G Touchard

Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France

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Publications (344)829.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, as well as in the course of IgA nephropathy progression towards end stage renal failure. UMOD polymorphism rs12917707 is known to associate with end stage renal failure of mixed aetiologies.
    BMC Nephrology 08/2014; 15(1):138. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis (BRCN) has been reported following envenoming by exotic venomous snakes. Proatheris superciliaris is a rare viper with restricted distribution in east Africa. Very little information is available on envenoming by this species. We herein describe the case of a 60-year-old professional wildlife photographer who was bitten on his thumb while photographing an adult specimen of Proatheris superciliaris that he held at home in France. On admission, physical examination revealed severe hypertension and bruising with edema at the bite site. Within the following 24hours, he developed vomiting, diarrhea, acute lumbar pain and anuria. Laboratory tests showed acute kidney injury (serum creatinine 4.6 mg/dL), with thrombocytopenia, anemia and severe coagulopathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed hypodense areas in the cortex of both kidneys consistent with diffuse BRCN. As no appropriate antivenom existed, only symptomatic care was given to the patient. Coagulation tests returned to normal within 48hours. The patient was placed on chronic hemodialysis, until he underwent successful kidney transplantation 18 months later. In developed countries, severe complications provoked by snakebites tend to be more frequent with the number of trendy exotic pets. Acute kidney injury, including BRCN, is a classic complication of viper bites. The present case of end-stage renal failure related to diffuse BRCN illustrates the potentially devastating effects of envenoming by Proatheris superciliaris. Clinicians in developed countries should be informed about renal disorders and other potentially fatal complications of venomous snake bites and seek urgent expert advice for optimizing clinical management. Education and coaching of envenomed patients and exotic snake owners is mandatory to prevent dramatic accidents.
    Toxicon 04/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cellular target, metabolism enzymes or transport proteins, and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) or adverse events have been reported in transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil. This work aimed to study these in patients on enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS). The study included 189 renal transplant patients from the DOMINOS trial. Fifteen SNPs in IMPDH2, IMPDH1, ABCC2, SLCO1B3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, CYP2C8, HUS1, and IL12A were genotyped in all patients. Associations between SNPs and the first event of BPAR or diarrhea were investigated using multivariate logistic regressions. Associations between SNPs and leukopenia or anemia at nine different visits between days 0 and 190 after transplantation were studied using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression models. Multivariate analyses showed that the CYP2C8 rs11572076 wild-type genotype was associated significantly with a lower risk of leukopenia [GG vs. GA: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.14 (0.03, 0.59), P=0.00783]. Higher EC-MPS doses and the UGT2B7 c.-840 G>A variant allele were associated with an increased risk of anemia [EC-MPS per unit dose increase: 1.004 (1.003, 1.005), P<0.0001; UGT2B7 GA vs. AA: 1.65 (1.12, 2.43), P=0.01043; GG vs. AA: 1.88 (1.23, 2.88), P=0.00343]. However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs studied and diarrhea or BPAR. Two pharmacogenetic associations reported previously with mycophenolate mofetil were found in a population of 189 renal transplant patients treated with EC-MPS.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 03/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal involvement in light chain (LC) deposition disease (LCDD) is typically characterized by nodular glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic range proteinuria. Rare cases of LCDD without glomerular symptoms have been reported, but clinical and pathological characteristics of this entity remain poorly described. This multi-centre retrospective study included 14 patients with biopsy-proven renal LCDD and proteinuria <0.5 g/day at diagnosis. Baseline median serum creatinine was 281 (136-594) μmol/L, with a glomerular filtration rate of 20 (6-48) mL/min/1.73 m(2). A serum monoclonal immunoglobulin was detected in 12 cases and LC proteinuria only in 7, always of kappa isotype. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance/indolent multiple myeloma (MM) was diagnosed in nine cases, symptomatic MM in three cases. Hypertension was almost constant (10 of 14). Immunofluorescence studies of kidney biopsies showed linear kappa LC deposition along tubular basement membranes in all cases, with linear glomerular and vascular LC deposits in 11 and 10 patients, respectively. By light microscopy, tubulo-interstitial lesions were prominent in all patients and focal nodular glomerulosclerosis was only observed in two cases. Identification of LCDD led to initiation of chemotherapy in 12 cases. After a median follow-up of 25.5 months, five patients died and four progressed to end-stage renal disease. Renal response occurred in five of the eight patients who achieved sustained haematological response. LCDD can cause severe renal dysfunction, despite the absence of glomerular symptoms. Early identification of the disease and introduction of a chemotherapy targeting the underlying plasma cell disorder may preserve long-term renal prognosis.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endogenous molecules high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-33 (IL-33) have been identified as alarmins, capable of mediating danger signals during tissue damage. Here, we address their possible role as innate-immune mediators in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) following human kidney transplantation. We analysed serum and urinary HMGB1 and IL-33 levels, all determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in a cohort of 26 deceased renal transplant recipients. Urinary HMGB1 and IL-33 levels were significantly increased as soon as 30 min after reperfusion, as compared to those before treatment. Moreover, both serum and urinary IL-33 (but not HMGB1) increase was positively correlated with cold ischemia time, from 30 min to 3 days post-transplantation. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia conditions released both HMGB-1 and IL-33, while only the latter was further increased upon subsequent re-oxygenation. Finally, we postulate that leukocytes from renal recipient patients are targeted by both HMGB1 and IL-33, as suggested by increased transcription of their respective receptors (TLR2/4 and ST2L) shortly after transplantation. Consistent with this view, we found that iNKT cells, an innate-like T cell subset involved in IRI and targeted by IL-33 but not by HMGB1 was activated 1 hour post-transplantation. Altogether, these results are in keeping with a potential role of IL-33 as an innate-immune mediator during kidney IRI in humans.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88742. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160 mg/day to week 6, 1440 mg/day thereafter), and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal). The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up) occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8-31.0%) of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1-25.7%) of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P = 0.46). BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.19). The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6-36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P = 0.062). By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months.
    Journal of Transplantation 01/2014; 2014:171898.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis (BRCN) has been reported following envenoming by exotic venomous snakes. Proatheris superciliaris is a rare viper with restricted distribution in east Africa. Very little information is available on envenoming by this species. We herein describe the case of a 60-year-old professional wildlife photographer who was bitten on his thumb while photographing an adult specimen of Proatheris superciliaris that he held at home in France. On admission, physical examination revealed severe hypertension and bruising with edema at the bite site. Within the following 24hours, he developed vomiting, diarrhea, acute lumbar pain and anuria. Laboratory tests showed acute kidney injury (serum creatinine 4.6 mg/dL), with thrombocytopenia, anemia and severe coagulopathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed hypodense areas in the cortex of both kidneys consistent with diffuse BRCN. As no appropriate antivenom existed, only symptomatic care was given to the patient. Coagulation tests returned to normal within 48hours. The patient was placed on chronic hemodialysis, until he underwent successful kidney transplantation 18 months later. In developed countries, severe complications provoked by snakebites tend to be more frequent with the number of trendy exotic pets. Acute kidney injury, including BRCN, is a classic complication of viper bites. The present case of end-stage renal failure related to diffuse BRCN illustrates the potentially devastating effects of envenoming by Proatheris superciliaris. Clinicians in developed countries should be informed about renal disorders and other potentially fatal complications of venomous snake bites and seek urgent expert advice for optimizing clinical management. Education and coaching of envenomed patients and exotic snake owners is mandatory to prevent dramatic accidents.
