Eue-Keun Choi

Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (60)240 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that carvedilol can effectively suppress autonomic nerve activity (ANA) in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation (AF), and that carvedilol withdrawal can lead to rebound elevation of ANA. Carvedilol is known to block pre-junctional β2-adrenoceptor responsible for norepinephrine release.METHODS AND RESULTS: We implanted radiotransmitters to record stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA), and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) in 12 ambulatory dogs. Carvedilol (12.5 mg orally twice a day) was given for 7 days during sinus rhythm (n = 8). Four of the eight dogs and an additional four dogs were paced into persistent AF. Carvedilol reduced heart rate [from 103 b.p.m. (95% confidence interval (CI), 100-105) to 100 b.p.m. (95% CI, 98-102), P = 0.044], suppressed integrated nerve activities (Int-NAs, SGNA by 17%, VNA by 19%, and SLGPNA by 12%; all P < 0.05 vs. the baseline), and significantly reduced the incidence (from 8 ± 6 to 3 ± 3 episodes/day, P < 0.05) and total duration (from 68 ± 64 to 16 ± 21 s/day, P < 0.05) of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT). Following the development of persistent AF, carvedilol loading was associated with AF termination in three dogs. In the remaining five dogs, Int-NAs were not significantly suppressed by carvedilol, but SGNA significantly increased by 16% after carvedilol withdrawal (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Carvedilol suppresses ANA and PAT in ambulatory dogs during sinus rhythm.
    Europace 01/2014; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) patients display more varied QRS duration. We investigated whether QRS variability during hospitalization for acute decompensated HF is associated with poor clinical outcomes after discharge. One hundred seventy three patients (64% males; age 60±13 years) admitted for acute decompensated HF with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (LV ejection fraction ≤35%) were consecutively enrolled. QRS variability was calculated by the difference between maximum and minimum QRS duration acquired during hospitalization. The prognostic implications on composite endpoints of death or urgent heart transplantation were analyzed. Forty-two patients (24.3%) died and three patients (1.7%) underwent urgent heart transplantation during the follow-up of 51±18 months. Patients who reached composite endpoints (n=45) showed greater QRS variability than those who did not (n=128) (20±23 ms vs. 14±14 ms, p=0.046). Patients who had high QRS variability (more than 22 ms; n=36) tended to have a higher event rate than those with QRS variability <22 ms {39% vs. 23%, hazard ratio (HR), 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001-3.539, p=0.05}. Adjusting with other variables, high QRS variability was an independent predictor for composite outcome (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.023-3.683, p=0.042). QRS variability measured during hospitalization for acute decompensated HF has a prognostic impact in HF patients with severe LV dysfunction.
    Korean Circulation Journal 01/2014; 44(1):22-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Varied silent ischemic stroke (SS) prevalence occurs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Stroke history is worth 2 points in the CHADS2 scoring system. An unknown proportion of patients with AF with a CHADS2 score of 0 or 1 have been undertreated for stroke prevention. We investigated SS risk factors using magnetic resonance imaging and estimated SS impact on clinical outcomes in patients with AF. We analyzed a total of 1,200 patients (400 with AF and 800 with sinus rhythm) who had brain magnetic resonance imaging performed for routine health checkups. Clinical outcomes including symptomatic stroke, dementia, and cognitive disorder were also evaluated in patients with AF (follow-up duration: 66.7 ± 35.9 months; range 10 to 162). SS was observed in 113 patients with AF (28.3%), which was significantly higher than that in 53 subjects (6.6%) with sinus rhythm (p <0.001, odds ratio [OR] 5.549). Independent risk factors for SS in patients with AF were age (OR 1.049), hypertension (OR 2.086), dyslipidemia (OR 2.073), and valvular AF (OR 3.157). Symptomatic stroke incidence during the follow-up was significantly greater in patients with AF with SS than without SS (5.6% vs 2.7% per year, respectively; p = 0.022, hazard ratio 1.787, 95% confidence interval 1.089 to 2.933). Using current scoring systems without correcting for subclinical stroke, clinicians have likely underestimated the stroke risk in low-risk patients with AF; thus many patients with AF might not receive optimal anticoagulation treatment. In conclusion, a screening tool for detecting SS could be considered for stroke risk evaluation in patients with AF, especially those with valvular AF, elderly patients, and patients with dyslipidemia or hypertension.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Eue-Keun Choi, Whal Lee, Seil Oh
    Europace 02/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The causal relationship of clinically-significant atrioventricular block (AVB) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. We investigated whether CAD is related to irreversible AVB that requires treatment with a permanent pacemaker. We included 188 consecutive patients with new-onset AVB considering pacemaker, who had undergone invasive or noninvasive coronary evaluation. Patients were divided into one of 2 groups: irreversible AVB who underwent implantation of permanent pacemaker {irreversible block (IB) group, n=173} or reversible AVB {reversible block (RB) group, n=15}. In IB group, significant CAD was observed in 44 patients (25.4%) and there were 2 (1.2%) patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In RB group, 14 patients (93.3%) had CAD (p<0.001) and 13 patients (86.7%) presented with AMI (p<0.001). On the aspect of CAD type and reversibility of AVB, 13/15 (86.7%) patients of AMI, 0/2 (0%) of unstable angina, and 1/41 (2.4%) of stable angina had reversible AVB. AVB in patients with AMI is usually reversible. Therefore, permanent pacemaker implantation should be delayed in cases of AMI. AVB in patients with CAD other than AMI is usually irreversible.
