[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is a rare disease, particularly in males. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most common PBL, while follicular lymphoma is less common. Furthermore, primary follicular lymphoma of a male breast is rarely reported. We report a male patient with primary follicular lymphoma of the breast and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 46-year-old man was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B infection. Ten years later, he underwent segmentectomy of the liver due to HCC. Another 5 months later, he presented with a painless mass in the right chest wall. The mass was diagnosed as follicular lymphoma of the breast. The stage was IEA and he did not receive adjuvant therapy. Although only a few cases have been reported, lymphoma should be considered as a possible cause of breast mass, even in male patients.
Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2014; 46(1):104-7. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the breast is rare and there is scant information about the clinical behavior and treatment strategies. We report an adolescent female patient with metastatic RMS of the breast from the anus. An 18-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic due to palpable mass in the left breast. At age seven, she was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated with chemoradiation therapy. After 10 years of complete remission state, she presented with anal mass which was diagnosed as RMS and she received chemoradiation therapy. After 1 year of complete remission state, she noticed a palpable mass in her left breast. The breast mass was diagnosed as metastatic RMS based on core needle biopsy specimen. The RMS in breast was excised for the decreasing tumor burden despite of another metastatic lesion. Although rarely reported, metastasis of RMS should be considered as a cause of breast mass. Tissue biopsy is recommended when clinically suspected lesion is detected.
Journal of Breast Cancer 09/2013; 16(3):345-8. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI) 2003 has established guidelines for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease - minerals and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This study evaluated parathyroidectomy in SHPT patients for the achievement of the NKF-K/DOQI-recommended values of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Between January 2005 and December 2010, parathyroidectomy was performed as recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines in 81 patients with SHPT and CKD-MBD. Serum PTH, calcium, and phosphate levels were measured prior to and 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after parathyroidectomy.
Calcium, phosphate, and PTH levels dropped shortly after parathyroidectomy; however, a slight increase showed in the long term. Calcium levels increased for up to 60 months. Phosphate and PTH levels increased for up to 36 months but tended to decrease slightly at 60 months. The mean values were within the target ranges, except for PTH at 36 months. The target parameters of serum phosphate (42.9-61.1% of patients) and serum calcium (a peak of 61.1% of patients at 36 months, but only 28.6% at 60 months) were achieved the most. Less than 34% of patients achieved the recommended range for PTH.
Parathyroidectomy was not an optimal procedure for achieving all the biochemical parameters recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI. Although it was helpful in attaining the recommended values for serum calcium and phosphate in SHPT patients resistant to medical therapy, the PTH levels did not fall within the recommended range.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 07/2013; 85(1):25-9. · 0.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary breast lymphoma is a very rare disease, accounting for 0.4-0.5% of all breast malignancies. Due to the rarity, there are only limited reports of this disease in Korean women. In this reason, we report the experience of a single institution in Korea with primary breast lymphoma (PBL).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 9 patients with PBL and evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes.
All nine patients were female and had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). The median age at diagnosis was 47.9 years and the median tumor size was 3.8 cm in diameter. The most common symptom was a painless palpable mass. Five patients were classified as stage IEA and four patients were IIEA according to the Ann Arbor staging system. Four patients underwent excisional biopsy and one patient underwent a lumpectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy due to uncertain histology of the preoperative core needle biopsy. Nine patients received anthracycline containing combined chemotherapy; among them, five patients were treated with a rituximab containing regimen. Four patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. A complete response was achieved in eight patients. During the 44 months of the median follow-up period, three cases of relapse occurred, and among them, two patients died due to disease progression.
Most PBLs are B-cell origin, with DLBL being the most common histologic type. A combined treatment modality has been known to have positive effects on prognosis, and surgery should be limited to a diagnostic purpose.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 05/2013; 84(5):267-72. · 0.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IBTR! 2.0 is a web-based nomogram that predicts the 10-year ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate after breast-conserving therapy. We validated this nomogram in Korean patients.
The nomogram was tested for 520 Korean patients, who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy. Predicted and observed 10-year outcomes were compared for the entire cohort and for each group, predefined by nomogram-predicted risks: group 1, <3%; group 2, 3% to 5%; group 3, 5% to 10%; group 4, >10%.
In overall patients, the overall 10 year predicted and observed estimates of IBTR were 5.22% and 5.70% (p=0.68). In group 1, (n=124), the predicted and observed estimates were 2.25% and 1.80% (p=0.73), in group 2 (n=177), 3.95% and 3.90% (p=0.97), in group 3 (n=181), 7.14% and 8.80% (p=0.42), and in group 4 (n=38), 11.66% and 14.90% (p=0.73), respectively.
In a previous validation of this nomogram based on American patients, nomogram-predicted IBTR rates were overestimated in the high-risk subgroup. However, our results based on Korean patients showed that the observed IBTR was higher than the predicted estimates in groups 3 and 4. This difference may arise from ethnic differences, as well as from the methods used to detect IBTR and the healthcare environment. IBTR! 2.0 may be considered as an acceptable nomogram in Korean patients with low- to moderate-risk of in-breast recurrence. Before widespread use of this nomogram, the IBTR! 2.0 needs a larger validation study and continuous modification.
Journal of Breast Cancer 03/2013; 16(1):97-103. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes is frequently observed in the tumor development and progression. However, the correlation between the hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor genes, CDH1 and the axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis is not fully elucidated. To verify the role of the CDH1 promoter hypermethylation in the ALN metastasis and prognosis, we compared the methylation status of the CDH1 genes in the primary lesion and the paired metastatic ALNs.
We selected a total of 122 paraffin-embedded specimens of the primary and paired metastatic lymph node from 61 breast cancer patients and analyzed the frequency of hypermethylation in the primary and metastatic lymph node using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the methylation status of CDH1 was analyzed with the clinicopathologic characteristics, the disease-free survival and disease-specific survival.
The hypermethylation of CDH1 gene was identified in 54 (88.5%) of the 61 patients who had axillary metastasis. The hypermethylation status of the CDH1 gene was significantly increased in the metastatic ALNs compared with that in the primary tumors (60.7% vs. 45.9%, p<0.001). The hypermethylation status of the CDH1 genes in the metastatic ALNs was associated with a poor histologic grade (p=0.041) and the patients who had methylated tumor in the primary lesion showed worse disease-free survival than the patients who did not have methylated tumor (p=0.046).
This study suggests that hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene may play a pivotal role in the metastasis of the axillary lymph node and the breast cancer recurrence.
Journal of Breast Cancer 03/2013; 16(1):16-22. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) clearly correlate with unfavorable outcomes for patients with metastatic breast cancer, but the long-term prognostic implications of CTC for molecular subtypes of operable breast cancer are not yet known. We explored the relationships between previously established prognostic factors and CTC in operable breast cancer, and the significance of CTC by breast cancer molecular subtype.
We retrospectively evaluated 166 patients with operable breast cancer (stage I-IIIA) diagnosed from April 1997 to May 2003. CTC were detected using cytokeratin-20 (CK-20) mRNA expression in peripheral blood samples that were collected just prior to surgery under general anesthesia. Clinicopathological characteristics of the cancer were analyzed according to CTC status. Metastasis-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed according to CTC status and breast cancer molecular subtype.
CK-20 mRNA-positive CTC was detected in 37 of 166 patients (22.3%) and was not correlated with any previous clinical factors in univariate analysis (p>0.05). After a median follow-up of 100 months, the patients with CK-20 mRNA-positive CTC had less favorable outcomes in terms of MFS and OS than those without detectable CTC (log-rank p<0.05). Among molecular subtypes of operable breast cancer, the patients with CK-20 mRNA-positive CTC had shorter MFS and OS in triple negative and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) breast cancer subtype (log-rank, p<0.05).
CK-20 mRNA-positive CTC may lend insight into tumor progression as a prognostic indicator especially in the triple negative and HER2 subtypes of operable breast cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among more than 500 microRNAs, microRNA-21 (miR-21) is known to act as an oncogene. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of miR-21 expression level in relation with clinicopathological factors and prognosis in breast cancer.
MicroRNA was extracted from cancer and normal breast tissue of 109 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery from 2002 to 2004 using the Taqman® MicroRNA Assay. The correlation between miR-21 expression and clinicopathologic features was analyzed and the significance of miR-21 as a prognostic factor and its relationship with survival was determined.
MiR-21 expression was higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.0001). High miR-21 expression was associated with mastectomy, larger tumor size, higher stage, higher grade, estrogen receptor (ER) negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, HER2 positive breast cancer subtype, high Ki-67 expression, and death. On multivariate analysis, prognostic factors for overall survival were ER and miR-21. High miR-21 expression was significantly related to lower overall survival (p=0.031).
This study supports the role of miR-21 as an oncogene and a biomarker for breast cancer with its high expression in cancer tissues and its relationship with other prognostic factors and survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distant metastasis and recurrence are major prognostic factors associated with breast cancer. Both lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and blood vessel invasion (BVI) are important routes for metastasis to regional lymph nodes and for systemic metastasis. Despite the importance of vascular invasion as a prognostic factor, application of vascular invasion as a histopathological criterion is controversial. The aim of this study was to distinguish LVI from BVI in prognosis and recurrence of breast cancer using an endothelial subtype specific immunohistochemical stain (podoplanin, D2-40, and CD31).
Sections from 80 paraffin-embedded archival specimens of invasive breast cancer were stained for podoplanin, D2-40, or CD31 expression. Immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with clinicopathological features, such as tumor size, status of lymph node metastases, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression, and recurrence. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ and stage IV breast cancer were excluded.
A significant correlation was found between D2-40 LVI positivity and lymph node metastasis (p=0.022). We found a significant correlation between D2-40 LVI positivity and recurrence of breast cancer (p=0.014). However, no significant correlation was found between BVI and recurrence. A poorer disease free survival was shown for D2-40 positive LVI (p=0.003). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of D2-40 LVI positivity revealed a significant association with decreased disease-free survival.
D2-40 LVI positivity was a more prognostic predictor of breast cancer than BVI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Docetaxel and paclitaxel are likely to have different toxicity profiles, dose reduction and delays despite their similar medical results in breast cancer patients.
This study examined retrospectively the incidence and severity of certain toxicities, dose reduction and delay of two taxanes.
From January 2009 to June 2010, the incidence and severity of toxicities as well as the dose reduction, dose delay, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in 54 patients with operable lymph node-positive (tumor stage T1, T2, or T3 and nodal stage N1 or N2) and high risk, node-negative (T2 or T3, N0) breast cancer without a distant metastases who received adjuvant chemotherapy - adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel (TAC) and adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel (ACP)- were evaluated.
Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact test.
The patients in the ACP group experienced more frequent peripheral neuropathy (P=0.025), nausea (P=0.033) than those in the TAC group. Febrile neutropenia was significant in TAC (P=0.001). Increasing age was associated with an increased risk of anemia (P=0.004), fatigue (P=0.009) and pain (P=0.003), and a decreasing body mass index was associated with an increased risk of febrile neutropenia (P=0.009). Dose reduction and delay occurred due to febrile neutropenia and an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The dose reduction was only significant in the TAC group (P= 0.001). A taxane-based regimen should be chosen for breast cancer patients based on the pharmacokinetics, dosing schedule, clinical activity and toxicity profile that best meet the patient's therapeutic needs and quality of life.
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 01/2011; 7(4):412-5. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed breast cancer subtypes using Korean Breast Cancer Society Registration Program data to compare clinical features and prognosis for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). A cohort of 26,767 breast cancer patients were divided in four groups: luminal A (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+ HER2+), HER2+ (ER-, PR-, HER2+), and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-). Clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. The luminal A (14,437 patients, 53.9%) subtype was the largest in our study. Compared with luminal A subtype, TNBC correlated with younger age, more aggressive characteristics and poor overall survival and breast cancer-specific survival. The hazard rate showed a peak at 24 months for the TNBC subtype, but after 60 months, risk was similar to that of the luminal A subtype. Higher T, N stage and histologic grade, and lymphatic and vascular invasion showed poor prognosis in TNBC patients, but on multivariate analysis only histologic grade and ki-67 status were related. Young age was related to poor prognosis in the luminal A subtype, however, age was not related to prognosis in the TNBC subtype. Of the 5,586 TNBC patients, 282 patients (7.11%) expired within 3 years of diagnosis. T and N stage and grade were significantly associated with prognosis on multivariate analysis. TNBC subtype is characterized by younger age with poorer outcome. However, younger age is not related to prognosis, and mortality risk decreases to that of the luminal A subtype, which is known to have the best prognosis after a few years.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 08/2010; 123(1):177-87. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 01/2010; 6(3):310-2. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, the expression pattern of CXCR4 may be correlated with the degree of axillary lymph node involvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contributing factors that contribute to the correlation between CXCR4 expression and axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.
Between August 1997 and August 2002, sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were obtained from 107 patients who received optimal treatment for breast cancer. The expression of CXCR4 was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining.
A significant correlation was found in the expression of nuclear CXCR4 and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03). We found a significant correlation between a high nuclear expression of CXCR4 and axillary lymphatic metastasis in estrogen and progesterone receptor negative breast cancer (P = 0.01 and P = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the high expression of nuclear CXCR4 and axillary lymphatic metastasis in comparisons between positive estrogen and/or progesterone receptor expression and negative expression (P = 0.02).
Our results showed that high expression of nuclear CXCR4 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. The high expression of nuclear CXCR4 in hormone receptor negative breast cancer was associated with a high possibility of lymph node metastasis.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2008; 15(1):281-5. · 4.12 Impact Factor