[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MYC deregulation is a common event in gastric carcinogenesis, usually as a consequence of gene amplification, chromosomal translocations, or posttranslational mechanisms. FBXW7 is a p53-controlled tumor-suppressor that plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle exit and reentry via MYC degradation.
We evaluated MYC, FBXW7, and TP53 copy number, mRNA levels, and protein expression in gastric cancer and paired non-neoplastic specimens from 33 patients and also in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. We also determined the invasion potential of the gastric cancer cell lines.
MYC amplification was observed in 51.5% of gastric tumor samples. Deletion of one copy of FBXW7 and TP53 was observed in 45.5% and 21.2% of gastric tumors, respectively. MYC mRNA expression was significantly higher in tumors than in non-neoplastic samples. FBXW7 and TP53 mRNA expression was markedly lower in tumors than in paired non-neoplastic specimens. Moreover, deregulated MYC and FBXW7 mRNA expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis and tumor stage III-IV. Additionally, MYC immunostaining was more frequently observed in intestinal-type than diffuse-type gastric cancers and was associated with MYC mRNA expression. In vitro studies showed that increased MYC and reduced FBXW7 expression is associated with a more invasive phenotype in gastric cancer cell lines. This result encouraged us to investigate the activity of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in both cell lines. Both gelatinases are synthesized predominantly by stromal cells rather than cancer cells, and it has been proposed that both contribute to cancer progression. We observed a significant increase in MMP-9 activity in ACP02 compared with ACP03 cells. These results confirmed that ACP02 cells have greater invasion capability than ACP03 cells.
In conclusion, FBXW7 and MYC mRNA may play a role in aggressive biologic behavior of gastric cancer cells and may be a useful indicator of poor prognosis. Furthermore, MYC is a candidate target for new therapies against gastric cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The down-regulation or loss of epithelial markers is often accompanied by the up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. E-cadherin generally suppresses invasiveness, whereas N-cadherin promotes invasion and metastasis in vitro. The aim of this work is to investigate the role of biflorin, a naphthoquinone with proven anticancer properties, on the expression of N-cadherin and AKT proteins in MDA-MB-435 invasive melanoma cancer cells after 12 h of exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μM biflorin. Biflorin inhibited MDA-MB-435 invasion in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.01). Likewise, biflorin down-regulated N-cadherin and AKT-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Biflorin did not inhibit the adhesion of MDA-MB-435 cells to any tested substrates. Additionally, biflorin blocked the invasiveness of cells by down-regulating N-cadherin, most likely via AKT-1 signaling. As such, biflorin may be a novel anticancer agent and a new prototype for drug design.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a complex disease, with heterogeneous clinical evolution. Several analyses have been performed to identify the risk factors for breast cancer progression and the patients who respond best to a specific treatment. We aimed to evaluate whether the hormone receptor expression, HER2 and MYC genes and their protein status, and KRAS codon 12 mutations may be prognostic or predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. Protein, gene and mutation status were concomitantly evaluated in 116 breast tumors from women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. We observed that MYC expression was associated with luminal B and HER2 overexpression phenotypes compared to luminal A (p<0.05). The presence of MYC duplication or polysomy 8, as well as KRAS mutation, were also associated with the HER2 overexpression subtype (p<0.05). MYC expression and MYC gain were more frequently observed in early-onset compared to late-onset tumors (p<0.05). KRAS mutation was a risk factor of grade 3 tumors (p<0.05). A multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that MYC amplification defined as MYC/nucleus ratio of ≥2.5 was a protective factor for chemotherapy resistance. On the other hand, age and grade 2 tumors were a risk factor. Additionally, luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and triple-negative tumors presented increased odds of being resistant to chemotherapy relative to luminal A tumors. Thus, breast tumors with KRAS codon 12 mutations seem to present a worse prognosis. Additionally, MYC amplification may help in the identification of tumors that are sensitive to doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide treatment. If confirmed in a large set of samples, these markers may be useful for clinical stratification and prognosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e60576. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our study investigated the relationship between MYC alterations and clinicopathological features in gastric cancers. We evaluated the effect of MYC mRNA expression and its protein immunoreactivity, as well as copy number variation, promoter DNA methylation, and point mutations, in 125 gastric adenocarcinoma and 67 paried non-neoplastic tissues. We observed that 77% of the tumors presented MYC immunoreactivity which was significantly associated with increased mRNA expression (p<0.05). These observations were associated with deeper tumor extension and the presence of metastasis (p<0.05). MYC protein expression was also more frequently observed in intestinal-type than in diffuse-type tumors (p<0.001). Additionally, MYC mRNA and protein expression were significantly associated with its copy number (p<0.05). The gain of MYC copies was associated with late-onset, intestinal-type, advanced tumor stage, and the presence of distant metastasis (p<0.05). A hypomethylated MYC promoter was detected in 86.4% of tumor samples. MYC hypomethylation was associated with diffuse-type, advanced tumor stage, deeper tumor extension, and the presence of lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Moreover, eighteen tumor samples presented at least one known mutation. The presence of MYC mutations was associated with diffuse-type tumor (p<0.001). Our results showed that MYC deregulation was mainly associated with poor prognostic features and also reinforced the presence of different pathways involved in intestinal-type and diffuse-type gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, our findings suggest that MYC may be a useful marker for clinical stratification and prognosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64420. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is a serious public health problem in Northern Brazil and in the world due to its high incidence and mortality. Despite the severity of the disease, more research is needed to better understand the molecular events involved in this intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis process. Since precancerous lesions precede intestinal-type gastric cancer, here, we evaluated the hTERT, MYC, and TP53 mRNA and protein expression, as well as TP33 copy number, in gastric preneoplastic lesions METHODS: We evaluated 19 superficial gastritis, 18 atrophic gastritis, and 18 intestinal metaplasia from cancer-free individuals of Northern Brazil. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess protein immunoreactivity in tissue samples. The number of TP53 gene copies was investigated in gastric diseases by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We observed hTERT, MYC, and p53 immunoreactivity only in intestinal metaplasia samples. The immunoreactivity of these proteins was strongly associated with each other. A significantly higher MYC mRNA expression was observed in intestinal metaplasia compared to gastritis samples. Loss of TP53 was also only detected in intestinal metaplasia specimens. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that hTERT, MYC, and TP53 are deregulated in intestinal metaplasia of individuals from Northern Brazil and these alterations may facilitate tumor initiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and early ROS generation of 2,2-dimethyl-(3H)-3-(N-3'-nitrophenylamino)naphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione (QPhNO(2)) were investigated and compared with those of its precursor, nor-beta-lapachone (nor-beta), with the main goal of proposing a mechanism of antitumor action. The results were correlated with those obtained from electrochemical experiments held in protic (acetate buffer pH 4.5) and aprotic (DMF/TBABF(4)) media in the presence and absence of oxygen and with those from dsDNA biosensors and ssDNA in solution, which provided evidence of a positive interaction with DNA in the case of QPhNO(2). QPhNO(2) caused DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization and induced apoptosis/necrosis in HL-60 cells. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine partially abolished the observed effects related to the QPhNO(2) treatment, including those involving apoptosis induction, indicating a partially redox-dependent mechanism. These findings point to the potential use of the combination of pharmacology and electrochemistry in medicinal chemistry.
Toxicology in Vitro 02/2012; 26(4):585-94. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuing search for anticancer compounds from the marine environment, we have studied microorganisms that inhabit intertidal sediments of the northeastern Brazilian coast. Of the 32 strains isolated, 13 were selected for biological evaluation of their crude extracts. The acetate extract obtained from a Gram-negative bacterium was strongly active against cancer cell lines with IC(50) values that ranged from 0.04 (HL60 leukemia cells) to 0.26 μg/ml (MDA MB-435 melanoma cells). The bacterium was identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation of prodigiosin, a well-known tripyrrole red pigment with immunosuppressive and anticancer activities. Further experiments with ErbB-2 overexpressing cell lines, including HB4a-C3.6 (moderate overexpression), HB4a-C5.2 (high overexpression), and the parental HB4a cell line, were performed. Prodigiosin was moderately active toward HB4a cells with an IC(50) of 4.6 μg/ml, while it was 115 and 18 times more active toward HB4a-C3.6 cells (IC(50) of 0.04 μg/ml) and HB4a-C5.2 (IC(50) of 0.26 μg/ml) cells, respectively. These data suggest that, in spite of its previously described apoptosis-inducing properties, prodigiosin can selectively recognize cells overexpressing ErbB-2, which could be highly appealing in human breast cancer therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of twenty-one 7-chloro-4-quinolinylhydrazones derivatives (3a-u) have been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against three cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The compounds 3b, 3e, 3f, 3h, 3j, 3n, 3r and 3u displayed more than 90% of growth inhibition (GI) and they were selected for in vitro anticancer activities evaluation against four human cancer cell lines. These results were expressed as the concentrations that induce 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) in μg/mL. Considering that, compounds 3b, 3e, 3h, 3n, 3r and 3u exhibited good cytotoxic activity against at least three cancer cell lines (0.7967-4.200 μg/mL). In general, we observed that the presence of electron-withdrawing groups in the benzene ring is important for the anticancer activity in this series, such as fluorine (3h), chlorine (3b) amd bromine (3e) groups in meta position and nitro group (3r) in para position. These derivatives could be considered interesting start points to develop a new anticancer drug and confirm the potential of chloroquine derivatives as lead compounds in anticancer drug discovery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A synthetic method to obtain α- and β-pyran naphthoquinones 10 and 11 with a hydroxyl substituent on the aromatic ring was developed. Two series of α- and β-pyran naphthoquinones were obtained from the 8-hydroxy-lawsone, and their anticancer properties were evaluated against four tumor cell lines. In general, the new compounds displayed good activity, possibly indicating that these compounds have increased pro-oxidant capacity. The 9-hydroxy-α-lapachone and 7-hydroxy-β-lapachone analogues of the natural products α-lapachone and β-lapachone were successfully produced by this methodology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiproliferative effects of twenty-eight tetrasubstituted olefins bearing a ferrocenyl group, including six never-reported compounds, were evaluated against SF-295 (human glioblastoma), HCT-8 (human colon cancer), MDA-MB-435 (human melanoma) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) using the MTT test. IC(50) values were determined for twenty-three active compounds and of these, ten compounds had IC(50) values lower than 2 μM on one or more cell lines. Of all the compounds, only two produced significant amounts of ROS on HL-60 cells, and ROS production and growth inhibition could not be correlated. The ten most antiproliferative compounds were tested for their hemolytic activity on mouse erythrocytes. Five compounds showing high antiproliferative activity and low hemolytic activity were thus identified for further study.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 05/2011; 46(9):3778-87. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-8-substituted-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-ones (3a-g) have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines: MDA-MB-435 (breast), HL-60 (leukemia), HCT-8 (colon) and SF-295 (central nervous system). The results showed that the compounds 3b (2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-8-methyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-one) and 3c (2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-8-bromo-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-one) exhibited good cytotoxicity for three cell lines with IC(50) values lower than 5 μg/mL. Analysis of theoretical toxicity risks have shown medium tumorigenic and irritant risks related to 3b and 3c in contrast to doxorubicin, the positive control.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 02/2011; 46(4):1448-52. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biflorin, an ortho-naphthoquinone, is an active compound found in the roots of Capraria biflora L. It has been reported that biflorin presents anticancer activity, inhibiting both tumor cell line growth in culture and tumor development in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of biflorin treatment using both in-vitro and in-vivo melanoma models. Biflorin displayed considerable cytotoxicity against all tested cell lines, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.58 μg/ml in NCI H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) to 14.61 μg/ml in MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) cell lines. In a second set of experiments using B16 melanoma cells as a model, biflorin reduced cell viability but did not cause significant increase in the number of nonviable cells. In addition, the DNA synthesis was significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry analysis showed that biflorin may lead to an apoptotic death in melanoma cells, inducing DNA fragmentation and mitochondria depolarization, without affecting membrane integrity. In B16 melanoma-bearing mice, administration of biflorin (25mg/day) for 10 days inhibited tumor growth, and also increased the mean survival rate from 33.3±0.9 days (control) to 44.5±3.4 days (treated). Our findings suggest that biflorin may be considered as a promising lead compound for designing new drugs to be used in the treatment of melanoma.
Melanoma research 02/2011; 21(2):106-14. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is considerable evidence indicating an increase in neurodegenerative disorders in industrialized countries. The clinical symptoms and the possible mutagenic effects produced by acute poisoning and by chronic exposure to metals are of major interest. This study is a review of the data found concerning the genotoxic potential of three metals: aluminum (Al), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), with emphasis on their action on human cells.
