[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAdoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) administered to lymphodepleted patients with melanoma can cause durable tumor regressions. The optimal TIL product for ACT is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients with metastatic melanoma were prospectively assigned to receive unselected young TILs versus CD8(+)-enriched TILs. All patients received lymphodepleting chemotherapy and high-dose IL-2 therapy and were assessed for response, toxicity, survival, and immunologic end points.ResultsThirty-four patients received unselected young TILs with a median of 8.0% CD4(+) lymphocytes, and 35 patients received CD8(+)-enriched TILs with a median of 0.3% CD4(+) lymphocytes. One month after TIL infusion, patients who received CD8(+)-enriched TILs had significantly fewer CD4(+) peripheral blood lymphocytes (P = .01). Twelve patients responded to therapy with unselected young TILs (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST]), and seven patients responded to CD8(+)-enriched TILs (35% v 20%; not significant). Retrospective studies showed a significant association between response to treatment and interferon gamma secretion by the infused TILs in response to autologous tumor (P = .04), and in the subgroup of patients who received TILs from subcutaneous tumors, eight of 15 patients receiving unselected young TILs responded but none of eight patients receiving CD8(+)-enriched TILs responded. CONCLUSIONA randomized selection design trial was feasible for improving individualized TIL therapy. Since the evidence indicates that CD8(+)-enriched TILs are not more potent therapeutically and they are more laborious to prepare, future studies should focus on unselected young TILs.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare immunodeficiency complicated by dysregulated inflammation and granulomatous complications of the GI tract. The management of chronic granulomatous disease colitis presents the dilemma of an immunocompromised host requiring immunosuppressive therapy which can potentiate fatal infections.
: The aim of this study was to identify the types of GI surgery performed in patients and determine the role of surgery in the management of refractory colitis.
: A retrospective single-institution chart review was performed.
: Of 268 patients with chronic granulomatous disease treated at the National Institutes of Health between 1985 and 2011, 98 (37%) were identified as having colitis; 27 (10%) had a history of GI luminal surgery.
: Patient characteristics, type of GI surgery, and clinical outcomes were documented.
: A total of 62 GI luminal surgeries were performed in 27 patients with chronic granulomatous disease and colitis. All 27 had a history of perineal disease requiring intervention. Four (15%) had additional surgery performed for reasons other than colitis. Otherwise, 12 (44%) had surgery limited to the perineum, 2 (7%) had a segmental resection, and 13 (48%) underwent fecal diversion with ileostomy or colostomy. Despite local procedures, 7 (58%) patients in the perineal-only group remained symptomatic. Both patients with a segmental resection had persistent perineal disease, and 1 had a recurrent colovesicular fistula. Of the 13 ostomy patients, 11 initially received a diverting ostomy. Eight (73%) of these ultimately required additional procedures for refractory disease, and 4 (36%) developed peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum. Four patients who underwent proctocolectomy with end ileostomy, either initially (2) or as a definitive procedure (2), experienced resolution of colitis and perineal disease.
: This study is limited by its retrospective design, small sample size, and highly selected patient population.
: Proctocolectomy with end ileostomy may offer a definitive treatment in a patient with refractory chronic granulomatous disease colitis given current therapeutic limitations.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 05/2013; 56(5):609-14. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine cancer patients were treated with adoptive cell therapy using autologous anti-MAGE-A3 T-cell receptors (TCR)-engineered T cells. Five patients experienced clinical regression of their cancers including 2 on-going responders. Beginning 1-2 days postinfusion, 3 patients (#'s 5, 7, and 8) experienced mental status changes, and 2 patients (5 and 8) lapsed into comas and subsequently died. Magnetic resonance imagining analysis of patients 5 and 8 demonstrated periventricular leukomalacia, and examination of their brains at autopsy revealed necrotizing leukoencephalopathy with extensive white matter defects associated with infiltration of CD3/CD8 T cells. Patient 7, developed Parkinson-like symptoms, which resolved over 4 weeks and fully recovered. Immunohistochemical staining of patient and normal brain samples demonstrated rare positively staining neurons with an antibody that recognizes multiple MAGE-A family members. The TCR used in this study recognized epitopes in MAGE-A3/A9/A12. Molecular assays of human brain samples using real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction, Nanostring quantitation, and deep-sequencing indicated that MAGE-A12 was expressed in human brain (and possibly MAGE-A1, MAGE-A8, and MAGE-A9). This previously unrecognized expression of MAGE-A12 in human brain was possibly the initiating event of a TCR-mediated inflammatory response that resulted in neuronal cell destruction and raises caution for clinical applications targeting MAGE-A family members with highly active immunotherapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seven patients with venous thrombosis and contraindications to traditional thrombolytic therapy, consisting of recent intracranial surgery, recent pineal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage, active genitourinary or gastrointestinal bleeding, epidural procedures, and impending surgery, were successfully treated with a modified thrombolytic regimen. To improve safety, prolonged continuous infusions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was eliminated in favor of once-daily low-dose intraclot injections of tPA to minimize the amount and duration of tPA in the systemic circulation, and low-therapeutic or regional anticoagulation was used to reduce anticoagulant risks. These modifications may allow thrombolytic treatment for selected patients with severe venous thrombosis who are deemed to be at high risk.
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 01/2013; 24(1):27-34.e1. · 1.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome (HIES), also called Job's syndrome, is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by the triad of elevated immunoglobulin E levels, eczema, and infections. Its clinical course manifests as recurrent skin and pulmonary infections, and variable skeletal, connective tissue, and vascular abnormalities. There is evidence of abnormal tissue remodeling with pneumatocoeles frequently complicating pyogenic pneumonias and leading to secondary infections that cause the majority of morbidity and mortality. Complications are known to occur after lung surgery with a high frequency of bronchopleural fistulae, but little has been reported concerning abdominal surgeries. DISCUSSION: Here, we report on the outcome and safety of two separate complex cases (hepatectomy and subtotal gastrectomy) and document our entire experience with abdominal surgical procedures performed on patients with HIES. Despite initial complications, all patients eventually made a full recovery. CONCLUSION: As HIES patients now frequently live beyond the third and fourth decade, surgical issues similar to those in the general population may increase. Complex surgical procedures can be performed safely and benefit select patients with HIES, but benefit strongly from multidisciplinary teams and awareness of complications related to abnormal healing. We discuss current treatment and potential complications post-operatively in patients with HIES.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2012; · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with ipilimumab can cause objective tumor responses in patients with metastatic melanoma. We have treated 177 evaluable patients in three clinical trials and have long-term follow-up to evaluate the durability of responses.
Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated in three trials from 2002 to 2005. In protocol 1, 56 patients received ipilimumab with gp100 peptides. In protocol 2, 36 patients received ipilimumab with interleukin-2. In protocol 3, 85 patients received ipilimumab with intrapatient dose-escalation and were randomized to receive gp100 peptides. We have analyzed their long-term follow-up and survival data.
With median follow-up for protocols 1, 2, and 3 being 92, 84, and 71 months, median survival was 14, 16, and 13 months with 5-year survival rates being 13%, 25%, and 23%, respectively. Patients in protocol 2 had a 17% complete response (CR) rate, compared with 7% in protocol 1 and 6% in protocol 3. These CR rates are higher than previously reported for the same trials because some patients who eventually became complete responders had continual tumor regression months to years after therapy. All but one of the 15 complete responders are ongoing at 54+ to 99+ months.
This report provides the longest follow-up of patients with melanoma treated with ipilimumab and shows that ipilimumab can induce durable, potentially curative tumor regression in a small percentage of patients with metastatic melanoma. The combination of ipilimumab and interleukin-2 seems to have an increased CR rate, but this needs to be tested in a randomized trial.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2012; 18(7):2039-47. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a clinical trial to assess adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric Ag receptor (CAR). Our clinical protocol consisted of chemotherapy followed by an infusion of anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells and a course of IL-2. Six of the 8 patients treated on our protocol obtained remissions of their advanced, progressive B-cell malignancies. Four of the 8 patients treated on the protocol had long-term depletion of normal polyclonal CD19(+) B-lineage cells. Cells containing the anti-CD19 CAR gene were detected in the blood of all patients. Four of the 8 treated patients had prominent elevations in serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNF. The severity of acute toxicities experienced by the patients correlated with serum IFNγ and TNF levels. The infused anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells were a possible source of these inflammatory cytokines because we demonstrated peripheral blood T cells that produced TNF and IFNγ ex vivo in a CD19-specific manner after anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T-cell infusions. Anti-CD19-CAR-transduced T cells have great promise to improve the treatment of B-cell malignancies because of a potent ability to eradicate CD19(+) cells in vivo; however, reversible cytokine-associated toxicities occurred after CAR-transduced T-cell infusions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to analyze treatment-induced gonadal damage and premature ovarian failure after adoptive cell therapy (ACT) after a cytotoxic lymphodepleting preparative regimen. Records of 66 consecutive females who received ACT at the Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH (Bethesda, MD) were reviewed. Patients received a conditioning regimen of high-dose cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg x 2 doses) and fludarabine (25 mg/m² x 5 doses). Some patients also received total body radiation at 200 or 600 cGy. Assessment of ovarian function was determined by analysis of monthly follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, menstrual history, and symptoms. Among patients with serum available and normal pretreatment ovarian function, 21 had a preparative regimen with chemotherapy alone and 5 patients had received chemotherapy with total body radiation. Nine (43%) patients in the chemotherapy cohort and all 5 patients in the chemotherapy plus total body radiation cohort had persistently elevated FSH levels and were given the diagnosis of premature ovarian failure. Twelve (57%) patients had normal FSH levels at 6 months posttreatment. Median age of all patients at treatment was 34 years. Median age of women retaining normal ovarian function was 30 (range, 19-45) vs. 41 years (range, 30-49) for those who did not regain function. The conditioning regimen of 2 doses of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg) and 5 doses of fludarabine (25 mg/m²) may induce gonadal damage and premature ovarian failure. Younger age at treatment was associated with a higher frequency of normal ovarian function posttreatment, whereas adding total body radiation was associated with a high risk of ovarian failure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive immunotherapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes represents an effective cancer treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. The NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen, which is expressed in 80% of patients with synovial cell sarcoma and approximately 25% of patients with melanoma and common epithelial tumors, represents an attractive target for immune-based therapies. The current trial was carried out to evaluate the ability of adoptively transferred autologous T cells transduced with a T-cell receptor (TCR) directed against NY-ESO-1 to mediate tumor regression in patients with metastatic melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma.
A clinical trial was performed in patients with metastatic melanoma or metastatic synovial cell sarcoma refractory to all standard treatments. Patients with NY-ESO-1-positive tumors were treated with autologous TCR-transduced T cells plus 720,000 iU/kg of interleukin-2 to tolerance after preparative chemotherapy. Objective clinical responses were evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).
Objective clinical responses were observed in four of six patients with synovial cell sarcoma and five of 11 patients with melanoma bearing tumors expressing NY-ESO-1. Two of 11 patients with melanoma demonstrated complete regressions that persisted after 1 year. A partial response lasting 18 months was observed in one patient with synovial cell sarcoma.
These observations indicate that TCR-based gene therapies directed against NY-ESO-1 represent a new and effective therapeutic approach for patients with melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma. To our knowledge, this represents the first demonstration of the successful treatment of a nonmelanoma tumor using TCR-transduced T cells.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2011; 29(7):917-24. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and interleukin (IL)-2 administered following lymphodepletion can cause the durable complete regression of bulky metastatic melanoma in patients refractory to approved treatments. However, the generation of a unique tumor-reactive TIL culture for each patient may be prohibitively difficult. We therefore investigated the clinical and immunologic impact of unscreened, CD8+ enriched "young" TIL.
Methods were developed for generating TIL that minimized the time in culture and eliminated the individualized tumor-reactivity screening step. Thirty-three patients were treated with these CD8+ enriched young TIL and IL-2 following nonmyeloablative lymphodepletion (NMA). Twenty-three additional patients were treated with CD8+ enriched young TIL and IL-2 after lymphodepletion with NMA and 6 Gy of total body irradiation.
Young TIL cultures for therapy were successfully established from 83% of 122 consecutive melanoma patients. Nineteen of 33 patients (58%) treated with CD8+ enriched young TIL and NMA had an objective response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) including 3 complete responders. Eleven of 23 patients (48%) treated with TIL and 6 Gy total body irradiation had an objective response including 2 complete responders. At 1 month after TIL infusion the absolute CD8+ cell numbers in the periphery were highly correlated with response.
This study shows that a rapid and simplified method can be used to reliably generate CD8+ enriched young TIL for administration as an individualized therapy for advanced melanoma, and may allow this potentially effective treatment to be applied at other institutions and to reach additional patients.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2010; 16(24):6122-31. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous T lymphocytes genetically engineered to express a murine T cell receptor (TCR) against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were administered to three patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard treatments. All patients experienced profound decreases in serum CEA levels (74-99%), and one patient had an objective regression of cancer metastatic to the lung and liver. However, a severe transient inflammatory colitis that represented a dose limiting toxicity was induced in all three patients. This report represents the first example of objective regression of metastatic colorectal cancer mediated by adoptive T cell transfer and illustrates the successful use of a TCR, raised in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice, against a human tumor associated antigen. It also emphasizes the destructive power of small numbers of highly avid T cells and the limitations of using CEA as a target for cancer immunotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate objective tumor regression in 49% to 72% of patients with many long-term durable responses. To undergo treatment a patient must have (1) a resectable tumor from which (2) TIL can be generated that (3) exhibit tumor-specific reactivity. From July 2002 to July 2007, 787 tumors from 402 patients were processed for possible use in the generation of TIL, leading to the eventual treatment of 107 patients (27%). Viable TILs were generated in 376 patients (94%), and active, specific TILs were identified in 269 patients (67%). Patient demographics and tumor characteristics were analyzed for possible prognostic factors for growth and activity. Gastrointestinal-derived TIL grew less frequently, whereas lymph node and lung-derived TIL exhibited specific activity more often. TIL that grew and exhibited specific reactivity were from tumors that were larger in diameter and digests that had a higher percentage of lymphocytes. Despite these considerations, active, specific TIL could be generated from almost any site of metastasis. As more centers begin exploring the use of adoptive transfer with TIL, this compendium may provide a framework for therapeutic decision making and future investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New, effective therapies are needed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Ipilimumab can mediate an immunologic tumor regression in other histologies. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of Ipilimumab for advanced pancreatic cancer. Subjects were adults with locally advanced or metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma with measurable disease, good performance status, and minimal comorbidities. Ipilimumab was administered intravenously (3.0 mg/kg every 3 wk; 4 doses/course) for a maximum of 2 courses. Response rate by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria and toxicity were measured. Twenty-seven subjects were enrolled (metastatic disease: 20 and locally advanced: 7) with median age of 55 years (27 to 68 y) and good performance status (26 with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status =0 to 1). Three subjects experienced ≥ grade 3 immune-mediated adverse events (colitis:1, encephalitis:1, hypohysitis:1). There were no responders by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria but a subject experienced a delayed response after initial progressive disease. In this subject, new metastases after 2 doses of Ipilimumab established progressive disease. But continued administration of the agent per protocol resulted in significant delayed regression of the primary lesion and 20 hepatic metastases. This was reflected in tumor markers normalization, and clinically significant improvement of performance status. Single agent Ipilimumab at 3.0 mg/kg/dose is ineffective for the treatment of advanced pancreas cancer. However, a significant delayed response in one subject of this trial suggests that immunotherapeutic approaches to pancreas cancer deserve further exploration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), an incurable malignancy of mature B lymphocytes, involves blood, bone marrow, and secondary lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes (LN). A role of the tissue microenvironment in the pathogenesis of CLL is hypothesized based on in vitro observations, but its contribution in vivo remains ill-defined. To elucidate the effects of tumor-host interactions in vivo, we purified tumor cells from 24 treatment-naive patients. Samples were obtained concurrently from blood, bone marrow, and/or LN and analyzed by gene expression profiling. We identified the LN as a key site in CLL pathogenesis. CLL cells in the LN showed up-regulation of gene signatures, indicating B-cell receptor (BCR) and nuclear factor-κB activation. Consistent with antigen-dependent BCR signaling and canonical nuclear factor-κB activation, we detected phosphorylation of SYK and IκBα, respectively. Expression of BCR target genes was stronger in clinically more aggressive CLL, indicating more effective BCR signaling in this subtype in vivo. Tumor proliferation, quantified by the expression of the E2F and c-MYC target genes and verified with Ki67 staining by flow cytometry, was highest in the LN and was correlated with clinical disease progression. These data identify the disruption of tumor microenvironment interactions and the inhibition of BCR signaling as promising therapeutic strategies in CLL. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00019370.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the objective response rate and response duration of melanoma brain metastases to adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous antitumor lymphocytes plus interleukin-2 following a lymphodepleting preparative regimen. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 264 patients with metastatic melanoma received ACT, consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine with or without total body irradiation, followed by the infusion of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes retrovirally transduced to express a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognized the melanocyte differentiation antigens gp-100 or MART-1. From this group, 26 patients were retrospectively identified to have had untreated brain metastases and extracranial disease before receiving ACT. The response rate and duration of melanoma brain metastases, as well as the overall response rate, response duration, and survival for these patients, are presented.
Seventeen of these 26 patients received ACT with TIL. Seven of these patients (41%) achieved a complete response in the brain, and six patients achieved an overall partial response. In the nine patients that received TCR-transduced lymphocytes, two patients achieved a complete response in the brain (22%) and one of these two achieved an overall partial response. One patient developed a tumor-associated subarachnoid hemorrhage during the thrombocytopenic phase of therapy and had an uneventful metastatectomy.
ACT with a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen using either TIL- or TCR gene-transduced cells and interleukin-2 can mediate complete and durable regression of melanoma brain metastases. This strategy can be used safely in selected patients with metastatic melanoma to the brain.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2010; 16(19):4892-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundPatients with metastatic melanoma to the liver (MML) have a median survival of 4 to 6 months. This study evaluated patients
who underwent liver resection with intent to receive postoperative tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy.
MethodsRetrospective analysis of a prospective database identified patients with MML who underwent liver resection from 1980 to 2008.
ResultsA total of 539 patients had MML, and 39% (204 of 539) had tumor collected for TIL. A total of 17% (35 of 204) underwent liver
resection for TIL. The 3-year overall survival was 53%. Lack of extrahepatic disease (P = .026), negative margin (P = .056), and single hepatic metastasis (P = .04) predicted survival after univariate analysis. Only lack of extrahepatic disease remained a significant predictor of
survival after multivariate analysis (P = .043). A total of 31% (11 of 35) underwent complete resection without TIL, and 69% (24 of 35) underwent resection with
synchronous intrahepatic and extrahepatic disease with intent to receive TIL. For 9 of 11 patients (2 of 11 excluded for gene
therapy), 3-year survival was 80%. A total of 4 (44%) of 9 experienced recurrence, with a median disease-free survival of
1.2 years. For 24 patients (69%) with residual disease, 3-year survival was 51% (2 of 24 excluded for gene therapy). A total
of 63% (15 of 24) received postoperative TIL (3-year survival 65%), and 29% (7 of 24) did not. A total of 40% (6 of 15) had
disease that partially responded to TIL; the disease of 67% (4 of 6) had not progressed at median follow-up of 55 months (range,
42–197+ months). The seven patients who did not receive TIL had a median survival of 4.6 months.
ConclusionsResection of MML with TIL should be considered because it can result in prolonged survival in a highly selected group of patients.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2010; 17(1):163-170. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene therapy of human cancer using genetically engineered lymphocytes is dependent on the identification of highly reactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) with antitumor activity. We immunized transgenic mice and also conducted high-throughput screening of human lymphocytes to generate TCRs highly reactive to melanoma/melanocyte antigens. Genes encoding these TCRs were engineered into retroviral vectors and used to transduce autologous peripheral lymphocytes administered to 36 patients with metastatic melanoma. Transduced patient lymphocytes were CD45RA(-) and CD45RO(+) after ex vivo expansion. After infusion, the persisting cells displayed a CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(-) phenotype. Gene-engineered cells persisted at high levels in the blood of all patients 1 month after treatment, responding patients with higher ex vivo antitumor reactivity than nonresponders. Objective cancer regressions were seen in 30% and 19% of patients who received the human or mouse TCR, respectively. However, patients exhibited destruction of normal melanocytes in the skin, eye, and ear, and sometimes required local steroid administration to treat uveitis and hearing loss. Thus, T cells expressing highly reactive TCRs mediate cancer regression in humans and target rare cognate-antigen-containing cells throughout the body, a finding with important implications for the gene therapy of cancer. This trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCI-07-C-0174 and NCI-07-C-0175.