[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we aimed at investigating leptin levels in professional male athletes who have been exercising regularly for a long time and leptin levels in healthy sedentary males.
The study included 10 male professional football players and 17 healthy sedentary males. The relations between groups in terms of leptin levels, Max VO2 levels, blood lactic acid levels before and after exercise and effort durations were investigated.
It was found in the study that although BMI of professional male athletes was higher than that of the healthy sedentary males, leptin levels of the former were significantly lower (p<0.01), while VO2Max levels (p<0.05) and test periods (p<0.01) were significantly higher than those in the latter. As for lactic acid levels after exercise and between groups, these were also higher in athletes, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
Leptin levels of those who exercised regularly were found lower than the levels in healthy males. Although the increase in serum leptin levels is in direct proportion with BMI in general, the major determinant of serum leptin level is the body fat rate. As regular exercising reduces body fat rate, it also reduces serum leptin levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at investigating serum leptin levels of elite young male athletes who have been regularly exercising for a long period of time and males who do not exercise. The study included 24 trained young male athletes and 22 healthy sedentary male subjects. Athletes who participated in the study were from different sports branches and have been regularly exercising for at least 2 years. Serum leptin levels were determined by RIA. VO2max levels were identified during maximal exercise. Lactic acid levels were identified one minute before and one minute after exercise from the fingertip by Pro-lactate kit. As a result of the tests, although BMI values of trained young male athletes and healthy males were close to each other, leptin levels were significantly lower (p<0.01), VO2max values were significantly higher (p<0.01) and test periods were significantly longer (p<0.001) in the former. In conclusion, regular exercise, by reducing body fat percentage, suppresses serum leptin levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at investigating leptin levels in male diabetes type I patients who were on insulin treatment and also healthy sedentary males. The study included 10 male type I diabetes patients and 17 healthy sedentary males. Leptin levels of type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2 were evaluated separately. The relation between serum leptin, max VO2, blood lactic acid levels before and after exercise, and effort durations of participants were investigated. At the end of the tests, no difference was found between leptin levels, max VO2 values, lactic acid values before exercise, and test durations of male type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males (p > .05), whereas lactic acid levels after exercise were found to be lower in healthy sedentary males (p < .05). Leptin levels in the group with BMI above 25 kg/m2 were higher than those in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .001). It was also seen that max VO2 values and test durations were higher in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .05). In conclusion, leptin levels of male type I diabetes patients are close to those of healthy sedentary males. The increase in leptin levels in both groups is in proportion to the BMI of individuals.
Endocrine Research 08/2004; 30(3):491-8. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement.
Sports Medicine 02/2004; 34(6):357-62. · 5.32 Impact Factor