Miles S Okino

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States

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Publications (15)45.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a lipophilic solvent rapidly absorbed and metabolized via oxidation and conjugation to a variety of metabolites that cause toxicity to several internal targets. Increases in liver weight (hepatomegaly) have been reported to occur quickly in rodents after TCE exposure, with liver tumor induction reported in mice after long-term exposure. An integrated dataset for gavage and inhalation TCE exposure and oral data for exposure to two of its oxidative metabolites (TCA and DCA) was used, in combination with an updated and more accurate physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, to examine the question as to whether the presence of TCA in the liver is responsible for TCE-induced hepatomegaly in mice. The updated PBPK model was used to help discern the quantitative contribution of metabolites to this effect. The update of the model was based on a detailed evaluation of predictions from previously published models and additional preliminary analyses based on gas uptake inhalation data in mice. The parameters of the updated model were calibrated using Bayesian methods with an expanded pharmacokinetic database consisting of oral, inhalation, and iv studies of TCE administration as well as studies of TCE metabolites in mice. The dose-response relationships for hepatomegaly derived from the multi-study database showed that the proportionality of dose to response for TCE- and DCA-induced hepatomegaly is not observed for administered doses of TCA in the studied range. The updated PBPK model was used to make a quantitative comparison of internal dose of metabolized and administered TCA. While the internal dose of TCA predicted by modeling of TCE exposure (i.e., mg TCA/kg-d) showed a linear relationship with hepatomegaly, the slope of the relationship was much greater than that for directly administered TCA. Thus, the degree of hepatomegaly induced per unit of TCA produced through TCE oxidation is greater than that expected per unit of TCA administered directly, which is inconsistent with the hypothesis that TCA alone accounts for TCE-induced hepatomegaly. In addition, TCE-induced hepatomegaly showed a much more consistent relationship with PBPK model predictions of total oxidative metabolism than with predictions of TCE area-under-the-curve in blood, consistent with toxicity being induced by oxidative metabolites rather than the parent compound. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that oxidative metabolites in addition to TCA are necessary contributors to TCE-induced liver weight changes in mice.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2009; 236(3):329-40. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a comprehensive, Bayesian, PBPK model-based analysis of the population toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites in mice, rats, and humans, considering a wider range of physiological, chemical, in vitro, and in vivo data than any previously published analysis of TCE. The toxicokinetics of the “population average,” its population variability, and their uncertainties are characterized in an approach that strives to be maximally transparent and objective. Estimates of experimental variability and uncertainty were also included in this analysis. The experimental database was expanded to include virtually all available in vivo toxicokinetic data, which permitted, in rats and humans, the specification of separate datasets for model calibration and evaluation. The total combination of these approaches and PBPK analysis provides substantial support for the model predictions. In addition, we feel confident that the approach employed also yields an accurate characterization of the uncertainty in metabolic pathways for which available data were sparse or relatively indirect, such as GSH conjugation and respiratory tract metabolism. Key conclusions from the model predictions include the following: (1) as expected, TCE is substantially metabolized, primarily by oxidation at doses below saturation; (2) GSH conjugation and subsequent bioactivation in humans appear to be 10- to 100-fold greater than previously estimated; and (3) mice had the greatest rate of respiratory tract oxidative metabolism as compared to rats and humans. In a situation such as TCE in which there is large database of studies coupled with complex toxicokinetics, the Bayesian approach provides a systematic method of simultaneously estimating model parameters and characterizing their uncertainty and variability. However, care needs to be taken in its implementation to ensure biological consistency, transparency, and objectivity.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2009; · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 12/2008; 18(6):536-7. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for inferring exposure when the number of biomarker observations per individual is limited, as commonly occurs in population exposure surveys. The trade-off between sampling multiple biomarkers at a specific time versus fewer biomarkers at multiple time points was investigated, using a simulation-based approach based on a revised and updated chlorpyrifos PBPK model originally published. Two routes of exposure, oral and dermal, were studied as were varying levels of analytic measurement error. It is found that adding an additional biomarker at a given time point adds substantial additional information to the analysis, although not as much as the addition of another sampling time. Furthermore, the precision of the estimates of exposed dose scaled approximately with the analytic precision of the biomarker measurement. For acute exposure scenarios such as those considered here, the results of this study suggest that the number of biomarkers can be balanced against the number of sampling times to obtain the most efficient estimator after consideration of cost, intrusiveness, and other relevant factors.
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 06/2008; 19(3):284-97. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are screening tools for interpreting biomonitoring data. However, the development of BEs brings to the public a relatively novel concept in the field of health risk assessment and presents new challenges for environmental risk communication. This paper provides guidance on methods for conveying information to the general public, the health care community, regulators and other interested parties regarding how chemical-specific BEs are derived, what they mean in terms of health, and the challenges and questions related to interpretation and communication of biomonitoring data. Key communication issues include: (i) developing a definition of the BE that accurately captures the BE concept in lay terms, (ii) how to compare population biomonitoring data to BEs, (iii) interpreting biomonitoring data that exceed BEs for a specific chemical, (iv) how to best describe the confidence in chemical-specific BEs, and (v) key requirements for effective communication with health care professionals. While the risk communication literature specific to biomonitoring is sparse, many of the concepts developed for traditional risk assessments apply, including transparency and discussions of confidence and uncertainty. Communication of BEs will require outreach, education, and development of communication materials specific to several audiences including the lay public and health care providers.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 06/2008; 51(3 Suppl):S16-26. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration of a chemical (or metabolite) in a biological medium (blood, urine, human milk, etc.) consistent with defined exposure guidance values or toxicity criteria including reference doses and reference concentrations (RfD and RfCs), minimal risk levels (MRLs), or tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) [Hays, S.M., Becker, R.A., Leung, H.W., Aylward, L.L., Pyatt, D.W., 2007. Biomonitoring equivalents: a screening approach for interpreting biomonitoring results from a public health risk perspective. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 47(1), 96-109]. The utility of the BE is to provide a screening tool for placing biomonitoring data into a health risk context. A Panel of experts took part in the Biomonitoring Equivalents Expert Workshop to discuss the various technical issues associated with calculating BEs and developed a set of guidelines for use in the derivation of BEs. Issues addressed included the role of the point of departure (POD) in BE derivation, the appropriate application of human and animal kinetic data and models, consideration of default uncertainty factor components in the context of internal dose-based extrapolations, and relevance of mode of action to technical choices in kinetic modeling and identification of screening values. The findings from this Expert Panel Workshop on BE derivation are presented and provide a set of guidelines and considerations for use in BE derivation.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 06/2008; 51(3 Suppl):S4-15. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A conceptual/computational framework for exposure reconstruction from biomarker data combined with auxiliary exposure-related data is presented, evaluated with example applications, and examined in the context of future needs and opportunities. This framework employs physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modeling in conjunction with numerical "inversion" techniques. To quantify the value of different types of exposure data "accompanying" biomarker data, a study was conducted focusing on reconstructing exposures to chlorpyrifos, from measurements of its metabolite levels in urine. The study employed biomarker data as well as supporting exposure-related information from the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS), Maryland, while the MENTOR-3P system (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk with Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic modeling for Populations) was used for PBTK modeling. Recently proposed, simple numerical reconstruction methods were applied in this study, in conjunction with PBTK models. Two types of reconstructions were studied using (a) just the available biomarker and supporting exposure data and (b) synthetic data developed via augmenting available observations. Reconstruction using only available data resulted in a wide range of variation in estimated exposures. Reconstruction using synthetic data facilitated evaluation of numerical inversion methods and characterization of the value of additional information, such as study-specific data that can be collected in conjunction with the biomarker data. Although the NHEXAS data set provides a significant amount of supporting exposure-related information, especially when compared to national studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), this information is still not adequate for detailed reconstruction of exposures under several conditions, as demonstrated here. The analysis presented here provides a starting point for introducing improved designs for future biomonitoring studies, from the perspective of exposure reconstruction; identifies specific limitations in existing exposure reconstruction methods that can be applied to population biomarker data; and suggests potential approaches for addressing exposure reconstruction from such data.
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 04/2008; 19(2):149-71. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our interest in providing parameters for the development of quantitative structure physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (QSPBPK/PD) models for assessing health risks to carbamates (USEPA 2005) comes from earlier work with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (Knaak et al. 2004). Parameters specific to each carbamate are needed in the construction of PBPK/PD models along with their metabolic pathways. Parameters may be obtained by (1) development of QSAR models, (2) collecting pharmacokinetic data, and (3) determining pharmacokinetic parameters by fitting to experimental data. The biological parameters are given in Table 1 (Blancato et al. 2000). Table 1 Biological Parameters Required for Carbamate Pesticide Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) Models.(a).
    Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 01/2008; 193:53-212. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate), a broad spectrum N-methyl carbamate insecticide, and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, exert their toxicity by reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To characterize AChE inhibition from carbofuran exposure, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed in the Exposure-Related Dose Estimating Model (ERDEM) platform for the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. Experimental estimates of physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical model parameters were obtained or based on data from the open literature. The PBPK/PD model structure included carbofuran metabolism in the liver to 16 known metabolites, enterohepatic circulation of glucuronic acid conjugates, and excretion in urine and feces. Bolus doses by ingestion of 50 microg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg carbofuran were simulated for the blood and brain AChE activity. The carbofuran ERDEM simulated a half-life of 5.2 h for urinary clearance, and the experimental AChE activity data were reproduced for the blood and brain. Thirty model parameters were found influential to the model outputs and were chosen for perturbation in Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the impact of their variability on the model predictions. Results of the simulation runs indicated that the minimum AChE activity in the blood ranged from 29.3 to 79.0% (as 5th and 95th percentiles) of the control level with a mean of 55.9% (standard deviation = 15.1%) compared to an experimental value of 63%. The constructed PBPK/PD model for carbofuran in the SD rat provides a foundation for extrapolating to a human model that can be used for future risk assessment.
    Toxicological Sciences 01/2008; 100(2):345-59. · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • International Society for Exposure Analysis Annual Conference; 10/2007
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    ABSTRACT: trans-Bromuconazole is a chiral chemical representative of a class of triazole derivatives known to inhibit specific fungal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) reactions. Kinetic measurements and delineation of metabolic pathways for triazole chemicals within in vitro hepatic microsomes are needed for accurate risk assessment and predictive in vivo physiological modeling. The studies described here were conducted with rat liver microsomes to determine Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetic parameters (Vmax and KM) for trans-bromuconazole using both substrate depletion and product formation reaction velocities. Kinetic parameters determined for trans-bromuconazole depletion at varying protein levels incubated at physiological temperature 37 degrees C resulted in a KM value of 1.69 microM and a Vmax value of 1398 pmol/min/mg protein. The concomitant linear formation of two metabolites identified using liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/MS-TOF) and LC-MS/MS indicated hydroxylation of the trans-bromuconazole dichlorophenyl ring moiety. KM values determined for the hydroxylated metabolites were 0.87 and 1.03 microM, with Vmax values of 449 and 694 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Chemical inhibition assays and studies conducted with individual purified human recombinant enzymes indicated the CYP3A subfamily was primarily responsible for biotransformation of the parent substrate. Additionally, trans-bromuconazole was found to undergo stereoselective metabolism as evidenced by a change in the enantiomeric ratio (trans-/trans+) with respect to time.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 08/2007; 70(14):1241-50. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much progress has been made in understanding the complex pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) . Qualitatively, it is clear that TCE is metabolized to multiple metabolites either locally or into systemic circulation. Many of these metabolites are thought to have toxicologic importance. In addition, efforts to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have led to a better quantitative assessment of the dosimetry of TCE and several of its metabolites. As part of a mini-monograph on key issues in the health risk assessment of TCE, this article is a review of a number of the current scientific issues in TCE pharmacokinetics and recent PBPK modeling efforts with a focus on literature published since 2000. Particular attention is paid to factors affecting PBPK modeling for application to risk assessment. Recent TCE PBPK modeling efforts, coupled with methodologic advances in characterizing uncertainty and variability, suggest that rigorous application of PBPK modeling to TCE risk assessment appears feasible at least for TCE and its major oxidative metabolites trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol. However, a number of basic structural hypotheses such as enterohepatic recirculation, plasma binding, and flow- or diffusion-limited treatment of tissue distribution require additional evaluation and analysis. Moreover, there are a number of metabolites of potential toxicologic interest, such as chloral, dichloroacetic acid, and those derived from glutathione conjugation, for which reliable pharmacokinetic data is sparse because of analytical difficulties or low concentrations in systemic circulation. It will be a challenge to develop reliable dosimetry for such cases.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2006; 114(9):1450-6. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In their 2004 article, Clewell and Andersen provide their perspective on the application of mode-of-action (MOA) and pharmacokinetic considerations in contemporary cancer risk assessment using trichloroethylene (TCE) as a case example. TCE is a complex chemical toxicologically, with multiple metabolites, multiple sites of observed toxicity, and multiple potential MOAs. As scientists who are responsible for revising the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's draft risk assessment of TCE, we welcome input of the quality to which the Agency is held accountable. However, in our view, Clewell and Andersen do not present a sufficiently current, complete, accurate, and transparent review of the pertinent scientific literature. In particular, their article would need to incorporate substantial recently published scientific information, better support its conclusions about MOA and choice of linear or nonlinear dose-response extrapolation, and increase its transparency as to quantitative analyses in order to make a significant contribution to the scientific discussion of TCE health risks.
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology 04/2006; 36(3):291-4; discussion 295-8. · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology. 01/2006; 17.
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    ABSTRACT: The a priori in silico evaluation of metabolic rate constants pertaining to cytochrome P450 metabolism represents an important step in progressing the development and use of integrated physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models in the field of human health exposure. One of our current areas of research is the development of predictive computational tools pertaining to the metabolism of environmental xenobiotics and their incorporation into PBPK/PD models. Enantiomeric differences in P450 metabolism rates have been well documented. However, inclusion of such effects in the prediction of metabolic parameters needed for PBPK/PD models is still an ongoing and active area of research. We have focused on developing a complete PBPK/PD model for several of the triazole fungicides that incorporate dermal exposure routes. Since fungicides are widely used in agriculture and medicine, understanding their effects on human physiology is important in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. These efforts have already led us to use quantitative structure-activity and linear free energy relationships to determine the dermal permeation rates of the triazole fungicides. We are now using computational chemistry tools to aid in our understanding of the metabolism for this class of compounds. We have carried out both ab initio quantum and classical mechanical computational chemistry studies for bromuconazole {1-[(2RS,4RS;2RS,4SR)-4-bromo-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)tetrahydrofurfuryl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole} as a case study in an effort to understand the observed in vitro enantioselective metabolic rate differences. Current results and their implications for the selective metabolism of these compounds will be discussed. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
    14th North American Regional International society for the study of xenobiotics Meeting;