Sho Yamasaki

Kyushu University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (79)667.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra produces a range of immunogenic β-gentiobiosyl diacylglycerides. We report the total synthesis of several candidate structures and show that these compounds signal weakly through mouse, but not human, Mincle. Structure-activity relationships reveal a striking dependence upon acyl chain length for gentiobiosyl diacylglyceride signalling through Mincle. Significantly, a truncated β-glucosyl diglyceride was shown to provide potent signalling through both human and mouse Mincle and could activate murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells.
    Chemical Communications 08/2015; DOI:10.1039/c5cc04773k · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are an emerging family of pattern-recognition receptors that recognizes pathogens or damaged-tissue to trigger innate immune responses. However, endogenous ligands for CLRs are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to identify an endogenous ligand(s) for human macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (hMincle). A particular fraction of lipid extracts from liver selectively activated reporter cells expressing hMincle. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis determined the chemical structure of the active component as cholesterol. Purified cholesterol in plate-coated and crystalized forms activates reporter cells expressing hMincle but not murine Mincle (mMincle). Cholesterol crystals are known to activate immune cells and induce inflammatory responses through lysosomal damage. However, direct innate immune receptors for cholesterol crystals have not been identified. Murine macrophages transfected with hMincle responded to cholesterol crystals by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Human dendritic cells (DCs) expressed a set of inflammatory genes in response to cholesterol crystals and this was inhibited by anti-human Mincle. Importantly, other related CLRs did not bind cholesterol crystals, while other steroids were not recognized by hMincle. These results suggest that cholesterol crystals are an endogenous ligand for hMincle and activates innate immune responses. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2015; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.645234 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Yasunobu Miyake · Masatsugu Oh-Hora · Sho Yamasaki
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    ABSTRACT: C-type lectin receptors expressed in APCs are recently defined pattern recognition receptors that play a crucial role in immune responses against pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Among pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate [TDM]) is the most potent immunostimulatory component of the mycobacterial cell wall. Two C-type lectin receptors, macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) and macrophage C-type lectin (MCL), are required for immune responses against TDM. Previous studies indicate that MCL is required for TDM-induced Mincle expression. However, the mechanism by which MCL induces Mincle expression has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that MCL interacts with Mincle to promote its surface expression. After LPS or zymosan stimulation, MCL-deficient bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) had a lower level of Mincle protein expression, although mRNA expression was comparable with wild-type BMDCs. Meanwhile, BMDCs from MCL transgenic mice showed an enhanced level of Mincle expression on the cell surface. MCL was associated with Mincle through the stalk region and this region was necessary and sufficient for the enhancement of Mincle expression. This interaction appeared to be mediated by the hydrophobic repeat of MCL, as substitution of four hydrophobic residues within the stalk region with serine (MCL(4S)) abolished the function to enhance the surface expression of Mincle. MCL(4S) mutant failed to restore the defective TDM responses in MCL-deficient BMDCs. These results suggest that MCL positively regulates Mincle expression through protein-protein interaction via its stalk region, thereby magnifying Mincle-mediated signaling. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2015; 194(11). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402429 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nod1 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan fragments. We previously reported that a synthetic Nod1 ligand, FK565, induced acute coronary arteritis in mice similar to that of Kawasaki disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic inflammation have remained elusive. We found that CD11c(+)MHC class II(+) cells accumulated in the heart of FK565-treated mice before arteritis development. Morphological features and gene expression signatures of the cardiac CD11c(+)MHC class II(+) cells suggested that this population is closely related to macrophages, and thus, we designated them cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages. Nod1 in nonhematopoietic cells, rather than hematopoietic cells, was required for the increase of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages and arteritis development. Among nonhematopoietic cells, cardiac endothelial cells produced a large amount of chemokines in response to FK565. Endothelial cell-specific blockade of Nod1 signaling suppressed FK565-induced expression of these chemokines, accumulation of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages, and subsequent coronary arteritis development. We also found that CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes in peripheral blood supplied precursors of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages. CCR2-deficient mice or pertussis toxin-treated mice exhibited decreased numbers of cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages and reduced arteritis. These results suggest that Ly6C(hi) monocytes are recruited to FK565-activated endothelial cells to generate cardiac CD11c(+) macrophages, which play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute coronary arteritis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2015; 35(6). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304846 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-corynomycolic acid, and its elaboration to esters of trehalose, glucose and glycerol, is described. Trehalose dicorynomycolate and trehalose monocorynomycolate activate human and mouse Mincle as effectively as trehalose dimycolate (cord factor). Glucose monomycolate is revealed to be a potent activator of both mouse and human Mincle. Glycerol monomycolate signals through human Mincle, with the activity predominantly residing in the 2'S-isomer.