    Korean Circulation Journal 12/2012; 42(12):816-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Using 49 capacitive-coupled electrodes, mattress-type harness was developed to obtain posterior body surface potential map (P-BSPM) in dressed individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate how valuable information P-BSPM could provide, especially in discrimination of old myocardial infarction (OMI). P-BSPM of 59 individuals were analyzed; 23 normal control, 11 right bundle branch block (RBBB), 3 left bundle branch block (LBBB) and 19 OMI patients. Principal component analysis and linear hyper-plane approach were used to evaluate diagnostic performance. The axes of P-BSPM vector potential corresponded well with 12-lead electrocardiogram. During QRS, the end point of P-BSPM vector potential demonstrated characteristic clockwise rotation in RBBB, and counterclockwise rotation in LBBB patients. In OMI, initial negativity on P-BSPM during QRS was more frequently located at lower half, and also stronger in patients with inferior myocardial infarction (MI). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of P-BSPM during QRS in diagnosing overall OMI, anterior MI, and inferior MI was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.97), 0.71 (0.47-0.94), and 0.98 (0.94-1.0), respectively (P = 0.022 for anterior vs inferior MI groups). In conclusion, the novel P-BSPM provides detailed information for cardiac electrical dynamics and is applicable to diagnosing OMI, especially inferior myocardial infarction.
    Journal of Korean medical science 12/2012; 27(12):1517-23. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ictal asystole is potentially lethal, and known to originate from the involvement of limbic autonomic regions. Appropriate treatment must include an antiepileptic drug and the implantation of a pacemaker. We report the case of a 54-year-old male with recurrent syncope secondary to ictal asystole triggered by temporal lobe epilepsy. This was confirmed by combined Holter and video-electroencephalogram monitoring.
    Korean Circulation Journal 05/2012; 42(5):349-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium transient triggered firing (CTTF) is induced by large intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) transient and short action potential duration (APD). We hypothesized that CTTF underlies the mechanisms of early afterdepolarization (EAD) and spontaneous recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) in transgenic (Tx) mice with overexpression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). MHC-TGFcys(33)ser Tx mice develop atrial fibrosis because of elevated levels of TGF-β1. We studied membrane potential and Ca(i)transients of isolated superfused atria from Tx and wild-type (Wt) littermates. Short APD and persistently elevated Ca(i) transients promoted spontaneous repetitive EADs, triggered activity and spontaneous AF after cessation of burst pacing in Tx but not Wt atria (39% vs. 0%, P=0.008). We were able to map optically 4 episodes of spontaneous AF re-initiation. All first and second beats of spontaneous AF originated from the right atrium (4/4, 100%), which is more severely fibrotic than the left atrium. Ryanodine and thapsigargin inhibited spontaneous re-initiation of AF in all 7 Tx atria tested. Western blotting showed no significant changes of calsequestrin or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a. Spontaneous AF may occur in the Tx atrium because of CTTF, characterized by APD shortening, prolonged Ca(i) transient, EAD and triggered activity. Inhibition of Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum suppressed spontaneous AF. Our results indicate that CTTF is an important arrhythmogenic mechanism in TGF-β1 Tx atria.
    Circulation Journal 03/2012; 76(6):1354-62. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Additional linear ablation lesions are created to improve the outcomes of pulmonary vein (PV) isolation during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. We aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of additional ablation sites in terms of anatomical characteristics. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) data from 140 consecutive patients (40 with AF, 84 males, 59 ± 11 years old) and additional 10 heart specimens were analysed for their anatomical characteristics at three types of mitral isthmus lines: anteromedial (AM), anterolateral (AL), and posterolateral (PL) lines (from right superior, left superior, and left inferior PV to 10, 12, and 4 o'clock position of the mitral annulus, respectively). The data demonstrated that the length was shortest at the PL lines (MDCT, 36.4 ± 8.6 mm; specimens, 31 ± 6 mm) and the maximal myocardial thickness was greatest at the AL lines (MDCT, 3.2 ± 1.0 mm; specimens, 5.0 ± 0.9 mm). Ridge, cord-like structure, or diverticulum was found most frequently at the AM lines (MDCT, 20%; specimens, 20%). Sinus nodal artery (SNA) was found near the AM (MDCT, 100%; specimens, 90%) and AL lines (MDCT, 46.3%; specimens, 30%), while left coronary artery (LCA) and cardiac vein were closest to the PL lines. The trend of these findings was not significantly altered with the presence of AF. The PL lines were shortest among the three mitral isthmus lines, but closest to LCA. Myocardium was thickest at the AL line, and SNAs were frequently found on the anterior lines. Multi-detector computed tomography provided detailed information, and further studies are required to clarify the clinical impact of these findings.
    Europace 03/2012; 14(8):1104-11. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is recommended as the primary tool for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in symptomatic patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. There is a paucity of information on whether this recommendation is appropriate for the Korean population with severe heart failure. The study group consisted of 275 consecutive patients (mean age 65 years, 71% male) who met the ICD implantation criteria for primary prevention (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30% and New York Heart Association functional class II or III). We analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of an ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) group (n=131) and a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP) group (n=144). The outcomes of these 2 groups were compared with the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II) conventional and Defibrillators in the Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation (DEFINITE) standard therapy groups, respectively. Eighty patients (29%) died during a follow-up period of 40±17 months. The NICMP group had better all-cause mortality rates than the ICMP group (19% vs. 40%, p<0.001), however both groups had a similar incidence of SCD (7% vs. 10%, p=0.272). The 2-year all-cause mortality and SCD for the ICMP group were similar to those of the MADIT-II conventional therapy group (20% vs. 20%, 7% vs. 10%, respectively, all p>0.05). All-cause mortality and the incidence of SCD in the NICMP group were comparable to those of the DEFINITE standard therapy group (13% vs. 17%, 6% vs. 6%, respectively, all p>0.05). Korean patients with severe heart failure in both the ICMP and NICMP groups had all-caused mortality and risk of SCD comparable to patients in the MADIT-II and DEFINITE standard therapy groups. Therefore, the primary prevention criteria for ICD implantation would be appropriate in both Korean ICMP and NICMP patients.
    Korean Circulation Journal 03/2012; 42(3):173-83.
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    ABSTRACT: The circadian and seasonal patterns of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in patients with early repolarization syndrome (ERS) have not been determined. We compared the timing of VTAs in patients with ERS and Brugada syndrome (BS). We enrolled patients with ERS (n = 14) and BS (n = 53) who underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. The timing of VTAs, including cardiac arrest and appropriate shocks, was determined. During follow up of 6.4 ± 3.6 years in the ERS group and 5.0 ± 3.3 years in the BS group, 5 of 14 (36%) ERS and 10 of 53 (19%) BS patients experienced appropriate shocks (P = 0.37). Cardiac arrest showed a trend of nocturnal distribution peaking from midnight to early morning (P = 0.14 in ERS, P = 0.16 in BS). Circadian distribution of appropriate shocks showed a significant nocturnal peak in patients with ERS (P < 0.0001) but a trend toward a nocturnal peak in patients with BS (P = 0.08). There were no seasonal differences in cardiac arrest in patients with ERS and BS. However, patients with ERS showed a seasonal peak in appropriate shocks from spring to summer (P < 0.0001). There was no significant seasonal peak in patients with BS. The timing of VTAs (cardiac arrest plus appropriate shock) showed significant nocturnal distributions in patients with ERS and BS (P < 0.01, respectively). A significant clustering of VTAs was noted from spring to summer (P < 0.01) in patients with ERS, but not in patients with BS (P = 0.42). Incidence of VTAs showed marked circadian variations with night-time peaks in patients with ERS and BS.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2012; 23(7):757-63. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the effects and reversibility of different locations of accessory pathways (AP) on left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVdys). The acute and chronic effects of AP were evaluated in a canine model (n = 11) and in patients with pre-excitation syndrome (n = 25). Pre-excitation was simulated in the canine model by applying VDD-type epicardial ventricular pacing near the atrioventricular (AV) groove with 50-ms AV interval after median thoracotomy, at five different sites in each animal. For the simulation of pre-excitation through the septal accessory pathway, right basal septal pacing was performed using a transvenous lead. Left ventricular dyssynchrony was measured by a two-dimensional speckle-tracking technique: before and during pacing in the canine model, and before and within 24 h after the ablation in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. In the canine model, the most prominent intraventricular LVdys was observed in left lateral pre-excitation (P < 0.001). In patients with pre-excitation syndrome, LVdys was greatest in patients with left free wall accessory pathways before the ablation (P = 0.013). After catheter ablation, such a difference diminished (P = 0.619). The degree of LVdys was different according to the site of AP in both the acute model and chronic patients, and the most significant LVdys associated with pre-excitation was observed in left lateral AP. Left ventricular dyssynchrony was reversible in patients with WPW syndrome. Left ventricular dyssynchrony observed in patients with pre-excitation syndrome might be a different entity from that observed in patients with heart failure.
    Heart and Vessels 02/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extent of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony might not be comparable between right ventricular pacing-induced left bundle branch block (RV-LBBB) and idiopathic LBBB (iLBBB), despite the morphologic analogy on the electrocardiogram. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate the differences in the LV dyssynchrony index (LVdys) between RV-LBBB and iLBBB, and to assess the prognostic implication of LV dyssynchrony. The conventional echocardiographic parameters, LVdys, and LV end-systolic wall stress were evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with iLBBB and 20 with RV-LBBB with preserved LV systolic function. Three types of LVdys were evaluated: LVdys-6, LVdys-2, and LVdys-standard deviation. The patients were clinically followed up for about 3 years. The prevalence of LV dyssynchrony was not rare in those with either iLBBB or RV-LBBB, but it was more prevalent in the patients with iLBBB than in those with RV-LBBB. The patients with iLBBB had greater LVdys than those with RV-LBBB (84 ± 55 vs 55 ± 50 for LVdys-6, 51 ± 49 vs 31 ± 40 for LVdys-2, 37 ± 24 vs 24 ± 22 for LVdys-standard deviation in iLBBB vs RV-LBBB). LVdys displayed significant correlations with QRS duration, LV volumes, LV ejection fraction, LV end-systolic wall stress, and mitral inflow E/mitral annular E' velocity ratio. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the LV end-diastolic volume and LV end-systolic wall stress were independent determinants of the presence of LV dyssynchrony. During follow-up, no cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure was reported in either group. In conclusion, despite similarities in electrocardiographic morphology, the extent of LV dyssynchrony were greater in patients with iLBBB, with LV preload and afterload the main determinants. No association was found between the presence of LV dyssynchrony and prognosis.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2011; 109(4):556-62. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we established and characterized human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) from four different donors. However, the hUCB-MSCs showed remarkable variations in their therapeutic efficacy for repairing rat infarcted myocardium (including the process of angiogenesis) 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, we observed that the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is correlated with the therapeutic efficacy of the four hUCB-MSCs. Next, to investigate the practical application of hUCB-MSCs, we searched for surface signature molecules that could serve as indicators of therapeutic efficacy. The gene for N-cadherin was the only cell surface gene that was highly expressed in the most effective hUCB-MSCs, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. We observed downregulation and upregulation of VEGF in response to N-cadherin blocking and N-cadherin overexpression, respectively. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not protein kinase B, was increased when N-cadherin expression was increased, whereas disruption of N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact induced suppression of ERK activation and led to VEGF downregulation. Moreover, by investigating hUCB-MSCs overexpressing N-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown hUCB-MSCs, we confirmed the in vivo function of N-cadherin. In addition, we observed that DiI-labeled hUCB-MSCs express N-cadherin in the peri-infarct area and interact with cardiomyocytes.
    Molecular Therapy 11/2011; 20(1):155-67. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a multisystem disorder, which is clinically characterized by encephalopathy, dementia, seizures and stroke-like episodes. Multiple organs can be affected and cardiac involvement often dominates the clinical picture because of its high energy requirement. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with MELAS syndrome who had pre-excitation ECG and one episode of tachycardia attack.
    Korean Circulation Journal 11/2011; 41(11):674-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Antithrombotic recommendations for relatively low risk patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are not well established. Some patients with CHADS(2) score = 0 have a CHA(2) DS(2) -VASc score of 2, which indicated warfarin therapy in the latter system. We evaluated the thromboembolic risk in AF patients with a CHADS(2) score of 0 or 1. A total of 695 patients with AF that were followed for ≥ 12 months (median 65.6 months, range 12-138 months), were analyzed retrospectively. The modified CHADS(2) score (MCS) was applied as follows. Each CHADS(2) score group was divided into 2 groups, A and B (i.e., MCS 0A vs 0B, and MCS 1A vs 1B) according to the number of nonmajor risk factors (female gender, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, age 65-74 years). Group A had 0 or 1, and group B had 2 or more nonmajor risk factors. In patients with CHADS(2) score = 1, there were 13 thromboembolic events (0.65%/year) in 343 MCS 1A patients, and 12 thromboembolic events (1.90%/year) in 108 MCS 1B patients. Thromboembolic risk was significantly higher in the MCS 1B compared to the MCS 1A patients (P = 0.006). In 244 patients with CHADS(2) score = 0, the thromboembolic risk of MCS 0B was similar to that of MCS 0A (P = 0.095), and 26 patients had a CHA(2) DS(2) -VASc score of 2. Patients with MCS 1B had a higher thromboembolic risk than patients with MCS 1A. Antithrombotic strategies for patients with a CHA(2) DS(2) -VASc score of 2 but a CHADS(2) score of 0 need further investigation.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 09/2011; 23(2):155-62. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The past 5 years have seen great advances in the knowledge of neural mechanisms of atrial arrhythmogenesis. Direct autonomic nerve recordings demonstrate that simultaneous sympathovagal discharges and intrinsic cardiac nerve activities are common triggers of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. While activity of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) is crucial in triggering paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, a high incidence of sympathovagal co-activation at baseline is associated with a high vulnerability to pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation, suggesting that ANS has a role in the development of persistent atrial fibrillation. Modulation of ANS activity may constitute an important therapeutic strategy for the management of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Specifically, continuous, low-level stimulation of the left cervical vagus nerve effectively suppresses atrial tachyarrhythmias by reducing the nerve activity of the stellate ganglion. Clinically, compared with pulmonary vein isolation alone, the addition of ablation of intrinsic cardiac ganglia may confer better outcomes for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. These findings suggest that further investigation of the neural mechanisms of atrial arrhythmias might lead to better management of patients with atrial arrhythmias. In this article, we review the role of the ANS in the induction and maintenance of atrial arrhythmias and the role of neural modulation as a treatment strategy for atrial arrhythmias.
    Nature Reviews Cardiology 09/2011; 9(1):30-9. · 10.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary cardiac lymphoma is a very rare form of lymphoma primarily or mainly involving the heart, as in the two cases presented in this report. Various imaging modalities, including coronary computed tomography angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography were useful for the characterization and diagnosis of cardiac mass. Pathologic confirmation was successful with endomyocardial biopsy under echocardiographic guidance, intra- and extracardiacally. In primary cardiac lymphoma, diagnosis using multiple modalities may be useful for mass characterization, and for response monitoring after chemotherapy.
    Korean Circulation Journal 09/2011; 41(9):555-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Autonomic denervation may suppress atrial fibrillation (AF) vulnerability. This study was designed to assess the short- to mid-term effects of botulinum toxin, a cholinergic neurotransmission blocker, on AF inducibility. A total of 23 mongrel dogs were studied. The sinus node and atrioventricular node epicardial fat pads were exposed through a right lateral thoracotomy. Botulinum toxin (Botox, 50 U per fat pad) or 0.9% normal saline (control) was injected into the center of each of the 2 fat pads. The electrophysiological effects were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 weeks (7 to 8 animals at each time point) with and without cervical vagal stimulation. The vagal stimulation effects on the sinus and atrioventricular nodes were inhibited, and dispersion of atrial effective refractory period was lower at 1 week in the Botox group. Significant suppression of AF inducibility was observed at 1 week but disappeared at 2 and 3 weeks. These changes were not observed in the control group. Temporary suppression of vagally mediated AF, for at least 1 week, was achieved with botulinum toxin injection in this canine model. This effect might be associated with reduced dispersion of effective refractory period. A temporary autonomic block using botulinum toxin might be a novel therapeutic option for several clinical conditions such as post-cardiac surgery AF.
    Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 06/2011; 4(4):560-5. · 5.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

502 Citations
240.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2012
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Krannert Institute of Cardiology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2011
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea