Marga C Ocké

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (213)720.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14 277 women aged 35-64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000963 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 01/2015; 113(03):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514003791 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) of diets in Dutch girls, boys, women and men and to explore associations with diet composition. Descriptive analyses for the total population as well as stratified for gender, age and dietary environmental load. The Netherlands. Dutch children and adults aged 7-69 years (n 3818). The GHGE of daily diets was on average 3·2 kg CO2-equivalents (CO2e) for girls, 3·6 kg CO2e for boys, 3·7 kg CO2e for women and 4·8 kg CO2e for men. Meat and cheese contributed about 40 % and drinks (including milk and alcoholic drinks) 20 % to daily GHGE. Considerable differences in environmental loads of diets existed within age and gender groups. Persons with higher-GHGE diets consumed more (in quantity of foods and especially drinks) than their counterparts of a similar sex and age with low-GHGE diets. Major differences between high- and low-GHGE diets were in meat, cheese and dairy consumption as well as in soft drinks (girls, boys and women) and alcoholic drinks (men). Of those, differences in meat consumption determined the differences in GHGE most. Diets with higher GHGE were associated with higher saturated fat intake and lower fibre intake CONCLUSIONS: GHGE of daily diets in the Netherlands is between 3 and 5 kg CO2e, with considerable differences between individuals. Meat, dairy and drinks contribute most to GHGE. The insights of the study may be used in developing (age- and gender-specific) food-based dietary guidelines that take into account both health and sustainability aspects.
    Public Health Nutrition 12/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1368980014002821 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the evaluation of both the adequacy of intakes and the risk of excessive intakes of micronutrients, all potential sources should be included. In addition to micronutrients naturally present in foods, micronutrients can also be derived from fortified foods and dietary supplements. In the estimation of the habitual intake, this may cause specific challenges such as multimodal distributions and heterogeneous variances between the sources.
    Journal of Nutrition 10/2014; DOI:10.3945/jn.114.191288 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods.
    European Journal of Nutrition 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00394-014-0750-8 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the “EPIC-Soft DataEntry” application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods. Methods Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary; and the second with two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview. The collected dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods by country and by age groups: (i) 3-10 years. Results Overall, 70 % of the interviewers evaluated the work with EPIC-Soft DataEntry as easy. With both dietary assessment methods, an equally high proportion of specific food names (e.g., “yoghurt, strawberry”) were reported, where only between 5 and 15 % of foods were non-specified (e.g., “yoghurt, n.s.”). The two 1-day food diaries yielded a higher proportion of foods with detailed description. For example, in the age category of 1-3 year olds in Belgium, for 7 out of 16 systematic questions on food description (e.g., “preservation method,”) specific answers were significantly higher (all P Conclusions The EPIC-Soft DataEntry application was positively evaluated by the majority of the interviewers. Two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview provide a more detailed description of consumed foods as compared with a 3-day food diary.
    European Journal of Nutrition 06/2014; 54(3). DOI:10.1007/s00394-014-0727-7 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis are used frequently to derive dietary patterns. Decisions on how many patterns to extract are primarily based on subjective criteria, whereas different solutions vary in their food-group composition and perhaps association with disease outcome. Literature on reliability of dietary patterns is scarce, and previous studies validated only 1 preselected solution. Therefore, we assessed reliability of different pattern solutions ranging from 2 to 6 patterns, derived from the aforementioned methods. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (1993-1997) to 39,678 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-The Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort. Food items were grouped into 31 food groups for dietary pattern analysis. The cohort was randomly half-split, and dietary pattern solutions derived in 1 sample through PCA were replicated through confirmatory factor analysis in sample 2. For cluster analysis, cluster stability and split-half reproducibility were assessed for various solutions. With PCA, we found the 3-component solution to be best replicated, although all solutions contained ≥1 poorly confirmed component. No quantitative criterion was in agreement with these results. Associations with disease outcome (coronary heart disease) differed between the component solutions. For all cluster solutions, stability was excellent and deviations between split samples was negligible, indicating good reproducibility. All quantitative criteria identified the 2-cluster solution as optimal. Associations with disease outcome were comparable for different cluster solutions. In conclusion, reliability of obtained dietary patterns differed considerably for different solutions using PCA, whereas cluster analysis derived generally stable, reproducible clusters across different solutions. Quantitative criteria for determining the number of patterns to retain were valuable for cluster analysis but not for PCA. Associations with disease risk were influenced by the number of patterns that are retained, especially when using PCA. Therefore, studies on associations between dietary patterns and disease risk should report reasons to choose the number of retained patterns.
