[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight in potato. The Mexican species Solanum demissum is well known as a good resistance source. Among the 11 R gene differentials, which were introgressed from S. demissum, especially R8 and R9 differentials showed broad spectrum resistance both under laboratory and under field conditions. In order to gather more information about the resistance of the R8 and R9 differentials, F1 and BC1 populations were made by crossing Mastenbroek (Ma) R8 and R9 clones to susceptible plants. Parents and offspring plants were examined for their pathogen recognition specificities using agroinfiltration with known Avr genes, detached leaf assays (DLA) with selected isolates, and gene-specific markers. An important observation was the discrepancy between DLA and field trial results for Pi isolate IPO-C in all F1 and BC1 populations, so therefore also field trial results were included in our characterization. It was shown that in MaR8 and MaR9, respectively, at least four (R3a, R3b, R4, and R8) and seven (R1, Rpi-abpt1, R3a, R3b, R4, R8, R9) R genes were present. Analysis of MaR8 and MaR9 offspring plants, that contained different combinations of multiple resistance genes, showed that R gene stacking contributed to the Pi recognition spectrum. Also, using a Pi virulence monitoring system in the field, it was shown that stacking of multiple R genes strongly delayed the onset of late blight symptoms. The contribution of R8 to this delay was remarkable since a plant that contained only the R8 resistance gene still conferred a delay similar to plants with multiple resistance genes, like, e.g., cv Sarpo Mira. Using this "de-stacking" approach, many R gene combinations can be made and tested in order to select broad spectrum R gene stacks that potentially provide enhanced durability for future application in new late blight resistant varieties.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 11/2011; 124(5):923-35. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Map-based cloning to find genes of interest, markerassisted selection (MAS), and marker-assisted breeding (MAB) all require good genetic maps with high reproducible markers. For map construction as well as chromosome assignment, development of single copy PCR-based markers and map integration process are necessary. In this study, the 132 markers (57 STS from BAC-end sequences, 13 STS from RFLP, and 62 SSR) were newly developed as single copy type PCR-based markers. They were used together with 1830 markers previously developed in our lab to construct an integrated map with the Joinmap 3.0 program. This integrated map contained 169 SSR, 354 RFLP, 23 STS from BAC-end sequences, 6 STS from RFLP, 152 AFLP, 51 WRKY, and 99 rRAMP markers on 12 chromosomes. The integrated map contained four genetic maps of two interspecific (Capsicum annuum 'TF68' and C. chinense 'Habanero') and two intraspecific (C. annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho') populations of peppers. This constructed integrated map consisted of 805 markers (map distance of 1858 cM) in interspecific populations and 745 markers (map distance of 1892 cM) in intraspecific populations. The used pepper STS were first developed from end sequences of BAC clones from Capsicum annuum 'CM334'. This integrated map will provide useful information for construction of future pepper genetic maps and for assignment of linkage groups to pepper chromosomes.
Molecules and Cells 03/2009; 27(1):21-37. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The erect habit of fruit setting is a unique characteristic of ornamental peppers and wild pepper species. The erect habit is known to be controlled by the up locus on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) chromosome 12. The result of a genetic analysis using Saengryeog 211 (pendant), Saengryeog 213 (erect), and their F1 and BC1 progeny demonstrated that up is a recessive gene. To develop an up-linked marker, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed using 108 F2:3 individuals. The closest AFLP marker, A2C79, was located at a genetic distance of 1.7 cM from the up locus and was converted into a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker. This marker was mapped at a genetic distance of 4.3 cM from the up locus. When the CAPS was applied to seven ornamental lines and 27 breeding lines with erect fruit, these genotypes of 28 lines were correctly predicted. Thus, the CAPS marker will be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of pepper breeding lines with the up allele at the early seedling stage.
Molecules and Cells 10/2008; 26(6):548-53. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytophthora capsici Leonian, an oomycete pathogen, is a serious problem in pepper worldwide. Its resistance in pepper is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). To detect QTL associated with P. capsici resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed using 100 F(2) individuals from a cross between Capsicum annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho'. This linkage map consisted of 202 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 6 WRKYs and 1 simple sequence repeat (SSR) covering 1482.3 cM, with an average interval marker distance of 7.09 cM. QTL mapping of Phytophthora root rot and damping-off resistance was performed in F(2:3) originated from a cross between resistant Mexican landrace C. annuum 'CM334' and susceptible Korean landrace C. annuum 'Chilsungcho' using composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis. Four QTL explained 66.3% of the total phenotypic variations for root rot resistance and three 44.9% for damping-off resistance. Of these QTL loci, two were located close to RFLP markers CDI25 on chromosome 5 (P5) and CT211A on P9. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from C. annuum 'CM334' was screened with these two RFLP probes to obtain sequence information around the RFLP marker loci for development of PCR-based markers. CDI25 and CT211 probes identified seven and eight BAC clones, respectively. Nine positive BAC clones containing probe regions were sequenced and used for cytogenetic analysis. One single-nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) for the CDI25 locus, and two SSRs and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) for CT211 were developed using sequences of the positive BAC clones. These markers will be valuable for rapid selection of genotypes and map-based cloning for resistance genes against P. capsici.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 10/2008; 118(1):15-27. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The FLO/LFY genes of plants regulate the transition from inflorescence to floral meristem. To isolate the FLO/LFY ortholog in pepper (Capsicum annuum), RT-PCR was performed using primer pairs derived from the conserved sequences of other FLO/LFY orthologs; a partial 948-bp DNA fragment was obtained. A 1,251-bp full coding sequence of the FLO/LFY-like gene homolog was identified after a pepper cDNA library screening and was designated CaLFY. The CaLFY DNA sequence was 3,982bp long, containing three exons and two introns. CaLFY was predicted to encode a protein sharing 77%, 79%, and 78% identity, respectively, with FA (tomato), NFL1 (tobacco), and
ALF (petunia), the FLO/LFY ortholog proteins in Solanaceae. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that CaLFY transcripts were abundantly expressed in floral tissue. Through genetic mapping, CaLFY was placed into the middle of pepper chromosome 3; its location showed close synteny with FA on tomato chromosome 3. Overexpression of CaLFY cDNA under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco caused leaf tissue to form at the floral meristem. Moreover, a severe early-flowering phenotype was
observed. Taken together, these results indicate that CaLFY is a putative pepper ortholog of FLO/LFY.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite increasing awareness of the importance of WRKY genes in plant defense signaling, the locations of these genes in the Capsicum genome have not been established. To develop WRKY-based markers, primer sequences were deduced from the conserved sequences of the DNA binding motif within the WRKY domains of tomato and pepper genes. These primers were derived from upstream and downstream parts of the conserved sequences of the three WRKY groups. Six primer combinations of each WRKY group were tested for polymorphisms between the mapping parents, C. annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho'. DNA fragments amplified by primer pairs deduced from WRKY Group II genes revealed high levels of polymorphism. Using 32 primer pairs to amplify upstream and downstream parts of the WRKY domain of WRKY group II genes, 60 polymorphic bands were detected. Polymorphisms were not detected with primer pairs from downstream parts of WRKY group II genes. Half of these primers were subjected to F2 genotyping to construct a linkage map. Thirty of 41 markers were located evenly spaced on 20 of the 28 linkage groups, without clustering. This linkage map also consisted of 199 AFLP and 26 SSR markers. This WRKY-based marker system is a rapid and simple method for generating sequence-specific markers for plant gene families.
Molecules and Cells 05/2008; 25(2):196-204. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pepper genetic map was constructed from F2 mapping population of 93 individuals from a cross between Capsicum annuum ‘F68’ and C. chinense ‘Habanero’. Surrey was made for the map distribution and polymorphism level of these marker groups; reverse random amplification microsatellite polymorphism (rRAMP), WRKY and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). A total of 912 molecular markers [356 rRAMP, 190 WRKY, 305 AFLP, and 61 simple sequence repeats (SSR)] were developed in this study. The rRAMP and WRKY markers were more evenly scattered in the pepper genome than the AFLP and SSR markers, and filled the gaps not populated by the other markers. The interspecific pepper map contained 28 linkage groups with 625 linked markers and covered 3377.2 cM with an average interval of 5.9 cM. On the basis of the map, the fruit length quantitative trait locus (QTL) was analyzed and these QTL regions were detected near rRAMP and WRKY markers on the chromosome 3, 5, 11, and LG3. These marker system, map information, and detected QTLs could be one of basic information for pepper research.
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology. 52(6).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chili veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive pepper pathogens in Asia. Development of ChiVMV-resistant cultivars is necessary to control ChiVMV infection on pepper farms. However, sources of variation for ChiVMV resistance have not been identified and only a recessive resistance gene has been identified. We initially screened 30 pepper lines from several countries using inoculation tests to further examine inheritance of ChiVMV resistance, to establish a relevant breeding program, and to develop a new resistant line. Here, we report a new genetically dominant source of resistance to ChiVMV in pepper. Secondly, we found two amplified fragment length polymorphisms linked to dominant resistance and converted them into high-resolution melting markers, which were located on chromosome 6. Furthermore, we obtained a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker that was closer to the ChiVMV resistance locus using comparative mapping. The newly discovered marker, related to a single dominant gene, will help researchers develop a new ChiVMV-resistant pepper cultivar.