Human & Experimental Toxicology 01/2011; 30(10):1435-44. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on pre-DNA racial/color methodology, clinical and pharmacological trials have traditionally considered the different geographical regions of Brazil as being very heterogeneous. We wished to ascertain how such diversity of regional color categories correlated with ancestry. Using a panel of 40 validated ancestry-informative insertion-deletion DNA polymorphisms we estimated individually the European, African and Amerindian ancestry components of 934 self-categorized White, Brown or Black Brazilians from the four most populous regions of the Country. We unraveled great ancestral diversity between and within the different regions. Especially, color categories in the northern part of Brazil diverged significantly in their ancestry proportions from their counterparts in the southern part of the Country, indicating that diverse regional semantics were being used in the self-classification as White, Brown or Black. To circumvent these regional subjective differences in color perception, we estimated the general ancestry proportions of each of the four regions in a form independent of color considerations. For that, we multiplied the proportions of a given ancestry in a given color category by the official census information about the proportion of that color category in the specific region, to arrive at a "total ancestry" estimate. Once such a calculation was performed, there emerged a much higher level of uniformity than previously expected. In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South. We propose that the immigration of six million Europeans to Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries--a phenomenon described and intended as the "whitening of Brazil"--is in large part responsible for dissipating previous ancestry dissimilarities that reflected region-specific population histories. These findings, of both clinical and sociological importance for Brazil, should also be relevant to other countries with ancestrally admixed populations.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e17063. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clerodane diterpenes have demonstrated cytotoxic, antiplasmodial and anti-ulcer properties. In the present work, we determined the cytotoxic effect of casearin L (Cas L), O (Cas O) and X (Cas X) and (-)-hardwickiic acid isolated from Casearia sylvestris leaves, and investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in in vitro cell death induced by Cas X in HL-60 leukemia cells (0.7, 1.5 and 3.0μM). Cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that Cas X was the most active compound studied, showing greater cytotoxic effects against CEM and HL-60 lines (IC(50) of 0.4μM) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, IC(50) of 1.2μM). After 24h exposure, Cas X caused a decrease in 5-bromo-20-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (36.6 and 24.5% labeling at 0.7 and 1.5μM, respectively), reduction in viability, and increase in apoptotic and necrotic leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner evidenced by the trypan blue and AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) assays. Moreover, Cas X-treated cells exhibited nuclear fragmentation and cytoplasmic vacuolization depending on the concentration tested. These characteristics of apoptosis or secondary necrosis were confirmed by flow cytometry which revealed DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization, activation of the effector caspases 3/7 and mitochondrial depolarization. We then found evidence that Cas X causes cell death via apoptotic pathways, corroborating the potential of casearins as compounds with promising antitumor-related properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biflorin is a natural quinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. Previous studies demonstrated that biflorin inhibits in vitro and in vivo tumor cell growth and presents potent antioxidant activity. In this paper, we report concentration-dependent cytotoxic, genotoxic, antimutagenic, and protective effects of biflorin on Salmonella tiphymurium, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and V79 mammalian cells, using different approaches. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, biflorin was not mutagenic to TA97a TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains. However, biflorin was able to induce cytotoxicity in haploid S. cerevisiae cells in stationary and exponential phase growth. In diploid yeast cells, biflorin did not induce significant mutagenic and recombinogenic effects at the employed concentration range. In addition, the pre-treatment with biflorin prevented the mutagenic and recombinogenic events induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in S. cerevisiae. In V79 mammalian cells, biflorin was cytotoxic at higher concentrations. Moreover, at low concentrations biflorin pre-treatment protected against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage by reducing lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as evaluated by normal and modified comet assay using DNA glycosylases. Our results suggest that biflorin cellular effects are concentration dependent. At lower concentrations, biflorin has significant antioxidant and protective effects against the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and intracellular lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in yeast and mammalian cells, which can be attributed to its hydroxyl radical-scavenging property. However, at higher concentrations, biflorin is cytotoxic and genotoxic.
Archives of Toxicology 10/2010; 84(10):799-810. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of eleven (E)-2-benzothiazole hydrazones were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activities against three neoplastic cancer cells: HL-60 (leukemia), MDAMB-435 (breast) and HCT-8 (colon). Two of them, 3e and 3f, showed good cytotoxicity activity for HL-60. The results also demonstrated that compound 3f seems to be selective to HL-60 cell line, appearing as a good prototype for an antileukemia lead molecule.
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery 09/2010; 7(8):551-555. · 0.85 Impact Factor