[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95074. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cone isolating stimuli were used to assess the temporal frequency response characteristics of L- and M-cone electroretinograms (ERGs) in nine trichromatic and four dichromatic human observers. The stimuli comprised sinusoidal temporal modulations varying from 5 to 100 Hz. ERGs were recorded using corneal fiber electrodes and subjected to fast Fourier transform analysis. At low temporal frequencies (<10 Hz) the L- and M-cone ERGs had similar amplitude and exhibited minimal differences in apparent latency. At higher flicker rates (>20 Hz) L-cone ERGs had greater amplitudes and shorter apparent latencies than the M-cone responses. These differences between the L- and M-cone ERGs are consistent with their mediation by chromatic and luminance postreceptoral processing pathways at low and high temporal frequencies, respectively.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 04/2014; 31(4):A113-20. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroretinograms (ERGs) elicited by transient, square-wave L- and M-cone isolating stimuli were recorded from human trichromatic (n=19) and dichromatic (n=4) observers. The stimuli were generated on a four primary LED stimulator and were equated in terms of cone modulation (cone contrast=0.11) and retinal illuminance (12,000 trolands). L- and M-cone isolated ERGs had waveforms similar to those observed for luminance responses. However, M-cone ERGs exhibited a phase reversal in their responses to onset and offset stimuli relative to the L-cone responses. This on-off response reversal was observed in trichromats but not dichromats. Simultaneous counterphase and inphase combinations of L- and M-cone isolating stimuli generated responses that reflected chromatic and luminance processing, respectively. We conclude that L- and M-cone specific ERGs provide a measure of how photoreceptors contribute to postreceptoral mechanisms.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 04/2014; 31(4):A159-69. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L- and M-cone driven on- and off- ERG responses and their interactions were examined using full field stimuli with sawtooth temporal profiles. The effects of temporal frequency and contrast were studied. ERG recordings were obtained from 21 trichromatic, 1 protanopic, and 1 deuteranopic subjects. ERGs to L-cone increments and decrements resembled those to M-cone decrements and increments, respectively (i.e., of the opposite polarity). Temporal frequency and contrast had little effect on the implicit times. All response components varied linearly with contrast. When stimulated simultaneously, the responsivities of most components were larger for counterphase than for inphase modulation. The retinal processing leading to an ERG response is reversed for L- and M-cone driven responses.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 04/2014; 31(4):A170-8. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is related to dark adaptation in healthy subjects.
Dark adaptation was measured after a minimum 30 % pigment bleach in 33 subjects (aged 15-68), using a white 1° stimulus presented 11° below fixation on a cathode ray tube monitor. The luminance range of the monitor was extended using neutral density filters. A heterochromatic flicker photometry based instrument (MPS 9000) was used to measure MPOD.
The average MPOD for the whole group was 0.37 ±0.21 optical density units. Subjects with lighter irides had on average 40 % lower MPOD compared to those with darker irides (0.3 ± 0.20 vs 0.5 ± 0.19). Group mean MPOD was weakly associated with second (r = 0.32, p = 0.07) and third rod-mediated recovery rates (r = 0.31, p = 0.08) and with the rod threshold (r = -0.24, p = 0.18) 30 min after the onset of bleach. MPOD was unrelated to cone time constant (r = -0.02, p = 0.91), cone threshold (r = -0.01, p = 0.96), rod-cone break (r = 0.13, p = 0.45) or the rod-rod break (r = 0.11, p = 0.52). The second rod-mediated recovery rate (S2) for the lower 10th percentile of MPOD (n = 4) was 0.18 log cd.m(-2).min(-1) and 0.24 log cd.m(-2).min(-1) for the upper 10th percentile (n = 4). The two groups were significantly different (t = -2.67, p = 0.037).
We report a statistically significant difference between subjects falling in the 10th percentile extremes of MPOD and rod-mediated but not cone-mediated sensitivity recovery. Further investigation into the relationship between MPOD and rod function is warranted, particularly extending the work to encompass those with low MPOD and poor night vision.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 01/2014; 252(4). · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are a multitude of applications using modern tablet computers for vision testing that are accessible to ophthalmology patients. While these may be of potential future benefit, they are often unsupported by scientific assessment. This report investigates the pertinent physical characteristics behind one of the most common highest specification tablet computers with regard to its capacity for vision testing. We demonstrate through plotting of a gamma curve that it is feasible to produce a precise programmable range of central luminance levels on the device, even with varying background luminance levels. It may not be possible to display very low levels of contrast, but carefully using the gamma curve information allows a reasonable range of contrast sensitivity to be tested. When the screen is first powered on, it may require up to 15 min for the luminance values to stabilize. Finally, luminance of objects varies towards the edge of the screen and when viewed at an angle. However, the resulting effective contrast of objects is less variable. Details of our assessments are important to developers, users and prescribers of tablet clinical vision tests. Without awareness of such findings, these tests may never reach satisfactory levels of clinical validity and reliability.
Journal of The Royal Society Interface 04/2013; 10(84):20130239. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To characterize the rate of rod-mediated sensitivity decline with age using a PC-driven cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor. To provide data regarding the repeatability of the technique. METHODS: Dark adaptation was monitored for 30 min following a minimum 30 % pigment bleach, using a white 1° stimulus (modulated at 1 Hz), presented 11° below fixation on a CRT monitor. Thirty-three subjects with no ocular pathology and normal fundus photographs were divided into two groups: older (≥45, n = 16) and younger (<45, n = 17). RESULTS: Rod recovery was assessed using component S2 of dark adaptation. S2 was significantly slower in the older (0.19 ± 0.03 log cd.m(-2).min(-1)) compared with the younger group (0.23 ± 0.03 log cd.m(-2).min(-1), t = -4.05, p < 0.0003), despite no difference in visual acuity and fundus appearance. Faster rates of S2 recovery were correlated with lower threshold at 30 min (T30) (r = -0.49). Correlation coefficients between first and second measurements for S2 and T30 were 0.49 (p < 0.009) and 0.84 (p < 0.0001) respectively. The coefficient of repeatability was 0.07 log cd.m(-2).min(-1) for S2 and 0.35 log cd.m(-2) for T30. The coefficients of variation for S2 and T30 were 15 % and 10 % respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dark adaptation is slowed in normal ageing. CRT-based dark adaptometry is easily implemented and highly repeatable. The technique described in this article would be useful for documenting visual changes in future clinical trials assessing retinal health in the older eye with and without ocular pathology.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 04/2013; 251(7). · 1.93 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily supplementation with lutein (L) capsules on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual acuity in early AMD (Age Related Macular Degeneration). METHODS: A 12 month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-centre investigation of the effects of L supplementation in early AMD was conducted. 72 patients (mean age 70.5 ± 8.7) were randomly assigned to either L (lutein, n=36) or P (placebo, n=36) groups. MPOD and best corrected visual acuity (LogMAR) were measured. Blood serum samples were collected RESULTS: Mean MPOD increased for the L group from 0.38±0.19 to 0.53±0.22 optical density (OD) units. A mixed design ANOVA showed this was statistically significant (p<0.001). There was no change in MPOD for the P group. There was no significant change in VA in the L group (n=36). The P group (n=36) showed a significant deterioration from 0.05 ± 0.13 to 0.09 ± 0.13, (p < 0.05). To avoid ceiling effects, 2 sub-groups of patients with VA worse than 0.06 at baseline were re-analysed. In the L sub-group (n= 19) a mean improvement in VA from 0.23±0.12 at baseline to 0.16±0.10 at visit 4 was observed (p< 0.05). The improvement in VA in the L sub-group was significant compared to the deterioration in the P group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Lutein supplementation increases MPOD levels in early-stage AMD patients. VA measurements suggest the progress of AMD might be slowed in some patients with augmented levels of MP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of pattern visual-evoked potentials (pVEP) and pattern electroretinograms (pERG) in early glaucoma diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Thirty-eight eyes of 38 patients were included. Patients were classified into normal control (NC) and glaucoma patient (GP) groups. Patients underwent a detailed clinical ophthalmic examination and an electrodiagnostic examination using steady-state pVEP and pERG. Differences between groups in the amplitudes of the second harmonic of the pVEP and pERG responses to 480' (A480) and 48' (A48) check sizes and the ratio of the above amplitudes (A48/A480) were examined. RESULTS:: Differences in the 48' and 480' pVEP between groups were not statistically significant. The pVEP A48/A480 ratio was significantly higher in NC than in GP. Differences in pERG between groups were statistically not significant for both 48' and 480' check sizes. In contrast, respective differences in pERG A48/A480 ratio were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:: Steady-state pVEP and pERG A48/A480 ratio may be of value in glaucoma diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large, nominally isoluminant chromatic gratings containing a short-wavelength component are prone to luminance contrast intrusions due to retinal inhomogeneity, especially as a result of the uneven distribution of macular pigment. Isoluminance is usually determined for a relatively small, central area, but a significantly larger stimulus cannot be isoluminant across the whole field, largely due to macular pigment absorption of short-wavelength light. This confounds attempts to maintain high selectivity, particularly in suprathreshold electrophysiological and brain-imaging studies that require large stimulus fields. Here we introduce the concept of a panisoluminant grating (PIG), which comprises a series of concentric annular regions, each adjusted to location-specific isoluminance for the observer. Gratings were modulated along subject-specific tritanopic confusion lines and the selectivity of responses to the PIG was tested according to both psychophysical and electrophysiological criteria. The psychophysically-determined temporal tuning function obtained using the PIG showed lower sensitivity and lower resolution than with a conventional tritan grating of equal diameter (18°). Chromatic onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to the PIG were dominated by a chromatic-specific negative wave and reduced achromatic response components that were prominent in VEPs to the conventional grating. These data demonstrate that a large tritan PIG is capable of eliciting selective responses of the S-cone-driven pathway at threshold and at suprathreshold levels. The PIG stimulus may prove beneficial in investigations that require large fields such as electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of chromatic processing.
Journal of Vision 11/2012; 12(12). · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing.
The Journal of Physiology 05/2012; 590(Pt 13):3141-54. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typical daylight extends from blue (morning sky) to orangey red (evening sky) and is represented mathematically as the Daylight Locus in color space. In this study, we investigate the impact of this daylight variation on human color vision. Thirty-eight color normal human observers performed an asymmetric color match in the near peripheral visual field. Unique hues were identified using a naming paradigm. The observers' performance for matching was almost perfectly coincident with the Daylight Locus but declined markedly in other regions. Interobserver variability reached a conspicuous minimum adjacent to the Daylight Locus and was maximal in the red and yellowish-green regions. In the naming task, unique blue and yellow were virtually coincident with the Daylight Locus. The results suggest that the mechanisms of color perception mediated by the phylogenetically older (blue-yellow) color pathway have been strongly influenced by the different phases of daylight.
Journal of Vision 03/2012; 12(3). · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A characteristic shift in hue and saturation occurs when colored targets are viewed peripherally compared with centrally. Four hues, one in each of the red, blue, green, and yellow regions of color space, remain unchanged when presented in the peripheral field. Apart from green, these peripherally invariant hues correspond almost exactly in color space with the unique hues. We explore this puzzling observation using asymmetric color-matching and color-naming experiments and computing cone contrasts for peripheral and central stimuli. We find that the difference between cone contrasts for the peripheral and central stimuli reaches a maximum at the chromatic axis corresponding to peripherally invariant green. We speculate that the effect is linked to a weakened signal from M-cones and probably associated with a reduced number of M-cones in peripheral retina.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 02/2012; 29(2):A233-9. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain hues undergo shifts in their appearance when they are viewed by the peripheral retina. This has often been shown on a 3-primary color CRT monitor. To investigate the possible role of metamerism, we replicated our peripheral color matching experiments using Munsell paper stimuli viewed under real and simulated daylight (using a 3-primary projection system). Using stimuli of constant value and chroma (7/4), observers adjusted the hue of a 3 deg target presented 18 deg nasally, until it matched a 1 deg target presented 1 deg nasally. The magnitude and pattern of measured hue shifts were similar to those measured using CRT stimuli. We conclude that the perceived hue shifts that have previously been reported in the peripheral retina are independent of the nature of the stimulus and of the illuminant.
Journal of the Optical Society of America A 02/2012; 29(2):A96-101. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that the retention of information in short-term visual perceptual memory can be disrupted by the presentation of masking stimuli during interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in delayed discrimination tasks (S. Magnussen & W. W. Greenlee, 1999). We have exploited this effect in order to determine to what extent short-term perceptual memory is selective for stimulus color. We employed a delayed hue discrimination paradigm to measure the fidelity with which color information was retained in short-term memory. The task required 5 color normal observers to discriminate between spatially non-overlapping colored reference and test stimuli that were temporally separated by an ISI of 5 s. The points of subjective equality (PSEs) on the resultant psychometric matching functions provided an index of performance. Measurements were made in the presence and absence of mask stimuli presented during the ISI, which varied in hue around the equiluminant plane in DKL color space. For all reference stimuli, we found a consistent mask-induced, hue-dependent shift in PSE compared to the "no mask" conditions. These shifts were found to be tuned in color space, only occurring for a range of mask hues that fell within bandwidths of 29-37 deg. Outside this range, masking stimuli had little or no effect on measured PSEs. The results demonstrate that memory masking for color exhibits selectivity similar to that which has already been demonstrated for other visual attributes. The relatively narrow tuning of these interference effects suggests that short-term perceptual memory for color is based on higher order, non-linear color coding.
Journal of Vision 01/2012; 12(1):26. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been much controversy as to whether there are sex-related differences in human color vision. While previous work has concentrated on testing the central visual field, this study compares male versus female color vision in the near peripheral retina. Male (n = 19) and female (n = 19) color normal observers who exhibited no significant differences either in the midpoints or the ranges of their Rayleigh matches were tested with a color matching paradigm. They adjusted hue and saturation of a 3° test spot (18° eccentricity) until it matched a 1° probe (1° eccentricity). Both groups demonstrated measurable shifts in the appearance of the peripheral color stimuli similar to those that have been previously reported. However, females showed substantially less saturation loss than males (p < 0.003) in the green-yellow region of color space. No significant differences were found in other regions of color space. This difference in the perceived saturation of color stimuli was minimally affected either by the inclusion or exclusion in the analysis of potential heterozygous female carriers of deutan color vision deficiencies. We speculate that this advantage of female over male color vision is conferred by M-cone polymorphism.
Journal of Vision 01/2012; 12(1). · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electroretinographic response to L- and M-cone isolating stimuli was measured at different luminance levels to study the effect of retinal illuminance on amplitude and phase, and how this may influence estimates of L:M ratios in the retina. It was found that the amplitude of L- and M-cone driven responses increases differently with increasing retinal illuminance: L-cone responses increase more quickly than those of M-cones. The L:M ratio does not change strongly with retinal illuminance. The phase of both L- and M-cone driven responses advances with increasing retinal illuminance. There is considerable interindividual variability in the phase difference between the two, but generally M-cone driven responses are phase advanced.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recorded L- and M-cone isolating ERGs from human subjects using a silent substitution technique at temporal rates of 12 and 30 Hz. These frequencies isolate the activity of cone-opponent and non-opponent post-receptoral mechanisms, respectively. ERGs were obtained using a sequence of stimuli with different spatial configurations comprising; (1) circular stimuli of different sizes which increased in 10° steps up to 70°diameter, or (2) annular stimuli with a 70° outer diameter but with different sized central ablations from 10° up to 60°. L- and M-cone isolating ERGs were obtained from five colour normal subjects using a DTL fibre electrode. Fourier analysis of the ERGs was performed and we measured the amplitude of the first harmonic of the response. For 12 Hz ERGs the L:M cone response amplitude ratio (L:M(ERG)) was close to unity and remained stable irrespective of the spatial configuration of the stimulus. The maintenance of this balanced ratio points to the existence of cone selective input across the human retina for the L-M cone opponent mechanism. For 30 Hz the L:M(ERG) ratio was greater than unity but varied depending upon which region of the retina was being stimulated. This variation we consider to be a consequence of the global response properties of M-cone ERGs rather than representing a real variation in L:M cone ratios across the retina.
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 09/2010; 30(5):503-10. · 1.74 Impact Factor