    Toxicon 01/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this ancillary study of the CONCEPT trial, we studied the role of CsA withdrawal at 3 months (3M) post-transplant on the intensity of epithelial phenotypic changes (EPC, an early marker for kidney fibrogenesis) on the 12M surveillance biopsy. Although conversion from CsA to Sirolimus (SRL) at 3M was reported to have improved mean graft function at 12M, it did not reduce the score of EPC (1.73±1.15 in the SRL group vs 1.87±1 in the CsA group, p=0.61). Acute rejection, which had occurred twice more frequently in SRL converted patients included here, was associated with 12M EPC. Interestingly, we observed that the patients durably exposed to CsA and who developed 12M EPC had a significant progression of blood pulse pressure (pp) from 1 to 6M post-transplantation (Δpp=+12.3mmHg, p=0.0035). pp at 4, 6 and 9M and pp progression from 1 to 6M were significantly associated with the development of EPC at 12M in renal grafts. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a high 6M pp (≥60 mmHg) was an independent risk factor for 12M EPC with an odds ratio of 2.25 per additional 10mm Hg pp (95%CI: 1.14-4.4, p=0.02) after adjustment with recipient's and donor's age, acute rejection incidence and immunosuppressive regimen. A post hoc analysis of the data collected in the whole population CONCEPT study revealed that pp was significantly higher at 6 months in patients maintained on CsA, and that at this time point pp correlated negatively with GFR at 1 year. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Transplant International 11/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 11/2013; 9(6):451. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (GN) is a rare disorder with poor renal prognosis. Therapeutic strategies, particularly the use of immunosuppressive drugs, are debated. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 27 adults with fibrillary GN referred to 15 nephrology departments in France between 1990 and 2011 were included. All patients were given renin-angiotensin system blockers and 13 received immunosuppressive therapy, including rituximab (7 patients) and cyclophosphamide (3 patients). OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: Clinical and histologic features of patients and kidney disease outcome. Renal response was defined as a >50% decrease in 24-hour proteinuria with <15% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: All patients presented with proteinuria, associated with nephrotic syndrome (41%), hematuria (73%), and hypertension (70%). Baseline median eGFR was 49 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Eight patients had a history of autoimmune disease and none had evidence of hematologic malignancy during follow-up. Light microscopic studies showed mesangial GN (70%), predominant pattern of membranous GN (19%), or membranoproliferative GN (11%). By immunofluorescence, immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposits (IgG4, 15/15; IgG1, 9/15) were polyclonal in 25 cases. Serum IgG subclass distribution was normal in the 6 patients tested. After a median 46-month follow-up, renal response occurred in 6 of 13 patients who received immunosuppressive therapy with rituximab (5 patients) or cyclophosphamide (1 patient). Of these, 5 had a mesangial or membranous light microscopic pattern, and median eGFR before therapy was 76 mL/min/1.73 m(2). In contrast, chronic kidney disease progressed in 12 of 14 patients who were not given immunosuppressive therapy, 10 of whom reached end-stage renal disease. LIMITATIONS: Number of patients, retrospective study, use of multiple immunosuppressive regimens. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic approach in fibrillary GN remains challenging. The place of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly anti-B-cell agents, needs to be assessed in larger collaborative studies.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Guy Touchard, Frank Bridoux
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2013; 61(4):644. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of surgical complications of renal transplantation at one institution, relate this to donor and recipient factors and to long-term graft survival. A consecutive series of 145 renal transplants were audited, and a database of donor and recipient characteristics created for risk-factor analysis. An unstented Barry-Sarramon anastomosis was the most used method of ureteric reimplantation. Lich-Gregoir anastomosis was used in 28.9% of cases. The mean follow-up time was 14.4±6.23 years. There were 67 surgical complications including ten vascular, 39 urological and 18 parietal complications. Among urological complications, 13 were urinary leaks, four distal ureteric necrosis, 13 symptomatic ureteric reflux, six primary ureteric obstructions, and one ureteric stone at some time after transplantation. The overall incidence of urological complications was 26.2%. There was no association with recipient or donor age, cold ischaemic times before organ reimplantation, dialysis duration before transplantation, operating times, or ureteric stenting. Overall surgical complications had a significant pejorative impact on graft survival (Hazard Ratio [HR]=1.805; P=0.32), but as we studied them separately, we highlighted that in fact only vascular complications had an impact on long-term graft survival (HR=17.442, P<5E-10). There was no association between urological (P=0.566) or parietal (P=0.797) complications and long-term graft outcome. The onset of a urological or a parietal complication had no impact in this series on long-term graft survival. Vascular complications dramatically increase the rate of graft loss.