    Journal of Nutrition 05/2014; DOI:10.3945/jn.113.188680 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Global
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: High sodium intake increases blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the effects of sodium intake on global cardiovascular mortality are uncertain. METHODS: We collected data from surveys on sodium intake as determined by urinary excretion and diet in persons from 66 countries (accounting for 74.1% of adults throughout the world), and we used these data to quantify the global consumption of sodium according to age, sex, and country. The effects of sodium on blood pressure, according to age, race, and the presence or absence of hypertension, were calculated from data in a new meta-analysis of 107 randomized interventions, and the effects of blood pressure on cardiovascular mortality, according to age, were calculated from a meta-analysis of cohorts. Cause-specific mortality was derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Using comparative risk assessment, we estimated the cardiovascular effects of current sodium intake, as compared with a reference intake of 2.0 g of sodium per day, according to age, sex, and country. RESULTS: In 2010, the estimated mean level of global sodium consumption was 3.95 g per day, and regional mean levels ranged from 2.18 to 5.51 g per day. Globally, 1.65 million annual deaths from cardiovascular causes (95% uncertainty interval [confidence interval], 1.10 million to 2.22 million) were attributed to sodium intake above the reference level; 61.9% of these deaths occurred in men and 38.1% occurred in women. These deaths accounted for nearly 1 of every 10 deaths from cardiovascular causes (9.5%). Four of every 5 deaths (84.3%) occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and 2 of every 5 deaths (40.4%) were premature (before 70 years of age). The rate of death from cardiovascular causes associated with sodium intake above the reference level was highest in the country of Georgia and lowest in Kenya. CONCLUSIONS: In this modeling study, 1.65 million deaths from cardiovascular causes that occurred in 2010 were attributed to sodium consumption above a reference level of 2.0 g per day. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98647. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098647 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diet may be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether an adapted dietary inflammatory index (ADII) is associated with a summary score for low-grade inflammation and markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, we investigated the mediating role of inflammation in the association between ADII and markers of glucose metabolism. We performed cross-sectional analyses of 2 Dutch cohort studies (n= 1024). An ADII was obtained by multiplying standardized energy-adjusted intakes of dietary components by literature-based dietary inflammatory weights that reflected the inflammatory potential of components. Subsequently, these multiplications were summed. Six biomarkers of inflammation were compiled in a summary score. Associations of the ADII (expressed per SD) with the summary score for inflammation and markers of glucose metabolism were investigated by using multiple linear regression models. Inflammation was considered a potential mediator in the analysis with markers of glucose metabolism. A higher ADII was associated with a higher summary score for inflammation [β-adjusted = 0.04 per SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.07 per SD)]. The ADII was also adversely associated with insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR): β-adjusted = 3.5% per SD (95% CI: 0.6%, 6.3% per SD)]. This association was attenuated after the inclusion of the summary score for inflammation [β-adjusted+inflammation = 2.2% (95% CI: -0.6%, 5.0%)]. The ADII was also adversely associated with fasting glucose and postload glucose but not with glycated hemoglobin. The significant mediating role of low-grade inflammation in the association between the ADII and HOMA-IR suggests that inflammation might be one of the pathways through which diet affects insulin resistance.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2013; 98(6). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.056333 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is synthesized from methionine, which is abundant in animal-derived protein, in an energy-consuming reaction. SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) correlate with body mass index (BMI). Plasma total concentration of the SAM-associated product cysteine (tCys) correlates with fat mass in humans and cysteine promotes adiposity in animals. In a cross-sectional study of 610 participants, we investigated whether SAM and SAH are associated with BMI via lean mass or fat mass and dietary protein sources as determinants of SAM and tCys concentrations. Plasma SAM was not associated with lean mass, but mean adjusted fat mass increased from 24 kg (95% CI: 22.6, 25.1) to 30 kg (95% CI: 28.7, 31.3) across SAM quartiles (P < 0.001) and trunk fat:total fat ratio increased from 0.48 to 0.52 (P < 0.001). Erythrocyte SAM was also positively associated with fat mass and trunk fat:total fat ratio. The association of SAM with fat mass was not weakened by adjustment for serum tCys, lipids, creatinine, or dietary or lifestyle confounders. Concentrations of the SAM precursor, methionine, and the SAM product, SAH, were not independently associated with adiposity. Intake of animal-derived protein was not related to serum methionine but was positively associated with plasma SAM (partial r = 0.11) and serum tCys (partial r = 0.13; P < 0.05 for both after adjustment for age, gender, and total energy intake). In conclusion, plasma SAM, but not methionine, is independently associated with fat mass and trunkal adiposity, suggesting increased conversion of methionine to SAM in obese individuals. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the interactions among dietary energy and animal protein content, SAM concentrations, and change in body weight and cardiometabolic risk.
    Journal of Nutrition 09/2013; 143(12). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.179192 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to validate thirty-eight picture series of six pictures each developed within the PANCAKE (Pilot study for the Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption Among Kids in Europe) project for portion size estimation of foods consumed by infants, toddlers and children for future pan-European and national dietary surveys. Identical validation sessions were conducted in three European countries. In each country, forty-five foods were evaluated; thirty-eight foods were the same as the depicted foods, and seven foods were different, but meant to be quantified by the use of one of the thirty-eight picture series. Each single picture within a picture series was evaluated six times by means of predefined portions. Therefore, thirty-six pre-weighed portions of each food were evaluated by convenience samples of parents having children aged from 3 months to 10 years. The percentages of participants choosing the correct picture, the picture adjacent to the correct picture or a distant picture were calculated, and the performance of individual pictures within the series was assessed. For twenty foods, the picture series performed acceptably (mean difference between the estimated portion number and the served portion number less than 0·4 (sd < 1·1)). In addition, twelve foods were rated acceptable after adjustment for density differences. Some other series became acceptable after analyses at the country level. In conclusion, all picture series were acceptable for inclusion in the PANCAKE picture book. However, the picture series of baby food, salads and cakes either can only be used for foods that are very similar to those depicted or need to be substituted by another quantification tool.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2013; DOI:10.1017/S0007114513001694 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To monitor the effectiveness of salt-reduction initiatives in processed foods and changes in Dutch iodine policy on Na and iodine intakes in Dutch adults between 2006 and 2010. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies among adults, conducted in 2006 and 2010, using identical protocols. Participants collected single 24 h urine samples and completed two short questionnaires on food consumption and urine collection procedures. Daily intakes of salt, iodine, K and Na:K were estimated, based on the analysis of Na, K and iodine excreted in urine. SETTING: Doetinchem, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random sampling of the Doetinchem population and among participants of the Doetinchem Cohort Study (2006: n 317, mean age 48·9 years, 43 % men; 2010: n 342, mean age 46·2 years, 45 % men). RESULTS: While median iodine intake was lower in 2010 (179 μg/d) compared with 2006 (257 μg/d; P < 0·0001), no difference in median salt intake was observed (8·7 g/d in 2006 v. 8·5 g/d in 2010, P = 0·70). In 2006, median K intake was 2·6 g/d v. 2·8 g/d in 2010 (P < 0·01). In this 4-year period, median Na:K improved from 2·4 in 2006 to 2·2 in 2010 (P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite initiatives to lower salt in processed foods, dietary salt intake in this population remains well above the recommended intake of 6 g/d. Iodine intake is still adequate, although a decline was observed between 2006 and 2010. This reduction is probably due to changes in iodine policy.