    Chemical Communications 02/2015; 51(24). DOI:10.1039/C5CC00085H · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is essentially a vascular inflammatory process in the presence of an excess amount of lipid. We have recently reported that oral administration of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (Nod)-1 ligand, FK565, induced vascular inflammation in vivo. No studies, however, have proven the association between Nod1 and atherosclerosis in vivo. To investigate a potential role of NOD1 in atherogenesis, we orally administered FK565 to apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe(-/-)) mice for 4 wk intermittently and performed quantification of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic roots and aortas, immunohistochemical analyses, and microarray-based gene expression profiling of aortic roots. FK565 administration accelerated the development of atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice, and the effect was dependent on Nod1 in non-bone marrow origin cells by bone marrow transplantation experiments. Immunohistochemical studies revealed the increases in the accumulation of macrophages and CD3 T cells within the plaques in aortic roots. Gene expression analyses of aortic roots demonstrated a marked upregulation of the Ccl5 gene during early stage of atherogenesis, and the treatment with Ccl5 antagonist significantly inhibited the acceleration of atherosclerosis in FK565-administered Apoe(-/-) mice. Additionally, as compared with Apoe(-/-) mice, Apoe and Nod1 double-knockout mice showed reduced development of atherosclerotic lesions from the early stage as well as their delayed progression and a significant reduction in Ccl5 mRNA levels at 9 wk of age. Data in the present study show that the Nod1 signaling pathway in non-bone marrow-derived cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2014; 194(2). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302841 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes high mannose polysaccharides. Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast-form fungal pathogen, is rich in polysaccharides in its cell wall and capsule. In the present study, we analyzed the role of Dectin-2 in the host defense to C. neoformans infection. In Dectin-2 gene-disrupted (KO) mice, the clearance of this fungus and the inflammatory response, as shown by histological analysis and accumulation of leukocytes in the infected lungs, were comparable to those in wild-type (WT) mice. The production of Th2 cytokines in lungs was higher in Dectin-2KO mice than WT mice after infection, whereas there was no difference in the production of Th1, Th17 and proinflammatory cytokines between these mice. Mucin production was significantly increased in Dectin-2KO mice, and this increase was reversed by administration of anti-IL-4 mAb. The expression of β1-defensin, cathelicidin, surfactant protein (Sp)-A and Sp-D in the infected lungs was comparable between these mice. In in vitro experiments, IL-12p40 and TNF-α production and expression of CD86 and MHC class II by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages was completely abrogated in Dectin-2KO mice. Finally, the disrupted lysates of C. neoformans, but not the whole yeast cells, activated Dectin-2-triggered signaling in an assay with NFAT-GFP reporter cells expressing this receptor. These results suggest that Dectin-2 may oppose Th2 response and IL-4-dependent mucin production in the lungs after infection with C. neoformans, and it may not be required for the production of Th1, Th17 and proinflammatory cytokines and clearance of this fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Infection and Immunity 11/2014; 83(2). DOI:10.1128/IAI.02835-14 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In obesity, a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages augments chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, thereby inducing systemic insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation. Obese adipose tissue contains a unique histological structure termed crown-like structure (CLS), where adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk is known to occur in close proximity. Here we show that Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle), a pathogen sensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is localized to macrophages in CLS, the number of which correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Mincle induces obesity-induced adipose tissue fibrosis, thereby leading to steatosis and insulin resistance in liver. We further show that Mincle in macrophages is crucial for CLS formation, expression of fibrosis-related genes and myofibroblast activation. This study indicates that Mincle, when activated by an endogenous ligand released from dying adipocytes, is involved in adipose tissue remodelling, thereby suggesting that sustained interactions between adipocytes and macrophages within CLS could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced ectopic lipid accumulation.
    Nature Communications 09/2014; 5:4982. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5982 · 11.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria possess various immunomodulatory molecules on the cell wall. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM), a major lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has long been known to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on host immunity. However, the direct Man-LAM receptor that explains its pleiotropic activities has not been clearly identified. Here, we report that a C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 (gene symbol Clec4n) is a direct receptor for Man-LAM. Man-LAM activated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas it was completely abrogated in Clec4n–/– BMDCs. Man-LAM promoted antigen-specific T cell responses through Dectin-2 on DCs. Furthermore, Man-LAM induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) as an adjuvant in mice, whereas Clec4n–/– mice were resistant. Upon mycobacterial infection, Clec4n–/– mice showed augmented lung pathology. These results demonstrate that Dectin-2 contributes to host immunity against mycobacterial infection through the recognition of Man-LAM
    Immunity 09/2014; 41(3):402-413. · 21.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacteria possess various immunomodulatory molecules on the cell wall. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM), a major lipoglycan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has long been known to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on host immunity. However, the direct Man-LAM receptor that explains its pleiotropic activities has not been clearly identified. Here, we report that a C-type lectin receptor Dectin-2 (gene symbol Clec4n) is a direct receptor for Man-LAM. Man-LAM activated bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas it was completely abrogated in Clec4n–/– BMDCs. Man-LAM promoted antigen-specific T cell responses through Dectin-2 on DCs. Furthermore, Man-LAM induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) as an adjuvant in mice, whereas Clec4n–/– mice were resistant. Upon mycobacterial infection, Clec4n–/– mice showed augmented lung pathology. These results demonstrate that Dectin-2 contributes to host immunity against mycobacterial infection through the recognition of Man-LAM.
    Immunity 08/2014; 41(3):402-413. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.08.005 · 21.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune neuropathy characterized by limb weakness and/or paralysis due to the presence of autoantibodies against brain glycolipids. The immune receptors that recognize these autoimmune targets have not been described. In this study, 12 C-type lectin and 10 immunoglobulin-like receptors were screened for their potential ligands from the brain glycolipids, which are the binding targets for GBS autoantibodies. These glycolipids were GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, GQ1b, crude gangliosides, and 3-O-sulfo-β-d-galactosylceramide C24:1 (designated as C24:1). A direct interaction between ligand and receptor was examined using an ELISA-based binding assay. C-type lectin (CLEC5a, SIGNR3) and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, TREM3, LMIR2, LMIR5, LMIR7, LMIR8) interacted with C24:1. In addition, TREM3 did bind to GQ1b. LMIR5 interacted with GD1a, GQ1b, and crude gangliosides. Binding with highest affinity was observed for the LMIR5-C24:1 interaction, which was selected for further verification. C24:1 was found to induce MCP-1 production, but not proinflammatory cytokines, in basophils. C24:1-induced MCP-1 production was significantly reduced in DAP12(-/-) basophils. Importantly, LMIR5 ligation by C24:1 resulted in NFAT activation through DAP12 in LMIR5-expressing reporter cells. Structural analysis showed that LMIR5 recognized the 3-O-sulfo-β-d-galactose moiety of C24:1. The findings indicated that C24:1 is a potential ligand for DAP12-coupled LMIR5.
    Molecular Immunology 08/2014; 63(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2014.07.023 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor NF-κB is central to inflammatory signaling and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of the NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled by several negative feedback mechanisms, including A20, an ubiquitin-modifying enzyme encoded by the tnfaip3 gene. Mice with selective deletion of A20 in myeloid, dendritic, or B cells recapitulate some human inflammatory pathology. As we observed high expression of A20 transcripts in dysfunctional CD8 T cells in an autochthonous melanoma, we analyzed the role of A20 in regulation of CD8 T-cell functions, using mice in which A20 was selectively deleted in mature conventional T cells. These mice developed lymphadenopathy and some organ infiltration by T cells but no splenomegaly and no detectable pathology. A20-deleted CD8 T cells had increased sensitivity to antigen stimulation with production of large amounts of IL-2 and IFNγ, correlated with sustained nuclear expression of NF-κB components reticuloendotheliosis oncogene c-Rel and p65. Overexpression of A20 by retroviral transduction of CD8 T cells dampened their intratumor accumulation and antitumor activity. In contrast, relief from the A20 brake in NF-κB activation in adoptively transferred antitumor CD8 T cells led to improved control of melanoma growth. Tumor-infiltrating A20-deleted CD8 T cells had enhanced production of IFNγ and TNFα and reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1. As manipulation of A20 expression in CD8 T cells did not result in pathologic manifestations in the mice, we propose it as a candidate to be targeted to increase antitumor efficiency of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2014; 111(30). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1406259111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LMIR5/CD300b is an activating immunoglobulin-like receptor whose extracellular domain (LMIR5-Fc) is constitutively released from immune cells. The release of LMIR5-Fc is augmented upon stimulation with TLR agonists. LMIR5-Fc is reported to possess inflammatory activity and amplify LPS-induced lethal inflammation; however, its action mechanism has not been clarified. This study was aimed to identify receptors for LMIR5-Fc. Using NF-κB reporter cells in human monocytes THP1, LMIR5-Fc was solely found to trigger NF-κB activation among various signaling receptors examined. In addition, an injection of LMIR5-Fc into the mouse peritoneal resulted in a rapid production of inflammatory mediators and an amplification of LPS activity. Moreover, LMIR5-Fc-induced cytokine production was markedly reduced in TLR4-deficient mouse macrophages. Using TLR4 reporter cells, the LMIR5-Fc sample that contained a trace amount of endotoxin under the sensitivity of reporter cells triggered a potent NF-κB activation. Furthermore, the inflammatory activity of LMIR5-Fc was completely lost by heating but unchanged by polymyxin B pretreatment. Using TLR4 fusion protein, TLR4 was found to interact specifically with LMIR5-overexpressing cells. Therefore, LMIR5-Fc is new inflammatory mediator and endogenous ligand of TLR4. This study provides an insight into the positive feedback mechanism of inflammation through TLR4-LMIR5-Fc axis.
    Molecular Immunology 07/2014; 62(1):169-177. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2014.06.012 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An array of lipidic compounds that constitute the cell wall of mycobacteria is recognized by host receptors. Examples include trehalose dimycolate (TDM), which is a major surface-exposed glycolipid of mycobacteria, that interacts with the macrophage inducible C-type lectin, Mincle, and exerts its highly potent adjuvant functions. Recent evidence has suggested that glycerol monomycolate (GroMM), another mycolate-containing lipid species produced by mycobacteria, can stimulate innate immune cells; however, its specific host receptors have yet to be identified. We here demonstrated that cell transfectants expressing human Mincle (hMincle) reacted to both TDM and GroMM, while those expressing mouse Mincle (mMincle) only reacted to TDM and failed to recognize GroMM. Studies using domain swap chimeras confirmed that the ectodomain of hMincle, but not that of mMincle, interacted with GroMM, and site-directed mutagenesis analyses revealed that short stretches of amino acid residues at positions 174-176 and 195-196 were involved in GroMM recognition. To further substantiate the differential recognition of GroMM by hMincle and mMincle, hMincle transgenic/mMincle knockout mice (i.e. hMincle(+) mice) were established and compared with non-transgenic mice (i.e. mMincle(+) mice). We showed that macrophages derived from hMincle(+) mice were activated by GroMM and produced inflammatory cytokines, whereas those derived from mMincle(+) mice did not exhibit any reactivity to GroMM. Furthermore, local inflammatory responses were elicited in the GroMM-injected skin of hMincle(+), but not mMincle(+) mice. These results demonstrated that GroMM is a unique ligand for hMincle that is not recognized by mMincle.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; 289(22). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.566489 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    Sho Yamasaki
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    ABSTRACT: Immune activation as a result of the recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns needs to be controlled. In this issue of Immunity, Neumann et al. (2014) demonstrates that Clec12a is a receptor for dead cells through the recognition of uric acid crystals and contributes to the dampening of the responses.
