[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii have complex life cycles within different hosts and their infectivity relies on their capacity to regulate gene expression. However, little is known about the nuclear factors that regulate gene expression in these pathogens. Here, we report that T. gondii enolase TgENO2 is targeted to the nucleus of actively replicating parasites, where it specifically binds to nuclear chromatin in vivo. Using a ChIP-Seq technique, we provide evidence for TgENO2 enrichment at the 5' untranslated gene regions containing the putative promoters of 241 nuclear genes. Ectopic expression of HA-tagged TgENO1 or TgENO2 led to changes in transcript levels of numerous gene targets. Targeted disruption of TgENO1 gene results in a decrease in brain cyst burden of chronically infected mice and in changes in transcript levels of several nuclear genes. Complementation of this knockout mutant with ectopic TgENO1-HA fully restored normal transcript levels. Our findings reveal that enolase functions extend beyond glycolytic activity and include a direct role in coordinating gene regulation in T. gondii.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105820. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to establish the presence and function of the mucous layer surrounding spores of Bacillus subtilis. First, an external layer of variable thickness and regularity was often observed on B. subtilis spores. Further analyses were performed on B. subtilis 98/7 spores surrounded by a thick layer. The mechanical removal of the layer did not affect their resistance to heat or their ability to germinate but rendered the spore less hydrophilic, more adherent to stainless steel, and more resistant to cleaning. This layer was mainly composed of 6-deoxyhexoses, ie rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-rhamnose and quinovose, but also of glucosamine and muramic lactam, known also to be a part of the bacterial peptidoglycan. The specific hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan using lysozyme altered the structure of the required mucous layer and affected the physico-chemical properties of the spores. Such an outermost mucous layer has also been seen on spores of B. licheniformis and B. clausii isolated from food environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ORAI family channels have emerged as important players in malignant transformation, yet the way in which they reprogram cancer cells remains elusive. Here we show that the relative expression levels of ORAI proteins in prostate cancer are different from that in noncancerous tissue. By mimicking ORAI protein remodeling observed in primary tumors, we demonstrate in in vitro models that enhanced ORAI3 expression favors heteromerization with ORAI1 to form a novel channel. These channels support store-independent Ca(2+) entry, thereby promoting cell proliferation and a smaller number of functional homomeric ORAI1-based store-operated channels, which are important in supporting susceptibility to apoptosis. Thus, our findings highlight disrupted dynamic equilibrium of channel-forming proteins as an oncogenic mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growing number of studies suggested that inhibition of autophagy enhances the efficacy of Akt kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. Here, we provide evidence that ML-9, a widely used inhibitor of Akt kinase, myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), represents the 'two-in-one' compound that stimulates autophagosome formation (by downregulating Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway) and inhibits their degradation (by acting like a lysosomotropic agent and increasing lysosomal pH). We show that ML-9 as a monotherapy effectively induces prostate cancer cell death associated with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Further, ML-9 enhances the anticancer activity of docetaxel, suggesting its potential application as an adjuvant to existing anticancer chemotherapy. Altogether, our results revealed the complex effect of ML-9 on autophagy and indentified ML-9 as an attractive tool for targeting autophagy in cancer therapy through dual inhibition of both the Akt pathway and the autophagy.
Cell Death & Disease 04/2014; 5:e1193. · 5.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric mucosa is a necessary prerequisite for the pathogenesis of H. pylori related diseases. In this study, we investigated GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc-, denominated N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine (lacdiNAc) motif, located in MUC5AC gastric mucins as the target for bacterial binding to the human gastric mucosa.. The expression of LacdiNAc carried by gastric mucins was correlated with H. pylori localization and all strains tested adhered significantly to this motif. Proteomic analysis and mutants construction allowed the identification of a yet uncharacterized bacterial adhesin, LabA, which specifically recognizes lacdiNAc. These findings unravel a target of adhesion for H. pylori in addition to moieties recognized by the well characterized adhesins BabA and SabA. Localization of the LabA target, restricted to the gastric mucosa, suggests a plausible explanation for the tissue tropism of these bacteria. These results pave the way for the development of alternative strategies against H. pylori infection, using adherence inhibitors.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the aggregation of a fragment of the neuronal protein Tau that contains part of the proline rich domain and of the microtubule binding repeats. When incubated at 37°C with heparin, the fragment readily forms fibers as witnessed by Thioflavin T fluorescence. Electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy show bundled ribbon like structures with most residues rigidly incorporated in the fibril. Without its cysteines, this fragment still forms fibers of a similar morphology, but with lesser Thioflavin T binding sites and more mobility ifor the C-terminal residues.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), the principal constituent of reusable water bottles, metal cans, and plastic food containers, has been shown to be involved in human prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of BPA on PCa cell migration and the pathways involved in these processes. Using the transwell technique, we clearly show for the first time that the pre-treatment of the cells with BPA (1-10 nM) induces human PCa cell migration. Using a calcium imaging technique, we show that BPA pre-treatment induces an amplification of Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) in LNCaP cells. RT-PCR and Western blot experiments allowed the identification of the ion channel proteins which are up-regulated by BPA pre-treatments. These include the Orai1 protein, which is known as an important SOCE actor in various cell systems, including human PCa cells. Using a siRNA strategy, we observed that BPA-induced amplification of SOCE was Orai1-dependent. Interestingly, the BPA-induced PCa cell migration was suppressed when the calcium entry was impaired by the use of SOCE inhibitors (SKF96365, BTP2), or when the extracellular calcium was chelated. Taken together, the results presented here show that BPA induces PCa cells migration via a modulation of the ion channel protein expression involved in calcium entry and in cancer cell migration. The present data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of an environmental factor on cancer cells and suggest both the necessity of preventive measures and the possibility of targeting ion channels in the treatment of PCa cell metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In screening indigenous soil filamentous fungi for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, an isolate of the Fusarium solani was found to incorporate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into fungal hyphae before degradation and mineralization. The mechanisms involved in BaP uptake and intracellular transport remain unresolved. To address this, the incorporation of two PAHs, BaP, and phenanthrene (PHE) were studied in this fungus. The fungus incorporated more BaP into cells than PHE, despite the 400-fold higher aqueous solubility of PHE compared with BaP, indicating that PAH incorporation is not based on a simple diffusion mechanism. To identify the mechanism of BaP incorporation and transport, microscopic studies were undertaken with the fluorescence probes Congo Red, BODIPY®493/503, and FM®4-64, targeting different cell compartments respectively fungal cell walls, lipids, and endocytosis. The metabolic inhibitor sodium azide at 100 mM totally blocked BaP incorporation into fungal cells indicating an energy-requirement for PAH uptake into the mycelium. Cytochalasins also inhibited BaP uptake by the fungus and probably its intracellular transport into fungal hyphae. The perfect co-localization of BaP and BODIPY reveals that lipid bodies constitute the intracellular storage sites of BaP in F. solani. Our results demonstrate an energy-dependent uptake of BaP and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by F. solani.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2013; 21(5). · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis) and Plasmodium (malaria) use unique secretory organelles for migration, cell invasion, manipulation of host cell functions, and cell egress. In particular, the apical secretory micronemes and rhoptries of apicomplexan parasites are essential for successful host infection. New findings reveal that the contents of these organelles, which are transported through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi, also require the parasite endosome-like system to access their respective organelles. In this review, we discuss recent findings that demonstrate that these parasites reduced their endosomal system and modified classical regulators of this pathway for the biogenesis of apical organelles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is strongly suspected that potassium (K(+)) channels are involved in various aspects of prostate cancer development, such as cell growth. However, the molecular nature of those K(+) channels implicated in prostate cancer cell proliferation and the mechanisms through which they control proliferation are still unknown. This study uses pharmacological, biophysical and molecular approaches to show that the main voltage-dependent K(+) current in prostate cancer LNCaP cells is carried by large-conductance BK channels. Indeed, most of the voltage-dependent current was inhibited by inhibitors of BK channels (paxillin and iberiotoxin) and by siRNA targeting BK channels. In addition, we reveal that BK channels constitute the main K(+) channel family involved in setting the resting membrane potential in LNCaP cells at around -40 mV. This consequently promotes a constitutive calcium entry through T-type Cav3.2 calcium channels. We demonstrate, using single-channel recording, confocal imaging and co-immunoprecipitation approaches, that both channels form macromolecular complexes. Finally, using flow cytometry cell cycle measurements, cell survival assays and Ki67 immunofluorescent staining, we show that both BK and Cav3.2 channels participate in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metal health: Ferroquine is a ferrocene-based analogue of the antimalarial drug chloroquine. In addition to the primary mechanism of quinoline action, fluorescent probe studies in infected red blood cells show another mechanism is at work. It is based on the production of HO(.) in the acidic and oxidizing environment of the digestive vacuole of the malaria parasite and implies that with ferroquine reinvasion can be inhibited.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 06/2013; 52(30). · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the respective roles of mechanical and chemical effects on the removal of Bacillus spores during cleaning-in-place. This analysis was performed on 12 strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis) or to less related Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus subtilis). Adherent spores were subjected to rinsing-in-place (mechanical action) and cleaning-in-place (mechanical and chemical actions) procedures, the latter involving NaOH 0.5% at 60°C. Results revealed that mechanical action alone only removed between 53 and 89% of the attached spores at a shear stress of 500Pa. This resistance to shear was not related to spore surface properties. Conversely, in the presence of NaOH at a shear stress of 4Pa, spores were readily detached, with between 80 and 99% of the adherent spores detached during CIP and the chemical action greatly depended on the strain. This finding suggests that chemical action plays the major role during CIP, whose efficacy is significantly governed by the spore surface chemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiolipin is a mitochondrion-specific phospholipid that stabilizes the assembly of respiratory chain complexes, favoring full-yield operation. It also mediates key steps in apoptosis. In Barth syndrome, an X chromosome-linked cardiomyopathy caused by tafazzin mutations, cardiolipins display acyl chain modifications and are present at abnormally low concentrations, whereas monolysocardiolipin accumulates. Using immortalized lymphoblasts from Barth syndrome patients, we showed that the production of abnormal cardiolipin led to mitochondrial alterations. Indeed, the lack of normal cardiolipin led to changes in electron transport chain stability, resulting in cellular defects. We found a destabilization of the supercomplex (respirasome) I+III2+IVn but also decreased amounts of individual complex I and IV and supercomplexes I+III and III+IV. No changes were observed in the amounts of individual complex III and complex II. We also found decreased levels of complex V. This complex is not part of the supercomplex suggesting that cardiolipin is required not only for the association/stabilization of the complexes into supercomplexes but also for the modulation of the amount of individual respiratory chain complexes. However, these alterations were compensated by an increase in mitochondrial mass, as demonstrated by electron microscopy and measurements of citrate synthase activity. We suggest that this compensatory increase in mitochondrial content prevents a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis in the cells. We also show, by extensive flow cytometry analysis, that the type II apoptosis pathway was blocked at the mitochondrial level and that the mitochondria of patients with Barth syndrome cannot bind active caspase-8. Signal transduction is thus blocked before any mitochondrial event can occur. Remarkably, basal levels of superoxide anion production were slightly higher in patients' cells than in control cells as previously evidenced via an increased protein carbonylation in the taz1Δ mutant in the yeast. This may be deleterious to cells in the long term. The consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations to apoptosis signal transduction are considered in light of the potential for the development of future treatments.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many cellular functions, including protein folding and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The ability of cells to respond to the ER stress is critical for cell survival, and disruption in such regulation can lead to apoptosis. ER stress is accompanied by alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, and the ER Ca(2+) store depletion by itself can induce ER stress and apoptosis. Despite that, the ER Ca(2+) leak channels activated in response to the ER stress remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that ER Ca(2+) depletion during the ER stress occurs via translocon, the ER protein complex involved in translation. Numerous ER stress inducers stimulate the ER Ca(2+) leak that can be prevented by translocon inhibitor, anisomycin. Expression of GRP78, an ER stress marker, increased following treatment with puromycin (a translocon opener) and was suppressed by anisomycin, confirming a primary role of translocon in ER stress induction. Inhibition of ER store depletion by anisomycin significantly reduces apoptosis stimulated by the ER stress inducers. We suggest that translocon opening is physiologically modulated by GRP78, particularly during the ER stress. The ability to modulate the ER Ca(2+) permeability and subsequent ER stress can lead to development of a novel therapeutic approach.-Hammadi, M., Oulidi, A., Gackière, F., Katsogiannou, M., Slomianny, C., Roudbaraki, M., Dewailly, E., Delcourt, P., Lepage, G., Lotteau, S., Ducreux, S., Prevarskaya, N., Van Coppenolle, F. Modulation of ER stress and apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak via translocon during unfolded protein response: involvement of GRP78.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy, or cellular self-eating, is a tightly regulated cellular pathway the main purpose of which is lysosomal degradation and subsequent recycling of cytoplasmic material to maintain normal cellular homeostasis. Defects in autophagy are linked to a variety of pathological states, including cancer. Cancer is the disease associated with abnormal tissue growth following an alteration in such fundamental cellular processes as apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, migration and autophagy. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex, as it can promote both tumor prevention and survival/treatment resistance. It's now clear that modulation of autophagy has a great potential in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings identified intracellular calcium as an important regulator of both basal and induced autophagy. Calcium is a ubiquitous secondary messenger which regulates plethora of physiological and pathological processes such as aging, neurodegeneration and cancer. The role of calcium and calcium-permeable channels in cancer is well-established, whereas the information about molecular nature of channels regulating autophagy and the mechanisms of this regulation is still limited. Here we review existing mechanisms of autophagy regulation by calcium and calcium-permeable ion channels. Furthermore, we will also discuss some calcium-permeable channels as the potential new candidates for autophagy regulation. Finally we will propose the possible link between calcium permeable channels, autophagy and cancer progression and therapeutic response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is a hallmark of advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer, for which no successful therapy exists. NED tumour cells escape apoptotic cell death by alterations of Ca(2+) homeostasis where the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is known to be a key event. We have previously shown that the downregulation of Orai1 protein representing the major molecular component of endogenous SOCE in human prostate cancer cells, and constituting the principal source of Ca(2+) influx used by the cell to trigger apoptosis, contributes to the establishment of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype (Cell Death Dis. 2010 Sep 16;1:e75.). Here, we report for the first time that the decrease of SOCE during NED may be caused by alternative NED-induced mechanism involving cytoskeleton reorganisation. NED induced by androgen deprivation resulted in a decrease of SOCE due to cortical F-actin over-polymerization which inhibits thapsigargin-induced SOCE. The disruption of F-actin polymerization by Cytochalasin D in NED cells restored SOCE, while the induction of F-actin polymerization by jasplakinolide or calyculin A diminished SOCE without changing the expression of key SOCE players: Orai1, STIM1, and TRPC1. Our data suggest that targeting cytoskeleton-induced pathways of malignant cells together with SOCE-involved channels may prove a useful strategy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45615. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A ferrocene-quinoline conjugate named ferroquine (FQ or SSR97193) is active against both chloroquine-susceptible and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax strains and/or isolates. FQ was shown to be efficient for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in humans (phase IIb of clinical trials). However, the molecular basis of FQ's mechanism of action is still unknown because few approaches (such as radioactive labelling or immunofluorescence) are available for that purpose. Previous reports from our laboratory suggest that the intramolecular hydrogen bond in the lateral side chain plays a crucial role in the antimalarial activity of the drug. We used two ruthenocenic bioprobes of FQ (with and without an intramolecular hydrogen bond) to study their localization and quantification in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We first used Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis to trace ruthenoquine (RQ, with an intramolecular hydrogen bond) and methylruthenoquine (Me-RQ, without an intramolecular hydrogen bond) in the infected red blood cells (iRBCs). We showed that RQ accumulates faster in the digestive vacuole of the iRBCs than Me-RQ. We next examined the ruthenium distribution at the ultrastructural level by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We showed that RQ accumulates faster in the parasitic digestive vacuole (DV) close to its membranes than Me-RQ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apicomplexan parasites have an assortment of unique apical secretory organelles (rhoptries and micronemes), which have crucial functions in host infection. Here, we show that a Toxoplasma gondii sortilin-like receptor (TgSORTLR) is required for the subcellular localization and formation of apical secretory organelles. TgSORTLR is a transmembrane protein that resides within Golgi-endosomal related compartments. The lumenal domain specifically interacts with rhoptry and microneme proteins, while the cytoplasmic tail of TgSORTLR recruits cytosolic sorting machinery involved in anterograde and retrograde protein transport. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal TgSORTLR lumenal domain results in dominant negative effects with the mislocalization of both endogenous TgSORTLR as well as rhoptry and microneme proteins. Conditional ablation of TgSORTLR disrupts rhoptry and microneme biogenesis, inhibits parasite motility, and blocks both invasion into and egress from host cells. Thus, the sortilin-like receptor is essential for protein trafficking and the biogenesis of key secretory organelles in Toxoplasma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of zebrafish as a model organism for human diseases was accompanied by the development of cellular model systems that extended the possibilities for in vitro manipulation and in vivo studies after cell implantation. The exploitation of zebrafish cell systems is, however, still hampered by the lack of genomic and biochemical data. Here, we lay a path toward the efficient use of ZFL, a zebrafish liver-derived cell system, as a platform for studying glycosylation. To achieve this, we established the glycomic profile of ZFL by a combination of mass spectrometry and NMR. We demonstrated that glycoproteins were substituted by highly sialylated multiantennary N-glycans, some of them comprising the unusual zebrafish epitope Galβ1-4[Neu5Ac(α2,3)]Galβ1-4[Fuc(α1,3)]GlcNAc, and core 1 multisialylated O-glycans. Similarly, these analyses established that glycolipids were dominated by sialylated gangliosides. In parallel, analyzing the expression patterns of all putative sialyl- and fucosyltransferases, we directly correlated the identified structures to the set of enzymes involved in ZFL glycome. Finally, we demonstrated that this cell system was amenable to metabolic labeling using functionalized monosaccharides that permit in vivo imaging of glycosylation processes. Altogether, glycomics, genomics, and functional studies established ZFL as a relevant cellular model for the study of glycosylation.
Journal of Proteome Research 03/2012; 11(4):2164-77. · 5.06 Impact Factor