    Public Health Nutrition 06/2013; 17(7):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S1368980013001481 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    05/2013; 91(4). DOI:10.1007/s12508-013-0065-9
  • Marga C Ocké
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2013; 72(2):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0029665113000013 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2013; 72(OCE5). DOI:10.1017/S0029665113003558 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, 36 994 men and women, aged 35-74 years completed a single, standardized 24-hour dietary recall using EPIC-Soft. Food consumption data were matched to a harmonized AA database. Intake was computed by gender and center, and across categories of habitual alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjustment was made for participants' age, height, weight, and energy intake using linear regression models. RESULTS: Adjusted mean AA intake across centers ranged from 13 to 47 μg/day in men and from 12 to 39 μg/day in women; intakes were higher in northern European centers. In most centers, intake in women was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. There were no associations between AA intake and physical activity, BMI, or education. At least 50 % of AA intake across centers came from two food groups "bread, crisp bread, rusks" and "coffee." The third main contributing food group was "potatoes". CONCLUSIONS: Dietary AA intake differs greatly among European adults residing in different geographical regions. This observed heterogeneity in AA intake deserves consideration in the design and interpretation of population-based studies of dietary AA intake and health outcomes.
    European Journal of Nutrition 12/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00394-012-0446-x · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objectives of this study were to compare dietary estimates of acrylamide from questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h recalls (R) with levels of acrylamide adduct (AA) in haemoglobin. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, acrylamide exposure was assessed in 510 participants from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, sex, with equal numbers of never and current smokers. After adjusting for country, alcohol intake, smoking status, number of cigarettes and energy intake, correlation coefficients between various acrylamide measurements were computed, both at the individual and at the aggregate (centre) level. RESULTS: Individual level correlation coefficient between DQ and R measurements (r (DQ,R)) was 0.17, while r (DQ,AA) and r (R,AA) were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. In never smokers, r (DQ,R), r (DQ,AA) and r (R,AA) were 0.19, 0.09 and 0.02, respectively. The correlation coefficients between means of DQ, R and AA measurements at the centre level were larger (r > 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that estimates of total acrylamide intake based on self-reported diet correlate weakly with biomarker AA Hb levels. Possible explanations are the lack of AA levels to capture dietary acrylamide due to individual differences in the absorption and metabolism of acrylamide, and/or measurement errors in acrylamide from self-reported dietary assessments, thus limiting the possibility to validate acrylamide DQ measurements.
    European Journal of Nutrition 11/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00394-012-0457-7 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake (diet, supplements, energy) and on the proportion of energy that may be fortified. This study aimed to evaluate the model parameters considering the changing fortification market. In addition, the risk of young children exceeding the UL for folic acid was studied. Folic acid fortified foods present on the Dutch market were identified in product databases and by a supermarket inventory. Together with data of the Dutch National Consumption Survey-Young Children (2005/2006) these inventory results were used to re-estimate the model parameters. Habitual folic acid intake of young children was estimated and compared to the UL for several realistic fortification scenarios. Folic acid fortified foods were identified in seven different food groups. In up to 10% of the population, the proportion of energy intake of folic acid fortified foods exceeded 10% - the original model parameter. The folic acid intake from food supplements was about 100 µg/day, which is lower than the intake assumed as the original model parameter (300 µg). In the scenarios representing the current market situation, a small proportion (<5%) of the children exceeded the UL. The maximum fortification level of 100 µg/100 kcal is sufficiently protective for children in the current market situation. In the precautionary model to estimate the maximum fortification levels, subjects with high intakes of folic acid from food and supplements, and high energy intakes are protected from too high folic acid intakes. Combinations of high intakes are low in this population. The maximum levels should be monitored and revised with increasing fortification and supplementation practices.
    Food & Nutrition Research 04/2012; 56. DOI:10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5443 · 1.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
720.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2015
    • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
      • • Centre for Prevention and Health Services Research (PZO)
      • • Centre for Nutrition and Health
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2007–2010
    • Wageningen University
      • Division of Human Nutrition
      Wageningen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands
    • German Institute of Human Nutrition
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2006–2010
    • Catalan Institute of Oncology
      • Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme (PREC)
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Universitetet i Tromsø
      • Department of Community Medicine
      Tromsø, Troms Fylke, Norway
  • 2009
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Umeå University
      Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
  • 1999–2009
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2003
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • CRO Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano
      Aviano, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 1999–2003
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • Utrecht University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands