib activity with tumor response as the primary end point.
One hundred eighty-six patients with 40 different malignancies were enrolled (78.5% solid tumors, 21.5% hematologic malignancies). Confirmed response occurred in 8.9% of solid tumor patients (4 complete, 9 partial) and 27.5% of hematologic malignancy patients (8 complete, 3 partial). Notable activity of imatinib was observed in only five tumor types (aggressive fibromatosis, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, hypereosinophilic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, and systemic mastocytosis). A total of 106 tumors were screened for activating mutations: five KIT mutations and no platelet-derived growth factor receptor mutations were found. One patient with systemic mastocytosis and a partial response to therapy had a novel imatinib-sensitive KIT mutation (D816T). There was no clear relationship between expression or activation of wild-type imatinib-sensitive tyrosine kinases and clinical response.
Clinical benefit was largely confined to diseases with known genomic mechanisms of activation of imatinib target kinases. Our results indicate an important role for molecular characterization of tumors to identify patients likely to benefit from imatinib treatment.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2008; 14(9):2717-25. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fewer than 15% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in pediatric patients harbor KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations in contrast to a mutation rate of 80% in adult GISTs. However, some therapeutic inhibitors of KIT have efficacy in pediatric GIST, suggesting that KIT may, nevertheless, play an important role in oncogenesis. In adult GIST, characteristic cytogenetic changes occur during progression to malignancy. A better understanding of mechanisms of genetic progression and KIT and PDGFRA transforming roles in pediatric GIST might facilitate treatment advances. KIT and PDGFRA mutation analysis was done in 27 pediatric GISTs. The activation status of KIT, PDGFRA, and downstream signaling intermediates was defined, and chromosomal aberrations were determined by single nucleotide polymorphism assays. Mutations in KIT or PDGFRA were identified in 11% of pediatric GISTs. KIT and the signaling intermediates AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase were activated in pediatric GISTs. In particular, most pediatric KIT-wild-type GISTs displayed levels of KIT activation similar to levels in adult KIT-mutant GISTs. Pediatric KIT-wild-type GISTs lacked the typical cytogenetic deletions seen in adult KIT-mutant GISTs. Notably, most pediatric KIT-wild-type GISTs progress to malignancy without acquiring large-scale chromosomal aberrations, which is a phenomenon not reported previously in malignant solid tumors. KIT activation levels in pediatric KIT-wild-type GISTs are comparable with those in KIT-mutant GISTs. Therapies that inhibit KIT activation, or crucial KIT signaling intermediates, should be explored in pediatric KIT-wild-type GIST.
Cancer Research 11/2007; 67(19):9084-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the prognosis of pediatric leukemias has improved considerably, many patients still have relapses. Tipifarnib, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI), was developed to target malignancies with activated RAS, including leukemia. We tested 52 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 36 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) samples for in vitro sensitivity to tipifarnib using a total cell-kill assay and compared these results to those obtained with normal bone marrow (N BM) samples (n = 25). AML samples were significantly more sensitive to tipifarnib compared to B-cell precursor ALL (BCP ALL) or N BM samples. Within AML, French-American-British (FAB) M5 samples were most sensitive to tipifarnib. T-cell ALL samples were significantly more sensitive than BCP ALL and N BM samples. In AML there was a marked correlation between tipifarnib resistance and daunorubicin or etoposide resistance, but not to cytarabine or 6-thioguanine. RAS mutations were present in 32% of AML and 18% of ALL samples, but there was no correlation between RAS mutational status and sensitivity to tipifarnib. Future studies are needed to identify biomarkers predictive of tipifarnib sensitivity. In addition, clinical studies, especially in T-cell ALL, seem warranted.