    Progrès en Urologie 02/2013; 23(2):113-20. · 0.80 Impact Factor
  • G. Touchard, G. Artana, T. Paillat
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we analyze some experiments made previously on streaming current in glass capillaries. As the "classic Poiseuille flow" and the hypothesis of smooth pipes do not seem to give a good agreement with the experiments, we have tried to see if a model taking into account the roughness of the tubes and a possible slip on the wall could give a better agreement. Indeed, for a liquid flowing inside a capillary of very small diameter, the non-slip hypothesis on the wall seems to be questionable. Experiments to determine the validity of such hypothesis are very difficult to develop and results are often not that clear, especially because of the large number of parameters. This was not our purpose, but just to see if the slip hypothesis combined with the effect of roughness could give a better model of the streaming current phenomenon in micro capillaries.
    IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 01/2013; 20(5):1474-1480. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association of Fanconi syndrome (FS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been rarely described during the course of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). We report 2 patients with PNH and CKD associated with proximal tubule dysfunction, which manifested as full-blown FS in one case. In both patients, abnormal iron load within the kidneys was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, which correlated with diffuse and numerous hemosiderin inclusions within proximal tubular cells. After 12 months, eculizumab treatment resulted in significant decrease in the kidney iron load in both cases. Glomerular filtration rate improved in one case and was stabilized in the other, in whom pretreatment kidney biopsy had shown severe extensive interstitial fibrosis. However, symptoms of proximal tubular dysfunction persisted in both patients. These data suggest that hemosiderin deposition in proximal tubules is probably an important mechanism involved in the development of FS, an under recognized and early manifestation of CKD in PNH. Prolonged treatment with eculizumab may improve long-term renal function in PNH patients with CKD.
    Clinical nephrology 10/2012; 78(4):316-21. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Néphrologie & Thérapeutique. 09/2012; 8(5):283.
  • Néphrologie & Thérapeutique. 09/2012; 8(5):287–288.
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    ABSTRACT: Definition of the diseaseAL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in beta leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils.EpidemiologyAL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50.Clinical descriptionThe clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis.Diagnostic methodsThe diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the systemic nature of the disease, non-invasive biopsies such as abdominal fat aspiration should be considered before taking biopsies from involved organs, in order to reduce the risk of bleeding complications.Differential diagnosisSystemic AL amyloidosis should be distinguished from other diseases related to deposition of monoclonal LC, and from other forms of systemic amyloidosis. When pathological studies have failed to identify the nature of amyloid deposits, genetic studies should be performed to diagnose hereditary amyloidosis.ManagementTreatment of AL amyloidosis is based on chemotherapy, aimed at controlling the underlying plasma clone that produces amyloidogenic LC. The hematological response should be carefully checked by serial measurements of serum free LC. The association of an alkylating agent with high-dose dexamethasone has proven to be effective in two thirds of patients and is considered as the current reference treatment. New agents used in the treatment of multiple myeloma are under investigation and appear to increase hematological response rates. Symptomatic measures and supportive care is necessary in patients with organ failure. Noticeably, usual treatments for cardiac failure (i.e. calcium inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) are inefficient or even dangerous in patients with amyloid heart disease, that should be managed using diuretics. Amiodarone and pace maker implantation should be considered in patients with rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In selected cases, heart and kidney transplantation may be associated with prolonged patient and graft survival.PrognosisSurvival in AL amyloidosis depends on the spectrum of organ involvement (amyloid heart disease being the main prognosis factor), the severity of individual organs involved and haematological response to treatment.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 08/2012; 7(1):54. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pig is a relevant preclinical model for numerous pathologies used to validate therapeutic strategies for translation to human. Although invariant natural killer T (iNKT) lymphocytes are a component of innate immunity implicated in many pathological processes, little is known on their characterization in swine. By addressing this issue using mouse α-galactosylceramide-loaded CD1d tetramers (α-GC-CD1dTT), which are commonly used to track iNKT cells, we were able to unequivocally identify CD3(+)α-GC-CD1dTT(+) cells in porcine peripheral blood, hereafter referred to as swine iNKT cells. These lymphocytes are enriched in CD4(-)CD8(+) and CD4(-)CD8(-) cells, harbor an activated-memory phenotype (SLA-DR(+)CD45RA(-)), express the intracellular promyelocytic-leukemia-zinc-finger (PLZF) transcription factor and are significantly enriched in IFN-γ-producing cells after in vitro activation in comparison with conventional T cells. Importantly, in presence of IL-2 and IL-15, the iNKT cell ligand α-GC induces selective expansion of CD3(+)α-GC-CD1dTT(+) cells, confirming the reactivity of swine iNKT cells against α-GC. When associated with α-GC, IL-33, an alarmin of IL-1 family recently described to target iNKT cells, leads to a greater expansion of CD3(+)α-GC-CD1dTT(+) cells than IL-2 and IL-15. Altogether, our results provide the first phenotypic and functional description of swine iNKT cells allowing to further study the critical role of iNKT cells in porcine models of organ injury.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 07/2012; 149(3-4):272-9. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a kindred with slowly progressive gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic neuropathy caused by autosomal dominant, hereditary systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid consists of Asp76Asn variant β(2)-microglobulin. Unlike patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis caused by sustained high plasma concentrations of wild-type β(2)-microglobulin, the affected members of this kindred had normal renal function and normal circulating β(2)-microglobulin values. The Asp76Asn β(2)-microglobulin variant was thermodynamically unstable and remarkably fibrillogenic in vitro under physiological conditions. Previous studies of β(2)-microglobulin aggregation have not shown such amyloidogenicity for single-residue substitutions. Comprehensive biophysical characterization of the β(2)-microglobulin variant, including its 1.40-Å, three-dimensional structure, should allow further elucidation of fibrillogenesis and protein misfolding.
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2012; 366(24):2276-83. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short-term intensified dosing using enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) reduces rejection after kidney transplantation without compromising safety and may facilitate steroid avoidance. In a 6-month, multicentre open-label trial, 222 de novo kidney transplant recipients at low-immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or maintenance steroids with interleukin (IL)-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction, EC-MPS (2160 mg/day to Week 6, 1440 mg/day thereafter) and cyclosporine. The primary end point; treatment failure at Month 6 [biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, death or loss to follow-up], occurred in 17.9% (20/112) of steroid-avoidance patients and 14.5% (16/110) of controls (difference 3.4%, 95% confidence interval -6.3 to 13.1, P = 0.47 for superiority testing). BPAR occurred in 11.6 and 7.3% of patients in the steroid-avoidance and control arms, respectively (P = 0.27). Creatinine clearance was similar at Month 6 (steroid-avoidance 56 ± 18 mL/min/1.73 m(2), controls 60 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.34). Cytomegalovirus infection, as reported by investigators, occurred in 12.5% of steroid-avoidance patients and 22.7% of controls (P = 0.045). A regimen of early intensified EC-MPS dosing with calcineurin inhibitor and IL-2RA induction permits oral steroid avoidance in adult kidney transplant patients at low-immunological risk without compromising efficacy at 6 months' follow-up.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2012; 27(9):3651-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
829.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1981–2014
    • Université de Poitiers
      Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France
  • 1998–2013
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers
      Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France
  • 2002–2011
    • University of Limoges
      • Laboratoire d'Immunologie
      Limoges, Limousin, France
  • 1991–2010
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004–2009
    • University of Buenos Aires
      • Faculty of Engineering
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      • Department of Animal Genetics
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999–2008
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Limoges
      Limages, Limousin, France
  • 2007
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice
      Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2006
    • University Hospital Estaing of Clermont-Ferrand
      Clermont, Auvergne, France
  • 2000
    • Max Planck Institute of Biophysics
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 1997–1999
    • McMaster University
      • Department of Engineering Physics
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    • Yokkaichi University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1988–1999
    • Aichi Institute of Technology
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 1995
    • ERM POITIERS
      Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, France