    Immunity 03/2014; 40(3):309-11. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.03.001 · 21.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lysosomal protein LAPTM5 has been shown to negatively regulate cell surface T cell receptor (TCR) expression and T-cell activation by promoting CD3ζ degradation in lysosomes, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we show that LAPTM5 promotes lysosomal translocation of intracellular CD3ζ but not of the cell surface CD3ζ associated with the mature TCR complex. Kinetic analysis of the subcellular localization of the newly synthesized CD3ζ suggests that LAPTM5 targets CD3ζ in the Golgi apparatus and promotes its lysosomal translocation. Consistently, a Golgi-localizing mutant CD3ζ can be transported to and degraded in the lysosome by LAPTM5. A CD3ζ YF mutant in which all six tyrosine residues in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif are mutated to phenylalanines is degraded as efficiently as is wild type CD3ζ, further suggesting that TCR signaling-triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of CD3ζ is dispensable for LAPTM5-mediated degradation. Previously, Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) and E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl have been shown to mediate the ubiquitination of CD3ζ in the internalized TCR complex and its subsequent lysosomal degradation. We show that LAPTM5 and SLAP/c-Cbl function in distinct genetic pathways to negatively regulate TCR expression. Collectively, these results suggest that CD3ζ can be degraded by two pathways: SLAP/c-Cbl, which targets internalized cell surface CD3ζ dependent on TCR signaling, and LAPTM5, which targets intracellular CD3ζ independent of TCR signaling.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 18 March 2014; doi:10.1038/icb.2014.18.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 03/2014; 92(6). DOI:10.1038/icb.2014.18 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of T cells requires the interaction of dozens of proteins. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry and activated primary CD4(+) T cells from mice in which a tag for affinity purification was knocked into several genes to determine the composition and dynamics of multiprotein complexes that formed around the kinase Zap70 and the adaptors Lat and SLP-76. Most of the 112 high-confidence time-resolved protein interactions we observed were previously unknown. The surface receptor CD6 was able to initiate its own signaling pathway by recruiting SLP-76 and the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor Vav1 regardless of the presence of Lat. Our findings provide a more complete model of TCR signaling in which CD6 constitutes a signaling hub that contributes to the diversification of TCR signaling.
    Nature Immunology 03/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1038/ni.2843 · 20.00 Impact Factor
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    Kenji Toyonaga · Yasunobu Miyake · Sho Yamasaki
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    ABSTRACT: Guinea pig is a widely used animal for research and development of tuberculosis vaccines, since its pathological disease process is similar to that present in humans. We have previously reported that two C-type lectin receptors, Mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin, also called Clec4e) and MCL (macrophage C-type lectin, also called Clec4d), recognize the mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM). Here, we characterized the function of the guinea pig homologue of Mincle (gpMincle) and MCL (gpMCL). gpMincle directly bound to TDM and transduced an activating signal through ITAM-bearing adaptor molecule, FcRγ. Whereas, gpMCL lacked C-terminus and failed to bind to TDM. mRNA expression of gpMincle was detected in the spleen, lymph nodes and peritoneal macrophages and it was strongly up-regulated upon stimulation of zymosan and TDM. The surface expression of gpMincle was detected on activated macrophages by a newly established monoclonal antibody that also possesses a blocking activity. This antibody potently suppressed TNF production in BCG-infected macrophages. Collectively, gpMincle is the TDM receptor in the guinea pig and TDM-Mincle axis is involved in host immune responses against mycobacteria.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88747. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088747 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
667.77 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2015
    • Kyushu University
      • Division of Molecular Immunology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2002–2014
    • Chiba University
      • • Medical Mycology Research Center (MMRC)
      • • Graduate School of Medicine
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 2013
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • RIKEN
      • Laboratory for Cell Signaling
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 2003
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2001
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan