[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) may hold potential for bone tissue engineering. Osteogenic differentiation of these cells is crucial to bone formation. Low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) is a sulphated polysaccharide that potentiates several growth factors including pro-angiogenic growth factors. To investigate whether hASC preconditioning with LMWF promoted bone repair, we compared the effects of LMWF and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on hASC phenotype and osteogenic differentiation. LMWF did not modify the stem-cell phenotype of hASCs but enhanced their osteogenic differentiation (formation of calcium deposits, increased activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase, and increased expression of osteopontin and RUNX2). However, when hASCs were exposed to LMWF before their adhesion to biphasic calcium phosphate particles and implantation in a bone-growth mouse model, no bone formation was apparent after 5 or 8 weeks, probably due to cell death. In conclusion, LMWF may hold promise for enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs before their implantation. However, concomitant vascularisation would be required to enhance bone formation.
Tissue Engineering Part A 09/2013; · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrins α6β1 and α6β4 are receptors for laminins, the main components of the basement membrane underlying the endothelial cells. In vitro, α6 integrin subunit (α6) expression at the surface of endothelial cells and their progenitors (EPCs) is up-regulated by pro-angiogenic growth factors and is crucial for adhesion, migration, and pseudotube formation. We investigated the role for α6 in post-ischaemic vascular repair in vivo.
We used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line with specific α6 gene deletion in Tie2-lineage cells. In a model of hind-limb ischaemia, Tie2-dependent α6 deletion reduced neovessel formation and reperfusion of the ischaemic limb. Concerning the role for α6 in post-ischaemic vasculogenesis, we showed previously that α6 was required for EPC recruitment at the site of ischaemia. Here, we found that α6 deletion also reduced EPC mobilization from the bone marrow after ischaemia. Examination of the ischaemic muscles showed that Tie2-dependent α6 deletion decreased the recruitment of pro-angiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. In the Matrigel plug assay, fibroblast growth factor-2-induced vascularization was diminished in mice lacking endothelial α6. To specifically investigate the role for α6 in angiogenesis, aortic rings were embedded in Matrigel or collagen and cultured ex vivo. In Matrigel, neovessel outgrowth from rings lacking α6 was strongly diminished, whereas no genotype-dependent difference occurred for rings in collagen.
α6 plays a major role in both post-ischaemic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.
Cardiovascular research 04/2012; 95(1):39-47. · 5.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from OPEN ACCESS Mar. Drugs 2011, 9 1665 marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is typically associated with microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis. It is a very uncommon cause of thrombocytopenia.
A 17-year-old female presented with marked fatigue and dyspnea on exertion. Review of systems was only remarkable for abundant menstruations during the past two years. The hemogram revealed a profound microcytic anemia (4.4 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume [MCV] 49 fL) and a thrombocytopenia (33 G/L). Marked iron deficiency was also present: ferritinemia <3 μg/L. Investigations did not find any cause of iron deficiency anemia other than excessive menstrual loss. Bone marrow examination showed an increase number of megakaryocytes, compatible with an immune thrombocytopenia purpura. Iron supplementation completely normalized the platelet count within 48 hours.
Iron affects thrombopoiesis. Because the number of megakaryocytes may then increase in the bone marrow, "iron deficiency thrombocytopenia" may be falsely diagnosed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, leading to inappropriate corticosteroid therapy. Iron supplementation is the appropriate treatment of iron deficiency thrombocytopenia and allowed a rapid correction of the platelet count in all the 24 cases that have been previously reported with sufficient detail to be analyzed in the literature.
La Revue de Médecine Interne 09/2010; 31(9):631-6. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha6 integrin subunit (alpha6) expression is increased by proangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor. This increase correlates with enhanced in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells and their progenitors called endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). We thus studied the role of alpha6 in vasculogenesis induced by human ECFCs, in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia.
We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit alpha6 expression on the surface of ECFCs. For in vivo studies, human ECFCs were injected intravenously into a nude mouse model of unilateral hind limb ischemia. Transfection with siRNA alpha6 abrogated neovessel formation and reperfusion of the ischemic hind limb induced by ECFCs (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). It also inhibited ECFC incorporation into the vasculature of the ischemic muscle (P<0.001). In vitro, siRNA alpha6 inhibited ECFC adhesion (P<0.01), pseudotube formation on Matrigel, migration, and AKT phosphorylation (P<0.0001), with no effect on cell proliferation or apoptosis.
alpha6 Expression is required for ECFC migration, adhesion, recruitment at the site of ischemia, and the promotion of the postischemic vascular repair. Thus, we have demonstrated a major role of alpha6 in the proangiogenic properties of ECFCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis through unknown mechanisms.
We studied 23 patients with PNH, before and after five and 11 weeks of treatment with eculizumab. We examined markers of thrombin generation and reactional fibrinolysis (prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), D-dimers, and plasmin antiplasmin complexes (P-AP), and endothelial dysfunction tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI).
At baseline, vWF, sVCAM-1, the EMP count, and F1+2 and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in the patients, including those with no history of clinical thrombosis. Treatment with eculizumab was associated with significant decreases in plasma markers of coagulation activation (F1+2, P=0.012, and D-dimers, P=0.01), and reactional fibrinolysis (P-AP, P=0.0002). Eculizumab treatment also significantly reduced plasma markers of endothelial cell activation (t-PA, P=0.0005, sVCAM-1, P<0.0001, and vWF, P=0.0047) and total (P=0.0008) and free (P=0.0013) TFPI plasma levels.
Our results suggest a new understanding of the contribution of endothelial cell activation to the pathogenesis of thrombosis in PNH. The terminal complement inhibitor, eculizumab, induced a significant and sustained decrease in the activation of both the plasma hemostatic system and the vascular endothelium, likely contributing to the protective effect of eculizumab on thrombosis in this setting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about residual abnormalities after pulmonary embolism (PE).
To assess risk factors and the clinical significance of perfusion defects in patients with PE.
Consecutive patients receiving at least 3 months of anticoagulant for an acute PE were included in a prospective cohort study. Ventilation/perfusion lung scan, echocardiography, 6-min walk test, thrombophilia and hemostatic variables were performed 6-12 months after PE. Perfusion defect was defined as a perfusion defect in at least two segments.
Seventy-three out of 254 patients (29%) had perfusion defects during follow-up (median 12 months) and were more likely to have dyspnea, had a higher systolic pulmonary arterial pressure [39 mmHg (SD) (12) vs. 31 mmHg (8); P < 0.001] and walked a shorter distance during the 6-min walk test [374 m (122) vs. 427 m (99); P = 0.004]. Age [odds ratio (OR) 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.63], the time interval between symptom onset and diagnosis (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31), pulmonary vascular obstruction at the onset of PE (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) and previous venous thromboembolism (OR 2.06; 95% CI, 1.03-4.11) were independent predictors of perfusion defect after treatment of acute PE. Total tissue factor pathway inhibitor concentration was associated with perfusion defects.
Perfusion defects are associated with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and functional limitation. Age, longer times between symptom onset and diagnosis, initial pulmonary vascular obstruction and previous venous thromboembolism were associated with perfusion defects.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2010; 8(6):1248-55. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We attempted to evaluate endothelial dysfunction and the role of AECAs in systemic lupus (SL) with low disease activity. We quantified endothelial microparticles (EMps) and attempted to find the best flow cytometry method for that purpose.
CD105, CD144 and CD146 were tested, individually or in combination, on EMp-enriched plasma. Twenty-three healthy blood donors and 27 SL patients were evaluated. SL patients with a SLEDAI <10 (median 2.6) were evaluated in our outpatient clinic. For each patient, EMps (CD105-CD146(+), CD45(-)) and AECAs were quantified and characterized.
The monochrome composite marker CD105-CD146 appeared to be the most efficient in detecting EMps. SL patients had more circulating EMps than healthy donors: respective median values were 2575 and 130 EMps/microl (P < 0.001). SL patients had more CD54(+) and CD54(-) EMps than healthy donors (496 vs 34 EMps CD54(+)/microl, P < 0.0001; 1875 vs 89 EMps CD54(-)/microl, P < 0.0001). The ratio CD54(+) EMps/total EMps was lower for lupus patients than for healthy individuals (20.3 vs 33.7%, P = 0.03). Twenty-four patients (89%) were positive for AECAs. EMp counts were not significantly higher for patients with AECAs.
Monochrome composite marker is efficient in detecting the whole population of EMps using flow cytometry. SL patients with low disease activity have a marked endothelial dysfunction. EMps released from the endothelium originate from activated and non-activated cells. AECAs do not seem to be the main cause of endothelial dysfunction in this population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case series of seven patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) in combination with sunitinib 25-50 mg as salvage therapy after disease progression under sunitinib monotherapy. Two patients had a partial response, four had stable disease, and one patient had disease progression. After a median follow-up of 17.2 mo, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 8.5 and 15.1 mo, respectively. Two patients experienced exacerbation of their preexisting hypertension; there were no grade 4 toxicities. The bevacizumab-sunitinib combination in sunitinib-refractory patients seems active and has a tolerable toxicity profile.
European Urology 02/2009; 56(1):207-11; quiz 211. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, extends survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Between October 2005 and March 2007, we retrospectively reviewed blood glucose level variations associated with sunitinib therapy in patients treated for mRCC. Nineteen of the patients had type II diabetes. All 19 patients had a decrease in blood glucose level (mean 1.77 mmol l(-1)) after 4 weeks of treatment. This was followed by re-elevation in the 2-week rest period. After two cycles of sunitinib administration, two patients had stopped blood glucose-lowering drugs whereas five other patients had normalised their blood glucose level. On the basis of pre-clinical data, we hypothesise that several mechanisms could be involved in this process, such as capillary regression of pancreatic islets, IGF-1 modulation through HIF1-alpha or NF-kappaB activation. In addition, a decrease of glucose uptake in the context of concomitant gastrointestinal toxicity cannot be excluded. Glycaemic control should be carefully evaluated in diabetic patients treated with sunitinib, and routine monitoring is warranted.
British Journal of Cancer 11/2008; 99(9):1380-2. · 5.08 Impact Factor